Earth Science Chapter 3 Study Guide 1. 5 characteristics of minerals 1. solid 4. orderly arrangement of atoms 2. inorganic 3. naturally occurring 5. definite chemical composition 2. Shape of the crystalline form reflects the internal arrangement of atoms. 3. When do crystals grow into large, well developed shapes? Crystals can grow large when they have lots of time to grow slowly . 4. What 2 elements are most common in Earth’s crust? silicon and oxygen 5. Common rock forming minerals are made up mostly of what 2 elements? silicon and oxygen 6. The 2 main families of rock forming minerals are silicates and non­silicates 7. A silicate is a group of minerals that have silicon in their crystal structure. 8. A non silicate is a group of minerals that do not contain silicon like halite or calcite. 9. The process of crystallization occurs when particles dissolved in a liquid solidify and form crystals 10. As rainwater seeps into the ground or flows over the surface, it can pick up elements that become dissolved solids. As the water later evaporates, the solids crystallize out of the water and become minerals, An example of this is salt in the ocean or salt lake. 11. What is an example of a mineral formed from a hot solution? gold 12. What is magma? molten rock beneath Earth’s surface 13. What is the difference between magma and lava? Magma is molten rock beneath Earth’s surface and lava is the magma above Earth’s surface. 14. What are the 7 physical properties of minerals? 1. color 2. hardness 3. streak 4. cleavage or fracture 5. density 6. special properties 15. Streak is the color of the mineral in powdered form. 16. Luster is the way a mineral reflects or absorbs light at its surface. 17. Cleavage is the ability of a mineral to break with a smooth, flat surface. 18. What is an ore? Ore is rock that contains high enough concentrations of a desired material that it can be mined for profit. 19. Sand is what mineral? quartz 20. What are some examples of metal mineral resources that we use everyday? We get aluminum from bauxite ore, iron from hematite, gypsum in wall board, sand is quartz, gemstones like diamond and ruby 21. What are some examples of rare metallic mineral resources? Rare metals like gold and platinum. 22. A gemstone is a rare, attractive mineral. 23. Some examples of gemstones are diamond, ruby, emerald, sapphire, and amethyst.