Name: __________________________ Class:______________ Date:______________ Human Body The Digestive System Review Study Guide Multiple Choice: _____1. The nutrients that are used to build and repair body parts are a. proteins b. minerals c. carbohydrates d. vitamins _____2. Nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream through the walls of the a. small intestine b. large intestine c. stomach d. liver _____3. The tube that connects the mouth and the stomach is the a. small intestine b. pancreas c. esophagus d. epiglottis _____4. Gastric juice is called a. bile c. ptyalin b. pepsin d. mucus _____5. The digestion begins in the a. mouth c. small intestine b. liver d. stomach _____6. In the digestive system, proteins are broken down into a. fatty acids b. glycerol c. simple sugars d. amino acids _____7. Meat, fish, poultry and eggs are a good source of a. fats b. carbohydrates c. proteins d. minerals _____8. The finger-like structures that form the inner lining of the small intestine are called… a. cilia b. villi c. enzymes d. nutrients _____9. Water is absorbed in the a. small intestine c. large intestine b. pancreas d. liver ____10. The flap of tissue that closes over the windpipe to prevent food from entering it is the a. esophagus b. bile duct c. epiglottis d. pancreas True or False: Write out true or false – correct the underlined word(s) if it is false. _______________1. The nutrients that supply the greatest amount of energy are the fats. _______________2. A chemical that breaks down food into simple substances is called an enzyme. _______________3. Starches and sugars are examples of proteins. __________________ _______________4. Vitamin K is an example of a water-soluble vitamin. _______________5. Pepsin is the enzyme in saliva __________________ _______________6. Undigested food substances are stored in the epiglottis. _______________7. The enzyme pepsin digests proteins. __________________ _______________8. The small, finger-shaped organ located where the small and large intestine meet is the appendix. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Concept Mastery: Discuss each of the following in a brief paragraph on a separate sheet of paper. 1. If you were to eat a slice of bread (starch) with butter (fat) and drink a glass of milk (protein), what would happen to each of these foods during digestion? 2. Food does not really enter your body until it is absorbed into the blood. Explain why – Hint: Think of the digestive system as a tube passing through your body. 3. Appendicitis is usually treated by removing the appendix. Explain why this treatment does not interfere with the functioning of a person’s digestive system. 4. Describe the structure of the villi and their role in absorption. 5. Describe the location and function of the epiglottis. 6. Where does mechanical digestion occur? Where does chemical digestion occur? 7. Compare absorption in the small intestine with absorption in the large intestine. 8. Why can talking with food in your mouth be a dangerous thing to do? Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: Discuss each of the following in a brief paragraph on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Suppose your doctor prescribed an antibiotic that killed all the bacteria in your body. What effect would this have on your digestive system? 2. Fad diets have become popular in the United States. Some of these diets involve eating only a limited variety of foods. Explain why some fad diets may be an unhealthy way to lose weight. 3. Compare the process of digestion to the process of absorption. 4. Following surgery, most patients are fed a glucose, or simple sugar, solution intravenously. Intravenously means into a vein. Why do you think this is done? 5. Trace the path of a piece of hamburger on a bun through the digestive system. Name each digestive organ and describe what happens in each organ.