CHAPTER 22 NOTES AP US History Mrs. Marshall How would the South rebound? What was the fate of the freed blacks? How southern states would be brought back into the union? What was fate of Confederate leaders? Who would be in charge of reuniting the nation? The period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War during which the defeated Confederate states were readmitted into the Union. Some 25,000 blacks who migrated from the south to Kansas in the post-Reconstruction years. The church became the focus of black community life following their emancipation. They formed their own churches with their own ministers. Established by Congress March 1865 Headed by Oliver O. Howard The agency helped former slaves make the transition to freedom-it also helped some poor whites. Was a multi-purpose welfare agency. Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction. He said states had never left union-just rebelled. A state could come back into the Union when 10% of its voters who had voted in the 1860 presidential election took an oath of loyalty to the US and promised to support the 13th amendment. Passed by Republican Congress in 1864. Required 50% of a states voters to take an oath of loyalty and military governors to rule southern states. Pocket-vetoed by Lincoln. Majority moderate group- agreed with Lincoln but thought Congress, not the President, should be in charge of reconstruction. Minority radical group-believed south should be punished for its sins. Tried to carry out Lincoln’s plan with modification Admit states once they ratified the 13th amendment, revoked the ordinance of secession and offered amnesty to all former confederates except for high ranking officials and those with property over $20,000. They had to ask the President for a pardon. Radical Republicans refused to accept the states who had followed Johnson’s plan. Committee decided Congress should be in charge of Reconstruction. Passed by southern legislatures in 1865 & 1866 in reaction to Freedman’s Bureau and 13th amendment-placed restrictions on blacks South said they were needed to enforce public safety. North felt it was an attempt to reinstate slavery. Gave African Americans citizenship and prohibited states from passing black codes Vetoed by Johnson-became a law over his veto. Made “all persons born or naturalized in the US” citizens of the country. All were entitled to equal protection of the law and no state could deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law. (not ratified until 1868) Republicans gained a 2/3’s majority in both houses in1866 mid-term congressional elections Faction of Republican party led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner. Viewed Civil war as a crusade against slavery and supported immediate emancipation 15 radicals-6 senators/9 representatives-who refused Johnson’s actions and devised a congressional plan for reconstruction Affected all states but Tennessee. The 10 southern states were divided into 5 military districts each commanded by a union general and his army Each of the 10 states had to call a convention and write a new state constitution. Members to the convention had to be elected by white and black male voters. Former Confederate officials were barred from participation. New constitutions had to guarantee suffrage to African Americans and had to ratify 14th amendment By 1870 all states had been reinstated Hiram Revels and Blanche K. BruceAfrican Americans elected to serve in US Senate. 14 African Americans were elected to the House. Northerners who came south after the war to capitalize on the misfortunes of the white southerners. Many acquired powers by using the black votes. Southern born whites. They supported the Republican Party. Seen as traitors to both race and region The establishment of adequate public schools Tax systems were streamlined Public works were begun Property rights guaranteed to women Despite achievements there was much corruption within the radical government 1866 Pulaski, Tennessee Aimed to destroy Radicals political power in the South as well as establishing white supremacy and intimidating the blacks. Passed by Congress in 1867 Required the President to obtain Congressional approval before removing any federal official. Johnson vetoed bill- Congress overrode his veto. 1868 Pres. Johnson dismissed his Secretary of War Edward Stanton. House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson for violating the Tenure of Office Act. Johnson was tried in the Senate. Senate was 1 vote short of having required number to remove him from office Fear of abusing system of checks and balances Some Republicans did not like Johnson’s replacement (President pro tempore of Senate) Johnson promised to stop obstructing Republican policies 1867, purchased from Russia by Sec. Of State William Seward for $7.2 million dollars. Reconstruction left behind a deep legacy of racial and sectional bitterness.