AP World History South Laurel High School Name_____________________________________ Per_____ Date______________________ Chapter 4 Study Guide- Greece and Iran Directions: Using complete sentences, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. Page numbers are provided. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who was the king responsible for unifying Iran? p.96 How did Cyrus treat local rulers in his empire? p.96 Darius is known as a lawgiver. How were subjects treated under his authority? p.98 Who is the Zoroastrian god and what are the basic beliefs of the religion? p.99 Despite the fact that it was not very resource-rich, how/why did Greece prosper economically? p. 99 6. What were some items that farmers were able to grow in Greece? p.102 7. How did ancient Greeks view the sea? p.102 8. Why was the Phoenician alphabet considered to be a great gift to the Greeks? p.102 9. What were the “Dark Ages” and how did the Archaic period begin? p.102 10. What do acropolis and agora mean? p.105 11. Why did hoplites, the new more efficient kind of soldier, emerge in Greece? p.105 12. What are 4 benefits of the introduction of coins? p.107 13. How was democracy defined in Greek society? p.107 14. How did Greeks worship the gods? p.108 15. Define humanism. p.109 16. Spartan life focused mainly on what? p.110 17. What was the outcome of the Persian Wars? p.111 18. Why were the Athenians successful warriors on the seas? p.112 19. Who were the sophists? p.113 20. Name the 3 great classical Greek philosophers. p.113 21. Why was a large presence of slaves in Athens ironic? p.114 22. What was the cause of the Peloponnesian War? p.115 23. When Alexander died, how was his empire broken up? p.116 24. What does Hellenistic Age refer to? Describe at least 2 features of a Hellenistic society. p.116 Cyrus- Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beliefs of subject peoples. satrap- The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Satraps in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy. Zoroastrianism- A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent Darius- Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521–486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes. He established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of Persepolis, and expanded Persian control in the east (Pakistan) and west (northern Greece). Persepolis- A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland. It is believed that the New Year’s festival was celebrated here, as well as the coronations, weddings, and funerals of the Persian kings, who were buried in cliff-tombs nearby. polis- The Greek term for a city-state, an urban center and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic deity—Ahuramazda—who engaged in a twelve-thousand year struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides in the struggle between good and evil. Those whose good conduct indicated their support for Ahuramazda would be rewarded in the afterlife. Others would be punished. The religion of the Achaemenid and Sasanid Persians, Zoroastrianism may have spread within their realms and influenced Judaism, Christianity, and other faiths. hoplite- A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies—militias composed of middle- and upperclass citizens supplying their own equipment—were for centuries superior to all other military forces. democracy- A system of government in which all “citizens” (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. Herodotus- Heir to the technique of historia—“investigation”— developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. He traced the antecedents of and chronicled the Persian Wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing. trireme- Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers. Peloponnesian War- A protracted (431–404 B.C.E.) and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support. Hellenistic Age- Historians’ term for the era, usually dated 323–30 B.C.E., in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam in the seventh century C.E. Alexandria- City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the famous Library and the Museum—a center for leading scientific and literary figures. Its merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. form of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods. Of the hundreds of citystates in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions settled by Greeks, some were oligarchic, others democratic, depending on the powers delegated to the Council and the Assembly. tyrant- The term the Greeks used to describe someone who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community. Tyrants appeared in many Greek city-states in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E., often taking advantage of the disaffection of the emerging middle class and, by weakening the old elite, unwittingly contributing to the evolution of democracy. Pericles- (ca. 495–429 b.c.e.) Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens, supervised construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War. He formulated a strategy of attrition but died from the plague early in the war. Persian Wars- Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499–494 B.C.E.) through Darius’s punitive expedition that failed at Marathon (490 B.C.E.) and the defeat of Xerxes’ massive invasion of Greece by the Spartan-led Hellenic League (480– 479 B.C.E.). This first major setback for Persian arms launched the Greeks into their period of greatest cultural productivity. Herodotus chronicled these events in the first “history” in the Western tradition. Alexander- (356–323 b.c.e.) King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greekstyle cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. Socrates- Athenian philosopher (ca. 470–399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian state. Ptolemies- The Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great’s officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries (323–30 B.C.E.). From their magnificent capital at Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast, the Ptolemies largely took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized nonGreeks serving in the military and administration. Free Response Focus Questions: Answer these questions in a 4-6 sentence paragraph. In your own words. Do not simply copy from the book and memorize the response. You must support your response with plenty of facts. Understand where events fall historically (global context, cause/effect, etc) 1. Describe Persian religious beliefs during the height of the Persian Empire. 2. How did geography and the environment affect Greek development? 3. Discuss the development of Greek democracy. Was Greek democracy “democratic”? 4. Explain what is meant by the Hellenistic Age.