Spanish Painters Painter El Greco (Doménikos Theotokópoulos) (1541-1614) Was born in Greece Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez. (1599 – 1660) Was born in Seville, Spain. He married the daughter of his teacher Pacheco Political Climate in Spain Battle of Lepanto Catholic Reformati on Spain and France fought for a Catalan territory in the north of the Pyrenees. Influenced by Tiziano y Tintoretto Miguel Ángel and Rafael Style / Most important work • Mannerism. Lack of proportion: long, crooked, and wavy shapes. • Contrast of light and dark. • Mysticism: feelings of another world. Important work: El Entierro del Conde Orga El Caballero de la mano en el pecho Vista de Toledo Caravaggio and Baroque art (was one of the Rubens. great artists of the Baroque style) • Use of aerial perspective. • Depth. • Topics that Velázquez painted at this early stage are religious and popular, drawn from everyday life. Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) War of Independence Was born in Fuendetodos-Aragón, against the Spain. French empire represented by Goya married Josefa Bayeu, the Napoleon sister of famous painters Ramón Bonaparte. and Francisco. In 1792 an unknown illness left Goya deaf (deaf). He died at 82 years in exile in Bordeaux (Bordeaux). Diego Velázquez and Rembrandt. Francisco and Ramón Bayeau y Subías Important work: Adoración de los Reyes Magos La Vieja friendo huevos El Aguador de Sevilla Bodegón a lo divino Retrato de Felipe IV Las Meninas Baroque and Rococo styles but never fully incorporated into the influence of neoclassicism. Romanticism. Most important work: • La Maja desnuda • La Maja Vestida • Los Caprichos • Los Desastres de Guerra • El 2 de Mayo • Los Fusilamientos del 3 de mayo Joan Miró (pintor y escultor) (1893 – 1983) Was born in Barcelona, Spain The civil war in Spain (Republicans. Popular front against the military command led by General Francisco Franco. His dictatorship went from 1939 until 1975 when he died. Cézanne, Van Gogh, and cubism’s artists. • Saturno Devorando a su Hijo • El Perro Semihundido • La Duquesa de Alba, in NY(we will see it in April) Surrealism, Dada and modern art (Dada: artistic and literary movement born in 1916, based on the absurd, irrational and spontaneous). He combined abstract art with the fantastic surrealism. Most important work: La masía Paisaje Catalán (El cazador) Cabeza de campesino de catalán Naturaleza muerta del zapato Aidez Salvador Dalí (1904 – 1989) Was born in Figueras, Spain The civil war in Spain. Government of General Franco (1939-1975). Bombing of Guernica. Sigmund Freud’s writings on the erotic significance of subconscious. A group of surrealist painters from Paris. Raphael (The Italian Raffaello Sanzio) Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) Was born in Málaga, Spain • Considered one of the creators of Cubism. The civil war in Spain. Government of General Franco (1939-1975). Bombing of Guernica. El Greco, Matisse and Paul Cezanne. Surrealism style Most important work: La persistencia de la memoria Leda atómica El Cristo de San Juan de la Cruz Cubism Most important work: Las señoritas de Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon) Guernica La llorona (The Weeping Woman) Important Notes Pablo Picasso The main phases of his Picasso's art (as the world and his life changed, so did his art) were: 1. Blue Period (1903-5). Sad, gaunt people in gloomy settings, and then circus and harlequin subjects. The predominant colour is a melancholy blue. Example: "Harleqins family" 1906. 2. Rose Period (1905-6). Romantic, delicately treated subjects in pale pink. Example: "The two brothers" 1906. 3. Cubism (1907-25, includes the Proto-Cubist, Analytical and Synthetic Periods). Natural forms were changed to geometric-like shapes. Distortion and multi-view figures in mainly dull colours. Examples: "Guitar" 1913, "Three Musicians" 1921. 4. Neo-Classicism (1920-30). Heavily-built sculpturesque Grecian women. Example: "Three Woman at the spring" 1921. 5. Surrealism (1926 onwards). Dream-world compositions. Example: "Drawing for Guernica" 1937. 6. A style reminiscent of stained glass (1932 onwards). Grotesque conventionalized and disjointed forms outlined with thick black lines. Examples: "Interior with girl drawing" 1935. 7. A style with strong expressionist elements (1938 onwards). Subjects that anticipate the terror of war and reveal the conflict in his mind. Double images and extreme distortion. Example: "Two women by the sea". At one stage he appeared to be influenced by Negro sculpture His first consideration in artistic expression is form. Even when his Cubist paintings bear a resemblance to objects, we must not look for realism in the usual way, but we should aim at deriving satisfaction from the patterned compositions of fragmentary and overlapping shapes. Sometimes we wonder what an object or a head looks like on the other side and we walk around to see. Similarly, certain paintings of Picasso's show both the front and the side of a person or object. The painting "Three Musicians'' is often referred to as the last great work of Cubism. Diego Velazquez Velazquez’s Las Meninas is a 1656 painting, in the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Las Meninas (Spanish for the Maids of Honor) is a portrait of Infanta Margarita, the daughter of King Philip IV, and his second wife Mariana of Austria. The painting's complex and enigmatic composition is an excellent example of how great works of art are made. The person who stands in the middle is the Infanta Margarita (the princess, daughter of the king and queen). She has two maids of honor, one on each side of her, a chaperone, a bodyguard, two dwarfs, and a dog. Velázquez has also painted himself, standing just behind the princess and her companions. He is standing at the artist’s easel. He has stopped painting for a moment and looks straight out at the viewer. At the back of the room is a mirror in which we can see the top halves of the bodies of the king and queen. This means that the king and queen are the viewers who are looking at the painting. The king and queen are probably being painted by Velázquez.