Biom/Phys Considerations for Fit Equip

Plan for Tuesday, September 23
Term paper topics and partnering
Review hiking boots readings and questions
Review running shoes guest presentation
Introduce exercise equipment section
Reading assignment:
- Ch 11 of text; Baechle; Ch 3; Kreighbaum 2; pp 257-265;
Adrian, pp 221-225
- “An Evaluation of Home Exercise Equipment Claims”
- Website: SGMA International - Market Reports and Studies
Assignments for Thursday, Sept 25
- Submit 2 questions or concerns from readings for
- Pick up handout on APA format from Library
- Check out interlibary loan if you have never used it
before. You are likely to need it to find references
for your project.
- Learn how to use the “catnet” search engine
Biom/Phys Considerations for Fit Equip
Objectives of most fitness programs are to improve:
Flexibility, musc strength, musc endurance, C-V end, weight control, &
skeletal, or bone fitness
Important conditioning principles:
Progressive overload
Specificity of training
• SAID principle applies to the following
– Cellular demands, systemic demands evoke specific responses resulting in
performance (functional) and tissue (structural) adaptations
• Specificity applies to many aspects of the training program, including
– Muscle groups, energy system, body position, environmental conditions,
movement pattern, joint position, speed, type of contraction
What is stimulus for improvement of each fitness element?
What is the context in which adaptation/improvement is
most desirable?
Biom/Phys Considerations for Fit Equip
Remember which aspect of fitness you are
working on and apply the overload and specificity
principles appropriately
Muscular Strength - ability of segment to exert
force (MVC)
- Overload stimulus is tension, so use load <10RM
- Factors affecting force application:
• Force-velocity relationship (see slide later)
• Strength-joint position relationship (combination of angle of pull and
force/length relationship) (slide later)
- Focus on
• fundamental movements – why and what are they
• antigravity musculature – why and what?
• proportionate development – what’s that?
- Specificity principle applies to body position, speed (type of
contraction), ROM, pre-contraction stretch condition, and
movement pattern)
Biom/Phys Considerations for Fit Equip (3)
Mucular Endurance- ability to repeat or sustain
submaximal contractions
Overload stimulus is work intensity
Use load approx 60% of max strength, or > 10 RM
Focus on fundamental movements, antigravity musculature, and proport.
Specificity principle applies to resistance, body position, speed, cadence,
ROM, and total number of reps
Cardiorespiratory Endurance - Aerobic capacity
- Overload stimulus is VO2 max, Cardiac output, or Heart Rate
- Repetition and resistance relative to muscular strength/endurance are
- Remember specificity principle regarding gravity, muscles involved
Bone, or skeletal, fitness
- Overload stimulus is strain (normalized deformation )
• Remember 4 loading modes (compression, tension, torsion, shear)
• Exercise in gravitational environment and emphasize resistive exercises
Flexibility – stretching exercises are not equipmentintensive
Remember T = WD + I
When is acceleration
Use of Cams in Ex Equipment:
Sample Resistive Exercise Program
Basic Program - required
- Squat with heel raise
- Trunk curl (goal is 30 reps)
- Bench press
- Sit or bent row
- Upright press
- Pull downs or chins
Optional exercises
- Back extension from prone position
- Forearm curl
- Forearm extension or dips
Note: This program incorporates the principles of bilateral and agonisticantagonistic balance and focuses on muscular strength and endurance
development of the antigravity musculature. At least two sets (one with light
weight for warmup), and preferably three sets, of each exercise should be
completed at 10-15 RM.
What exercises would you change or add?
Questionable exercises
Hyperextended back
 Good morning exercise
 Straight leg deadlift
 Deep knee bends beyond thighs parallel
 Behind neck press
 Unsafe abdominal exercises
Spine loading – one big leg (disc and vertebral body),
two smaller legs (facet) in rear. Balance the load
Questionable exercises:
Hyperextended back
“Good morning” exercise
Behind the neck press:
It depends on
how you do it!
Situp Exercises:
Which methods are
Potentially harmful?
In what way?
Aerobic Exercise Equipment
Purpose - to increase aerobic capacity
Most equipment simulates walking, jogging, or running.
- How about swimming?
- Why not just do these instead of buying equipment?
Evaluate Efficacy of Each Type of Equipment Below for
institutional and personal use (see reference below):
Cross-Country Ski Simulators Chart, p 161)
Stationary Cycles (Chart, p 165)
Treadmills (Chart, p 167)
Rowing Machines (Chart, p 170_
Jump Ropes (Chart, p 171)
Stair Steppers (Chart, p 174)
Burke, Edmund R. (1996) (Ed.) Complete Home Fitness Handbook. Human
Ski Simulators
Stationary cycle:
Stationary Cycles
Which aerobic exercise mode is
Discuss each mode relative to the following criteria
Degree of overload on cardiorespiratory system
Relevance to fundamental movements and ADL’s
Proportion of total body musculature involved
Degree of compressive stress on femoral head and lumbar
vertebral bodies (sites of most osteoporotic fractures)
Compressive stress on patella and knee joint
Range of motion and torque at hip, knee, and lumbar spine
Motivational features (comfort, user friendly, feedback, RPE)
Likelihood of continued usage
Methods of Evaluation of Ex Equip
Source: (Jung, A.P. The evaluation of home exercise
equipment claims. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal. 4(5):
Check physiological and biomechanical principles and ACSM
Review research, if available
- Critically review research – Are appropriate methods used? Who
sponsored it? Where was research reported?
Ask professors or other experts (Barstow, Harms, Gyurcsik,
Estabrooks, Ferguson)
Review product reviews in fitness magazines (Club Industry,
Athletic Business, Fitness Management)
Try it yourself.
Interview professionals who have supervised its use.
Design and conduct your own research.
Note: guidelines for selection are on Federal Trade
Commission Website (
Cost of Aerobic Exercise
Equipment at Rec Complex
Stationary Bicycles
- Uprights $1436-$2471
- Recumbents $1798-$3634
Stepping machines
Elliptical $2850-$3600
Resistive Exercise Equipment
Simple and handy devices (plastic bottles, rubber
tubing, springs)
- adv - cheap, convenient
- disadv - no versatility in direction, force, speed
Constant resistance training devices (free wts, body
- adv – convenient to use, cheap, balance needed, portable,
- disadv - safety, inconvenient to change wts, no versatility in
direction, speed
Gravity-dependent resistance machines
- adv - safety, convenient to change wts, versatility in force
direction, motivation
- disadv - cost, balance not required
Costs of Resistive Equipment
Free weights
- Benches $660; dumbbell set $1,300; Rack for
dumbbells $585; Olumpic weight set $1,650
Plate loaded weight machines - $1,500-$1,700
VRI station (variable resistance one axis) $1,700-$3,900
VRII station (variable resistance, 2 axes) - $2,300$4,000
Isokinetic (accomodating resistance) - $10,000
Computer-controlled - $20,000
Gravity-dependent Resistance Wt
Resistive Equipment (cont’d)
Variable resistance training devices
- adv - variable resistance as well as direction of force app,
- disadv - cost, no versatility in speed
Isokinetic devices
- Adv - speed specific, vary force during movement (great
for rehab)
- Disadv - motivation, cost
Computer-assisted devices
- adv - variable resistance & speed, motivation, permanent
- disadv - cost
Weight Machine
Pneumatic Resistance
(air, two-way)
Isokinetic (accomodating)
Resistance (one-way)
Elastic Resistance
Relevant Questions for Equipment Selection
Can you apply specificity principles appropriately?
- Type of contraction, movement pattern, speed
- Carryover to living in gravitational environment?
Is resistance enough to accomodate your strength?
Does it fit different sized people?
Is it safe?
Is it uncomplicated to use (user friendly)
Is there scientific evidence to support manufacturer’s
Does the equipment follow a normal neuromuscular
If variable resistance, does resistance follow normal
strength-position curve?
Does it have motivation-related features?
Exercise Equip of Questionable Value
Devices to vibrate, melt, or massage away fat
Stretching, pulling, or pushing devices
Wearing or carrying weights
Source for exercise equipment:
- Fitnessquest home page
Exercise equipment research
ISU Dept of OT
Precor home page with scientific studies
Primusweb index
ACE Fitness Home Page
Aerobic Lab Equipment Costs
1. Cybex standard stationary bicycle
 2. Precor elliptical exerciser ($3,275)
 3. Stairmaster stepmill ($3,200)
 4. Stairstep by Unison ($2,200)
 5. Woodway treadmill ($6,650)
 6. Cybex recumbent bicycle ($2,520)
 7. Concept II rowing machine ($680)
 8. Ski simulator by cross conditioning
systems ($4,770)
Resistive Ex Lab Equipment Costs
1. Cybex tricep press ($2,550) - Not variable (NV)
2. Cybex rotary torso $2,880) - Decreasing resistance
3. Cybex modular assist dip/chin ($3,600) - NV
4. Cybex lat pulldown ($1,100) - NV
5. Cybex prone leg curl ($2,170) - DR
6. Cybex seated leg press ($3,960) - Increasing
resistance (IC)
7. Cybex chest press ($2,600) - NV
8. Bench press free weights (bench - 665, bar - 100,
250 lb wt - 113: Total $878)
9. Cybex row/rear delt ($2,500) - DR
10. Cybex hip adduction ($2,430) - NV
Review of factors in
equipment selection
Consider total budget available
Consider client characteristics
- Age, gender, experience
- Give them what they are interested in, but educate them and
also give them what they need
Reflect on what specific exercise modes and types of
resistive equipment are appropriate for fitness
programs of clients
Select product models within each product type that
are best buys