Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation Medieval Europe Background The Middle Ages were a dark age for Europe. Near constant invasions and scant resources required that Europeans develop a new system for living. This system included all aspects of life, social, political, and economic. It was called Feudalism Feudalism Feudalism was a social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval life. The economic portion of feudalism was centered around the lord's estates or manor, and is called manorialism. A lord's manor would include peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lord's castle or manor house Manorialism Manors were self sufficient; all economic activity occurred on the manor. This meant that little to no trade occurred during this time period. Most of the peasants during the Middle Ages were serfs. Serfs were given land to farm in exchange for service to their lord. Service included working in the fields, maintaining roads and the manor, or military service in during wars. . The lords had responsibilities also under this system. In return for the services and taxes paid by the peasants, they provided land and protection to them. Lords also had to pay fees and give service to high lords and the king. Feudalism affected all levels of society The Feudal System Kings Give large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefs Give Protection Receives money, military service, and advice Upper Lords Give land grants to Lesser Lords Give Protection Receives money, military service Lesser Lords Give land grants to knights Receives money, military service Knights Give land to peasants/serfs Receives crops, labor Peasants/ Serfs Receives land to farm Pays with labor, crops Comparison of Feudalism in Europe and Japan Nobility Warriors Code of Conduct Europe Japan King, lord, lesser lord Knights Emperor, shogun, daimyo Samurai Chivalry Bushido Both practices developed in response to the need for security and stability everyone had well-defined social roles helped preserve law and order The Age of Charlemagne Around 800 Western Europe was briefly unified. A Christian pope, proclaimed him “Emperor of the Romans” reviving the idea of a unified Christian world but widening the split between Eastern and Western Christinanity During the middle ages two distinct Christian churches emerged Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Role of the Church Spiritual: Religion was a central part of life for medieval people from baptism to marriage. Secular: In addition to being the social center of the village, the church had economic power and political power. The Church was the largest landholder, gained wealth through tithing and had its own laws and courts which frequently clashed with King’s authority. Some parish priests ran schools. The Crusades In the 1050’s the Seljuk Turks invade the Byzantine empire and conquered Palestine or the Holy land. The Muslims and Jews also considered this their Holy Land. The Pope called for a crusade to free the Holy Land Reasons for the Crusades The Pope wanted to increase his power Christians believed it was their duty to recover the Holy Land Nobles wanted to gain wealth. Adventurers sought travel and excitement Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression Impact of the Crusades A major results of the Crusades, include Cultural Diffusion and an increase in trade. European interest in goods from the east was stimulated by returning Crusaders who brought back many things. As the Crusades ended, ships that were once used to carry soldiers to the Middle East, now carried trade goods. Merchants from rich Italian city states, such as Venice and Florence, dominated this trade. Trade Fairs and Growth of Cities Along the trade routes, trade fairs were established in towns with larger populations, or at major crossroads. Merchants and craftsman settled in these towns, and some grew to be cities of several thousand people. This fundamentally altered the way people lived in Europe, and marked the beginning of the end of feudalism as serfs began to pay their feudal obligations with cash instead of service. An economy based on money, not barter emerged. The Black Death The bubonic plague was a highly infectious disease spread by the fleas on rats. Rats were common in the cities of this time. This particular outbreak first appeared in China In the early 1300’s with deaths of about 35 million Chinese. It was a global epidemic that that spread through the increased trade between counties. Between 1347 and 1353, the plague killed on person out of every three in Europe over 25 million. Transforming from the Middle Ages WHAT IT WAS Feudal System Manors Church is all knowing Black Death Focus on the Afterlife Focus on Group HOW IT CHANGED Nobles, middle class, peasants Trade/money/lending/ banking/insurance Questioned church/secular view Celebrate life/Enjoy the Present/ Humanism Focus on Individual The Renaissance Renaissance means “rebirth”. It was a golden age in the arts, literature and sciences. During the Middle ages, philosophers and writers were concerned with life after death. In stead of the medieval preoccupation of life after death, a new way of thinking, Humanism, focused on life in the present and emphasized individual achievements. Ancient knowledge was rediscovered and the Classical period of the Greeks and Romans were glorified. Why Italy? Urban Centers – – – – Large city-states in northern Italy Cities – breeding ground for intellectual revolution Cities – Florence, Milan Thriving centers of trade and manufacturing Wealthy Merchant Class – Merchants – wealthiest, most powerful class & dominated politics – Had $ to pursue other interests – Arts/education – Medici Family – Cosimo de’ Medici – Influenced the ruling council (loans)) Lorenzo de’ Medici – behind the scene dictator Why Italy? Classical Heritage – Return to Greek and Roman ideals – Arts and scholars – inspired by ruins of Rome – 1300’s = Latin and Greek manuscripts studied New Outlook/Attitude Classical - Worldly Patrons of Arts – Church – spent $$$ beautifying Rome – Wealthy families – supported artists Renaissance Man – Ideal individual strove to master all areas of study – “universal man” Renaissance Woman – Inspire but not create art – Less influential than middle age women New Outlook/Attitude Enjoyment of Worldly Pleasures – Middle Ages – piety – Humanists- can enjoy life without insulting God – People were still devout Catholics but… concerns were secular (worldly and here/now) Renaissance Art Some of the greatest paintings, sculptures, and architecture in the history of the world. Greek and Romans styles were used for columns, arches, and domes. Artists were supported by merchants, popes and princes. Art was detailed, realistic, and reflected study of human anatomy Michelangelo Leonardo da Vinci Raphael and Rubens Literary Achievements Dante Wrote the Divine Comedy Cervantes wrote Don Quixote Shakespeare wrote many plays Machiavelli wrote the Prince Impact of Printing Press By 1300 papermaking and print technology had reached Europe from China. The invention of moveable type led Gutenberg to print the Bible in 1456. Books became more available Literacy increased Ideas spread rapidly Causes of Reformation The Renaissance. Humanism led people to question Church authority as increasing faith was put in human reason. Strong Monarchs. A weakened church meant strong national monarchs could increase their power. Problems within the church. Corruption among church leaders. Increased fees for marriage, baptism and indulgences for the pardon of sins. Protestantism In 1517 a German monk, named Martin Luther posted his famous 95 Theses against indulgences. Promoted radical idea that faith in God alone, not the Pope granted pardon for sins. Sparked Protestant Reformation. Followers of Luther’s beliefs were called Lutherans and---eventually----Protestants, because they protested Papal authority. A French priest, John Calvin, an influential reformer who also preached predestination started another protestant movement. Martin Luther and John Calvin Ideas spread to Northern Germany and Scandinavia Ideas spread to France, Germany, Holland, England and Scotland “Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain reason, I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other, my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen.” Counter Reformation A reform movement also took place in the Catholic Church. The purpose was to strengthen the Catholic Church and keep Catholics from converting to Protestantism 1545 Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic beliefs and worked to end abuses Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuits. Jesuit missionaries helped spread Catholism around the world Effects of Reformation Formation of Protestant Churches Loss of religious and political unity in Western Europe Religious conflicts sparked wars among the European states for over 100 years Anti-Semitism. Religious persecution increased, especially against Jews. Witch Hunts Summary From the late Middle Ages feudalism continued to decline as kings, nobles and the Church struggled for power. A growing population and increase in trade led to a commercial revolution in Europe and a growing middle class. The Renaissance sparked a new way of looking at the world and the printing press helped new ideas such as the Reformation continue to challenge the old order. Nations began to unite under strong monarchs and nation states emerged.