# Chapter 1 Interactive Notes Name ```Interactive Notes
Chapter 1 Holt Physics
Mrs. Broczkowski
Spring 2014
Name:__________________
Date:___________________
Section 1: What is Physics?
Check off the areas of science that you have studied so far in your high school science
experience. What makes Physics different from some other types of science? How is it
similar? ______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
 The goal of physics is to use a small number of basic _______________,____________ and
__________________to describe the physical world.
 These physics principles can then be used to make _______________about a broad range
of phenomena.
 Physics discoveries often turn out to have unexpected practical applications and
Consider several careers that may interest you. Which areas within physics relate to your
career? List the 7 areas of physics that we will consider in this course.
1.____________________________
2. ____________________________
3. ____________________________
4. ____________________________
5. ____________________________
6. ____________________________
7. ____________________________
The Scientific Method: Physics, like other sciences is based on the _______________
_______________.




Make ___________ and collect _______ that lead to a question.
Formulate and objectively test the _____________ using experiments
Interpret ___________and revise the hypothesis if necessary.
State ________ in a form that can be ____________ by others.
Models
 Physics uses ______________that describe phenomena.
 A __________is a pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the
structure or workings of an object, system, or concept.
 A set of particles or interacting components considered to be a distinct physical
entity for the purpose of study is called a ________________.
Consider a basketball – To analyze the motion of the ball, we will isolate the objects that
affect its motion then draw a diagram that incudes only the motion. Draw the model below
and then list the details that have been ignored in our diagram of motion.
_________________, _____________, _________________
Hypotheses
Models help scientists develop _______________________.
A __________________is an explanation that is based on __________scientific research or
observations and that can be _________________.
The process of simplifying and modeling a situation can help you determine the
relevant details and devise the hypothesis.
Demo: Galileo’s Hypothesis
Description
10 pennies dropped together
vs. 1 penny dropped at the
same time
10 coffee filters dropped
together vs. 1 coffee filter
dropped at the same time
10 pennies dropped in water
together vs. 1 penny dropped
in water at the same time.
Observation
Explanation
Experiments:
 Models help guide _________________ ______________.
 A hypothesis must be tested in a _________________experiment.
 A controlled experiment tests only one factor at a time by using a comparison of a
______________ group with an ________________ group.
Section 2:Measurements in Experiments
In SI, the standard measurement system for science, there are seven ______units.
Each base unit describes a single_____________, such as length, mass, or time.
The units of length, mass, and time are the meter (m), kilogram (kg), and second (s),
respectively. Prefixes may be used with base units – why?
________________________________________________________________
Page 12 in your text lists common prefixes. You will need to refer to this for homework
and laboratory problems. You do not need to memorize them.
_________ units are formed by combining the 7 base units with multiplication or division.
There are other acceptable units with SI to describe quantities outside of the m-kg-s system.
Examples of derived units we will use in physics are:
Symbol
Name
Quantity
Derived Unit
Equivalence
&deg;C
Hz
J
N
Pa
Degree Celsius
Hertz
Joule
Newton
Pascal
Temperature
Frequency
Work and Energy
Force
Pressure
1/s
Kg-m2/s2 = N-m
kg-m/s2
kg/m-s2 = N/m2
What do the derived units have in common? __________________________________________
When using units in calculations, ______________ and ____________must agree.
Example Problem: (p 14 in text):
A typical bacterium has a mass of 2.0 fg. Express this measurement in terms of grams
and kilograms.
Given:
Unknown:
Conversion Factors from the relationship, 1 x10-15 g = 1 fg
Solution:
*Note: For our calculators, enter 1 EE -15 to stand for 1 x10-15
Accuracy and Precision
•
____________________is a description of how close a measurement is to the
correct or accepted value of the quantity measured.
•
_________________is the degree of reproducibility of a measurement. It describes
the limitations of the measuring device.
•
A numeric measure of confidence in a measurement or result is known as
________________________A lower uncertainty indicates greater confidence.
What are some common sources of error that lead to uncertainty? These will be used to
describe results in experiments this year! _____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_____________ ________________ help to keep track of imprecision. The rules for
determining if zeros are significant or not are listed on page 17 of your book. The rules
for using sig figs in calculations are on page 19 of your text. You will need to review these
as the year goes on.
Do calculators keep track of sig figs for you? Discuss with a partner.
Mathematics and Physics:
Tables, Graphs and Equations will be used to make data easier to understand.
Consider the table data above.
1.Were the data collected at regular time intervals?
2. According to the distances displayed in the table, did one of the balls appear to fall faster
than the other one?
3.Did the golf ball travel the same distance during every time interval?
4. Sketch the graph of distance vs. time. Label axis with titles and units as we will do in
laboratory this year.
5. What is the equation derived from this graph? _________________________.
6. What advantage does a graph of data give you?
Variables and Units
 Physicists use _______________to describe measured or predicted relationships
between physical quantities.
 _________________and other specific quantities are abbreviated with letters that are
boldfaced or italicized.
 __________are abbreviated with regular letters, sometimes called roman letters.
 Two tools for evaluating physics equations are ___________________and order-ofmagnitude estimates.
The first 3 variables that you must learn and recall are:
Quantity
Change in position
Time interval
mass
Symbol
Δx, Δy
Δt
m
Units
meters
seconds
kilograms
Unit Abbreviation
m
s
kg
Notes Quiz: Complete these using your notes in preparation for the Chapter 1 Test.
1.What area of physics deals with the subjects of heat and temperature?
A. mechanics
B. thermodynamics
C. electrodynamics
D. quantum mechanics
2.What area of physics deals with the behavior of subatomic particles?
F. mechanics
G. thermodynamics
H. electrodynamics
J. quantum mechanics
3.What term describes a set of particles or interacting components considered to be a distinct
physical entity for the purpose of study?
A. system
B. model
C. hypothesis
D. controlled experiment
4.What is the SI base unit for length?
F. inch
G. foot
H. meter
J. kilometer
5.A light-year (ly) is a unit of distance defined as the distance light travels in one year.
Numerically, 1 ly = 9 500 000 000 000 km. How many meters are in a light-year?
10
A. 9.5  10 m
12
B. 9.5  10 m
15
C. 9.5  10 m
18
D. 9.5  10 m
6. If you do not keep your line of sight directly over a length measurement, how will your
measurement most likely be affected?
F. Your measurement will be less precise.
G. Your measurement will be less accurate.
H. Your measurement will have fewer significant figures.
J. Your measurement will suffer from instrument error.
7. If you measured the length of a pencil by using the meterstick shown in the figure and you report
measurement have?
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four
8. A room is measured to be 3.6 m by 5.8 m. What is the area of the room? (Keep significant figures
in mind.)
F. 20.88 m
2
1
G. 2  10 m
1
2
H. 2.0  10 m
2
2
J. 21 m
9. What technique can help you determine the power of 10 closest to the actual numerical value of
a quantity?
A. rounding
B. order-of-magnitude estimation
C. dimensional analysis
D. graphical analysis
10. Which of the following statements is true of any valid physical equation?
F. Both sides have the same dimensions.
G. Both sides have the same variables.
H. There are variables but no numbers.
J. There are numbers but no variables.
The graph shows the relationship between time and distance for a ball dropped vertically from rest.
Use the graph to answer questions 11–12.
11. About how far has the ball fallen after 0.20 s?
A. 5.00 cm
B. 10.00 cm
C. 20.00 cm
D. 30.00 cm
.
12.Which statement best describes the relationship between the variables?
F. For equal time intervals, the change in position is increasing.
G. For equal time intervals, the change in position is decreasing.
H. For equal time intervals, the change in position is constant.
J. There is no clear relationship between time and change in position.
13. Determine the number of significant figures in each of the following measurements.
A. 0.0057 kg
B. 5.70 g
C. 6070 m
3
D. 6.070  10 m
14. Calculate the following sum, and express the answer in meters. Follow the rules for significant
figures.
2
(25.873 km) + (1024 m) + (3.0  10 cm)
15. Demonstrate how dimensional analysis can be used to find the dimensions that result from
dividing distance by speed.
16. You have decided to test the effects of four different garden fertilizers by applying them to four
separate rows of vegetables. What factors should you control? How could you measure the
results?
17. In a paragraph, describe how you could estimate the number of blades of grass on a football
field.
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