Science Test - __________________ Physical Science Properties of Matter Study Guide It is time for your first science test. I realize you don’t know what to expect, so here is a little help. First of all, the test will consist of multiple choice and open response (short answer) questions. There will be no matching or fill-inthe-blank on this test. You need to know the following: 1. Definitions a. mass – a measure of the amount of matter something contains b. matter – anything that has mass and volume c. volume – the amount of space an object takes up. d. density – the amount of mass in a certain volume of matter e. mixture – a combination of two or more substances f. solution – a special kind of mixture in which one or more substances are dissolved in another substance g. solubility – a measure of the amount of a substance that will dissolve in another substance. h. physical change – a change in size, shape, or state of matter i. chemical change – a change that results in a new substance with different properties than the original substances. Chemical changes often release energy, release smells, or change colors. Burning is always a chemical change. j. physical properties, characteristics, or traits – ways to identify or describe matter based on your five senses and what you can measure about the object. Make sure you know the difference between a mixture and a solution. Examples of solutions include: sugar water, salt water, and Kool-aid. Make sure you know the difference between a physical change and a chemical change. 2. Physical properties, characteristics, or traits This is a partial list of physical properties that we have discussed: color, state of matter, shape, texture length width height weight flexibility temperature mass volume density buoyancy scent luster (shine) solubility boiling temp. melting temp. Is it magnetic? Does it leave a mark? 3. Tools and units a. A balance scale is used to measure mass in units called grams. b. A graduate (or graduated cylinder) is used to measure liquid volume in milliliters or liters. A graduate can also be used to find the volume of an irregular solid, like a rock or marble, but the units must be changed from mL to cubic centimeters (cm3). You must know how to find the volume of an irregular solid. c. A ruler is used to find the volume of a regular solid in units called cubic centimeters (cm3). Volume = length x width x height. A ruler is also used to measure one-dimensional distances like height in centimeters. 4. Know the characteristics of the three states of matter. Solid Liquid Gas Does it have its Yes No No own shape? Does it have a Yes Yes (Even if it No, it fills the definite volume? changes shape, it is available space still the same amount) How are the Packed tightly Close, but they can Far apart particles move around each arranged? other How do they move? Vibrate Medium Fast If heat energy is It melts into a It evaporates into It stays a gas. added…. liquid. a gas. (The boiling point of water is 100 C or 212 F.) If heat is energy is It stays a cold It freezes into a It condenses into a removed….. solid. solid. (The liquid. freezing point for water is 0 C or 32 F.) The motion and arrangement of particles determines whether matter exists in a solid, a liquid, or a gaseous state. 5. Know why certain objects float and others sink. Density determines whether an object sinks or floats. An object less dense than the liquid it is in (for example, water) floats; an object more dense sinks.