Middle Ages Renaissance - Hostos

Middle Ages
Medieval Europe
The Middle Ages were a dark age for
Europe. Near constant invasions and
scant resources required that Europeans
develop a new system for living. This
system included all aspects of life, social,
political, and economic. It was called
Feudalism was a social, political, and
economic system that dominated all
aspects of medieval life. The economic
portion of feudalism was centered around
the lord's estates or manor, and is called
manorialism. A lord's manor would
include peasant villages, a church, farm
land, a mill, and the lord's castle or manor
Manors were self sufficient; all economic activity
occurred on the manor. This meant that little to no trade
occurred during this time period. Most of the peasants
during the Middle Ages were serfs. Serfs were given
land to farm in exchange for service to their
lord. Service included working in the fields, maintaining
roads and the manor, or military service in during wars. .
The lords had responsibilities also under this system. In
return for the services and taxes paid by the peasants,
they provided land and protection to them. Lords also
had to pay fees and give service to high lords and the
king. Feudalism affected all levels of society
The Feudal System
Give large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefs
Give Protection
Receives money, military service, and advice
Upper Lords
Give land grants to Lesser Lords
Give Protection
Receives money, military service
Lesser Lords
Give land grants to knights
Receives money, military service
Give land to peasants/serfs
Receives crops, labor
Peasants/ Serfs
Receives land to farm
Pays with labor, crops
Comparison of Feudalism in
Europe and Japan
Code of
King, lord,
lesser lord
shogun, daimyo
Both practices developed in response to the need for security and stability
everyone had well-defined social roles
helped preserve law and order
The Age of Charlemagne
Around 800 Western
Europe was briefly
unified. A Christian
pope, proclaimed him
“Emperor of the
Romans” reviving the
idea of a unified
Christian world but
widening the split
between Eastern and
Western Christinanity
During the middle ages two distinct
Christian churches emerged
Roman Catholic
Eastern Orthodox
Role of the Church
Spiritual: Religion was a central part of life for
medieval people from baptism to marriage.
Secular: In addition to being the social center of
the village, the church had economic power and
political power. The Church was the largest
landholder, gained wealth through tithing and
had its own laws and courts which frequently
clashed with King’s authority. Some parish
priests ran schools.
The Crusades
In the 1050’s the Seljuk Turks invade the
Byzantine empire and conquered
Palestine or the Holy land.
The Muslims and Jews also considered
this their Holy Land.
The Pope called for a crusade to free the
Holy Land
Reasons for the Crusades
The Pope wanted to increase his power
Christians believed it was their duty to
recover the Holy Land
Nobles wanted to gain wealth.
Adventurers sought travel and excitement
Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression
Impact of the Crusades
A major results of the Crusades, include Cultural
Diffusion and an increase in trade. European
interest in goods from the east was stimulated
by returning Crusaders who brought back many
things. As the Crusades ended, ships that were
once used to carry soldiers to the Middle East,
now carried trade goods. Merchants from rich
Italian city states, such as Venice and
Florence, dominated this trade.
Trade Fairs and Growth of Cities
Along the trade routes, trade fairs were
established in towns with larger populations, or
at major crossroads. Merchants and craftsman
settled in these towns, and some grew to be
cities of several thousand people. This
fundamentally altered the way people lived in
Europe, and marked the beginning of the end of
feudalism as serfs began to pay their feudal
obligations with cash instead of service. An
economy based on money, not barter emerged.
The Black Death
The bubonic plague was a highly infectious
disease spread by the fleas on rats. Rats were
common in the cities of this time.
This particular outbreak first appeared in China In
the early 1300’s with deaths of about 35 million
It was a global epidemic that that spread through
the increased trade between counties.
Between 1347 and 1353, the plague killed on
person out of every three in Europe over 25
Transforming from the
Middle Ages
Feudal System
Church is all
Black Death
Focus on the
Focus on Group
Nobles, middle class,
church/secular view
Celebrate life/Enjoy the
Present/ Humanism
Focus on Individual
The Renaissance
Renaissance means “rebirth”. It was a golden
age in the arts, literature and sciences.
During the Middle ages, philosophers and
writers were concerned with life after death.
In stead of the medieval preoccupation of life
after death, a new way of thinking, Humanism,
focused on life in the present and emphasized
individual achievements.
Ancient knowledge was rediscovered and the
Classical period of the Greeks and Romans
were glorified.
Why Italy?
Urban Centers
Large city-states in northern Italy
Cities – breeding ground for intellectual revolution
Cities – Florence, Milan
Thriving centers of trade and manufacturing
Wealthy Merchant Class
– Merchants – wealthiest, most powerful class & dominated
– Had $ to pursue other interests – Arts/education
– Medici Family –
Cosimo de’ Medici – Influenced the ruling council (loans))
Lorenzo de’ Medici – behind the scene dictator
Why Italy?
Classical Heritage
– Return to Greek and Roman ideals
– Arts and scholars – inspired by ruins of Rome
– 1300’s = Latin and Greek manuscripts studied
New Outlook/Attitude
Classical - Worldly
Patrons of Arts
– Church – spent $$$ beautifying Rome
– Wealthy families – supported artists
Renaissance Man
– Ideal individual strove to master all areas of study
– “universal man”
Renaissance Woman
– Inspire but not create art
– Less influential than middle age women
New Outlook/Attitude
Enjoyment of Worldly Pleasures
– Middle Ages – piety
– Humanists- can enjoy life without insulting
– People were still devout Catholics but…
concerns were secular (worldly and here/now)
Renaissance Art
Some of the greatest paintings, sculptures,
and architecture in the history of the world.
Greek and Romans styles were used for
columns, arches, and domes.
Artists were supported by merchants,
popes and princes.
Art was detailed, realistic, and reflected
study of human anatomy
Leonardo da Vinci
Raphael and Rubens
Literary Achievements
Dante Wrote the
Divine Comedy
Cervantes wrote Don
Shakespeare wrote
many plays
Machiavelli wrote the
Impact of Printing Press
By 1300 papermaking
and print technology had
reached Europe from
The invention of
moveable type led
Gutenberg to print the
Bible in 1456.
Books became more
Literacy increased
Ideas spread rapidly
Causes of Reformation
The Renaissance. Humanism led people to
question Church authority as increasing faith
was put in human reason.
Strong Monarchs. A weakened church meant
strong national monarchs could increase their
Problems within the church. Corruption among
church leaders. Increased fees for marriage,
baptism and indulgences for the pardon of sins.
In 1517 a German monk, named Martin Luther
posted his famous 95 Theses against
Promoted radical idea that faith in God alone,
not the Pope granted pardon for sins.
Sparked Protestant Reformation.
Followers of Luther’s beliefs were called
Lutherans and---eventually----Protestants,
because they protested Papal authority.
A French priest, John Calvin, an influential
reformer who also preached predestination
started another protestant movement.
Martin Luther and John Calvin
Ideas spread to
Northern Germany
and Scandinavia
Ideas spread to
France, Germany,
Holland, England and
“Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain reason,
I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils,
for they have contradicted each other,
my conscience is captive to the Word of God.
I cannot and I will not recant anything
for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe.
God help me. Amen.”
Counter Reformation
A reform movement also took place in the
Catholic Church.
The purpose was to strengthen the Catholic
Church and keep Catholics from converting to
1545 Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic beliefs
and worked to end abuses
Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuits. Jesuit
missionaries helped spread Catholism around
the world
Effects of Reformation
Formation of Protestant Churches
Loss of religious and political unity in
Western Europe
Religious conflicts sparked wars among
the European states for over 100 years
Anti-Semitism. Religious persecution
increased, especially against Jews.
Witch Hunts
From the late Middle Ages feudalism continued
to decline as kings, nobles and the Church
struggled for power. A growing population and
increase in trade led to a commercial revolution
in Europe and a growing middle class. The
Renaissance sparked a new way of looking at
the world and the printing press helped new
ideas such as the Reformation continue to
challenge the old order. Nations began to unite
under strong monarchs and nation states