1 Human Anatomy-Physiology Cumulative Final Review This review

Human Anatomy-Physiology
Cumulative Final Review
This review is not a guarantee of everything that will be on your final
exam, however, by using this review you can focus your studying on
these topics. You will be able to use your notes on the exam, use the
review to help organize your notes. There may be questions on the exam
that are not included here, although I have attempted to include all of the
topics in this list.
Chapter 1: Know all
Chapter 2:
• Describe the major energy forms (including cell energy)
• Define the three major types of chemical reactions: synthesis,
decomposition and exchange
• Define acid and base and explain the concept of pH (include the pH
range of the body)
• Describe and compare the building blocks, general structures and
biological functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic
• Describe the four levels of protein structure
• Compare and contrast DNA and RNA
Chapter 3:
• Define cell
• Distinguish between cell shape and function
• Discuss the structure and function of ALL organelles
• Compare and contrast the types of solutions cells can be found in
and what happens to the cell in that type of solution.
• List the phases of the cell life cycle and describe the key events of
each phase.
• Describe the process of DNA replication
Chapter 4:
• Name, classify and describe the various types of epithelia; also
indicate their function(s) and location(s)
• Describe the types of connective tissue found in the body, and
indicate their characteristic functions
• Indicate the general characteristics of nervous tissue
• Compare and contrast the structures and body locations of the
three types of muscle tissue
• Identify the fiber types found in the tissues of the body
Chapter 5:
• Describe the factors that normally contribute to skin color.
• Compare the structure and location of ALL glands.
• Name the layers of the epidermis and dermis and describe the
functions of each layer.
• Describe the structure of nails.
• Describe how the skin accomplishes its functions.
• Describe how to determine the extent of a burn and differentiate
first-, second-, and third-degree burns.
• Summarize the characteristics of the three major types of skin
Chapter 6:
• Name the major regions of the skeleton and describe their relative
• List and describe the functions of bone.
• Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long bone and a flat bone.
Indicate the locations and functions of red and yellow marrow,
articular cartilage, periosteum and endosteum.
• Compare the locations and remodeling functions of the osteoblasts,
osteocytes and osteoclasts.
• Identify the different types of fractures.
• Describe my favorite word & explain what happens because of it.
• Identify the different disorders discussed in the chapter.
Chapter 7:
• Name the major parts of the axial and appendicular skeletons and
describe their relative functions.
• Identify locations of ALL bones (for example if I ask you where the
femur is located be able to tell me where that is). I will only ask
you about bones you were to identify for your bone quizzes in the
chapter. A list of those can be found on my website (file called
Bone Quiz to Know).
Chapter 8:
• Define joint or articulation.
• Classify joints structurally and functionally
• Name and describe the common body movements at the joints.
• Name and provide examples of the 6 types of synovial joints
based on the movement allowed.
Chapter 9
• Compare and contrast the basic types of muscle tissue.
• Describe the gross structure of a skeletal muscle.
Explain the sliding filament mechanism.
Define motor unit and explain how muscle fibers are stimulated to
• Define oxygen debt and muscle fatigue.
• Define twitch and treppe.
• Identify the importance of Acetylcholine.
Chapter 10:
• List the criteria used in naming muscles. Provide an example to
illustrate the use of each criterion.
• Define lever, and explain how a lever operates.
• Identify locations of muscles.
Chapter 11:
• List the basic functions of the nervous system.
• Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous
system & be able to identify specific parts of each.
• List the types of neuroglia and cite their functions.
• Define neuron, describe its important structural components, and
relate each to a functional role.
• Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
• Distinguish between the different types of neurons: afferent,
efferent, intergration.
Chapter 12:
• List the major lobes, fissures, and functional areas of the cerebral
• Identify the three major regions of the brain stem, and note the
functions of each area.
• Describe the structure and function of the cerebellum.
• Define EEG and distinguish between alpha, beta, theta, and delta
brain waves.
• Describe how the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain
barrier protect the CNS.
• Explain the role of the functional systems of the limbic system and
reticular formation.
Chapter 13-14:
• Classify general sensory receptors by structure, stimulus detected
and body location.
• Name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves, indicate the body region and
structures innervated by each.
Define plexus. Name the major nerve plexuses and describe the
distribution and function of the peripheral nerves arising from each
• Name the components of a reflex arc and distinguish between
autonomic and somatic reflexes.
• Identify the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
of the ANS.
Chapter 15:
• Describe the structure and function of the accessory eye
structures, eye layers, the lens and humors of the eye.
• Note the significance of the blind spot of the eye.
• Describe the location, structure, and afferent pathways of taste
and smell receptors, and explain how these receptors are activated.
• Describe the structure and general function of the outer, middle
and inner ear.
Chapter 17-19:
• Describe the significance of RhoGAM.
• Identify the importance of the different components of blood.
• Identify the parts of an electrocardiogram and what each part
• Be able to trace the pathway of blood through the circulatory
• Describe the conduction system of the heart.
• Differentiate the functions of the vessels in the circulatory system.
Diagrams/Pictures/Flow Charts:
Chapter 1 – Organ Location
Chapter 2 – None
Chapter 3 – Cell
Organelle Chart
Chapter 4 – None
Chapter 5 – Skin
Chapter 6 – Bone Matrix
Chapter 7 – Full Skeleton
Chapter 8 – None
Chapter 9 – Sarcomere
Muscle Movement
Muscle Compare Chart
Chapter 10 – None
Chapter 11 – Neruon
Bi-/Uni-/Multi-Polar Neurons
Chapter 12 – Homunculus
Brain Areas
Spinal Cord
Reflex Arc
Chapter 13 – Cranial Nerve Locations
Chapter 15 – Eye
Chapter 17-19 – Heart
Aorta Regions/Branches
Blood Flow Charts
Your exam consists of 100 multiple choice questions, worth 200 points.
There are also 50 points from the pictures/diagrams/flow charts in your
notes packets.
Your final exam is worth a total of 250 points.