The Ordeal of Reconstruction - Greenwood County School District 52

AP US History
Mrs. Marshall
 How would the South rebound?
 What was the fate of the freed blacks?
 How southern states would be brought
back into the union?
 What was fate of Confederate leaders?
 Who would be in charge of reuniting the
 The period of rebuilding that
followed the Civil War during
which the defeated Confederate
states were readmitted into the
 Some 25,000 blacks who migrated
from the south to Kansas in the
post-Reconstruction years.
 The church became the focus of
black community life following their
emancipation. They formed their
own churches with their own
 Established by Congress March
 Headed by Oliver O. Howard
 The agency helped former slaves
make the transition to freedom-it
also helped some poor whites. Was
a multi-purpose welfare agency.
 Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction. He
said states had never left union-just
 A state could come back into the
Union when 10% of its voters who
had voted in the 1860 presidential
election took an oath of loyalty to
the US and promised to support the
13th amendment.
 Passed by Republican Congress in
1864. Required 50% of a states
voters to take an oath of loyalty and
military governors to rule southern
 Pocket-vetoed by Lincoln.
 Majority moderate group- agreed
with Lincoln but thought Congress,
not the President, should be in
charge of reconstruction.
 Minority radical group-believed
south should be punished for its
 Tried to carry out Lincoln’s plan with
 Admit states once they ratified the 13th
amendment, revoked the ordinance of
secession and offered amnesty to all
former confederates except for high
ranking officials and those with
property over $20,000. They had to ask
the President for a pardon.
 Radical Republicans refused to
accept the states who had followed
Johnson’s plan.
 Committee decided Congress
should be in charge of
 Passed by southern legislatures in
1865 & 1866 in reaction to
Freedman’s Bureau and 13th
amendment-placed restrictions on
 South said they were needed to
enforce public safety.
 North felt it was an attempt to
reinstate slavery.
 Gave African Americans citizenship
and prohibited states from passing
black codes
 Vetoed by Johnson-became a law
over his veto.
 Made “all persons born or naturalized in
the US” citizens of the country. All were
entitled to equal protection of the law
and no state could deprive any person
of life, liberty or property without due
process of law. (not ratified until 1868)
 Republicans gained a 2/3’s majority in
both houses in1866 mid-term
congressional elections
 Faction of Republican party led by
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles
 Viewed Civil war as a crusade
against slavery and supported
immediate emancipation
 15 radicals-6 senators/9
representatives-who refused
Johnson’s actions and devised a
congressional plan for
 Affected all states but Tennessee.
The 10 southern states were divided
into 5 military districts each
commanded by a union general and
his army
 Each of the 10 states had to call a
convention and write a new state
constitution. Members to the
convention had to be elected by white
and black male voters. Former
Confederate officials were barred from
 New constitutions had to guarantee
suffrage to African Americans and had
to ratify 14th amendment
 By 1870 all states had been
 Hiram Revels and Blanche K. BruceAfrican Americans elected to serve
in US Senate.
 14 African Americans were elected
to the House.
 Northerners who came south after
the war to capitalize on the
misfortunes of the white
southerners. Many acquired powers
by using the black votes.
 Southern born whites. They
supported the Republican Party.
Seen as traitors to both race and
 The establishment of adequate
public schools
 Tax systems were streamlined
 Public works were begun
 Property rights guaranteed to
 Despite achievements there was
much corruption within the radical
 1866 Pulaski, Tennessee
 Aimed to destroy Radicals political
power in the South as well as
establishing white supremacy and
intimidating the blacks.
 Passed by Congress in 1867
 Required the President to obtain
Congressional approval before
removing any federal official.
 Johnson vetoed bill- Congress
overrode his veto.
 1868 Pres. Johnson dismissed his
Secretary of War Edward Stanton.
 House of Representatives voted to
impeach Johnson for violating the
Tenure of Office Act.
 Johnson was tried in the Senate. Senate
was 1 vote short of having required
number to remove him from office
 Fear of abusing system of checks
and balances
 Some Republicans did not like
Johnson’s replacement (President
pro tempore of Senate)
 Johnson promised to stop
obstructing Republican policies
 1867, purchased from Russia by
Sec. Of State William Seward for
$7.2 million dollars.
 Reconstruction left behind a deep
legacy of racial and sectional