Reinforcement and Motivation [Compatibility Mode]

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2/14/2013
Using Special Interest as a Tool
to Improve Motivation in Twice Exceptional Students
Teri McGill
Regional Coordinator
NE ASD Network
[email protected]
Just Give Him the Whale
• By: Paula Kluth
Motivation…
• It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas.
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Motivation
Increases Learning!
• Does motivation play a role in our lives??
the dreaded stairs.flv
Working with Students with High Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome…
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2 Types of Motivation…
REINFORCEMENT….
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What is Reinforcement??
Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning
and behavior analysis for a process of strengthening a directly measurable dimension of behavior
The Big Bang Theory - Sheldon Trains Penny.rv
Wikipedia,
Reinforcement and ASD
Reinforcement/Motivation‐ ‐
Although individuals with Asperger Syndrome and autism appear to have low motivation, the truth is that they often have a different type of motivation (Baker, 2000; Dunlap, 1995). Until staff and parents find out what the motivator is, it is difficult to prompt the individual to complete work and related tasks.
Use Visual Schedules of Reinforcement to show them what the reinforcement is for completing an activity or a task appropriately.
Reinforcer Assessment
Reinforcers are determined exclusively based on whether or not they lead to increases in behavior
What is reinforcing may have nothing to do with what a child plays with, eats, seeks out, etc.
Reinforcer Assessment : Assess what items, topics, edibles, activities, etc will increase motivation for this child to learn, work and interact appropriately
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Reinforcement
90% of the Effectiveness of a Program is REINFORCEMENT!!
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Reinforcers…
– May be something most people think of as ‘undesirable’
– Reinforcers are different for different people or the same people under different conditions
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Reinforcers…
• Positive Reinforcers
– Positive – involves the presentation of a stimulus that produces increases in target responding
• Negative Reinforcers
– Negative – involves the removal of a stimulus that produces increases in target responding
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Categories of Potential Reinforcers
• Attention
– Positive, Negative, Neutral Statements
– Proximity
• Escape
– Avoiding Tasks, Social Demands, Group Activities
• Tangible
– Toys, Chips, String, Videos, Cheese etc.
• Sensory
– Water‐play, Deep Pressure, Peace and quiet, Preferred Music, Bean‐bag Chair etc
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A Reinforcer is What the Child Wants RIGHT NOW, Not What You Think the Reinforcer Should Be
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When do reinforcers work?
• Always – if it does not work it is not a reinforcer
• There are often reinforcers that we are not using intentionally
• If a behavior occurs more than once – the behavior was reinforced
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Increase Motivation and Learning Through Reinforcement
Relationships and Reinforcement
Become a relevant person in the life of a child with ASD
Build a relationship with the student
Staff working with students with ASDs
should:
• Spend time doing activities the child likes
• Show interest in their life and activities
• Find reinforcement that the student likes
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2/14/2013
Special Interests are Reinforcing!!
USING A CHILD’S SPECIAL INTEREST TO INCREASE MOTIVATION
Increase Motivation by Using Reinforcing Activities…
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Expand Communication Skills
To boost mathematics skills
To help minimize anxiety
To boost Literacy
To comfort
To inspire career ideas
Connect students to standard based content
Encourage chit‐chat
To teach manners, cooperation and expression of Empathy
Paula Kluth, 2008
Examples…
• Practice writing sentences on the backs of plastic pigs
• Teach a student to calm themselves by looking at a picture of their special interest while taking 3 deep breathes
• Child reads out loud in literacy circle using puppet of favorite character
• Provide comfort by allowing student to keep miniature penguin in special drawer they can visit a few times a day
Paula Kluth, 2008
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Examples continue…
• Use students passions and interests as a tool for transition planning in Middle/High school
• Create math puzzles (math problem peice‐ hook connecting piece and then write answer on that piece)
• Allow on‐going projects based on their interest to include reading, writing, speaking, listening etc
• Practice conversation turn‐taking, listening and commenting using a special interest
Paula Kluth, 2008
Using Reinforcement to Encourage New Learning
• “If‐‐‐‐‐Then” Card
• Token Systems
• Points Page
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Remember…
NO REINFORCER…
NO LESSON!!
Question?? Got it??
Make
Sense??
Websites
Nebraska ASD Network: Training and other Network resources http://www.unl.edu/asdnetwork/
Autism Speaks: ASD Information and downloadable school Community Tool Kit www.autismspeaks.org
Autism Internet Modules: Free on‐line training modules of many evidence based interventions http://www.autisminternetmodules.org/index.php
Jill Kuzma Social Thinking Website: Down‐load and print many, many social thinking teaching ideas! http://jillkuzma.wordpress.com/
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