Chapter 4 Study Guide - Laurel County Schools

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AP World History
South Laurel High School
Name_____________________________________ Per_____ Date______________________
Chapter 4 Study Guide- Greece and Iran
Directions: Using complete sentences, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of
paper. Page numbers are provided.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Who was the king responsible for unifying Iran? p.96
How did Cyrus treat local rulers in his empire? p.96
Darius is known as a lawgiver. How were subjects treated under his authority? p.98
Who is the Zoroastrian god and what are the basic beliefs of the religion? p.99
Despite the fact that it was not very resource-rich, how/why did Greece prosper
economically? p. 99
6. What were some items that farmers were able to grow in Greece? p.102
7. How did ancient Greeks view the sea? p.102
8. Why was the Phoenician alphabet considered to be a great gift to the Greeks? p.102
9. What were the “Dark Ages” and how did the Archaic period begin? p.102
10. What do acropolis and agora mean? p.105
11. Why did hoplites, the new more efficient kind of soldier, emerge in Greece? p.105
12. What are 4 benefits of the introduction of coins? p.107
13. How was democracy defined in Greek society? p.107
14. How did Greeks worship the gods? p.108
15. Define humanism. p.109
16. Spartan life focused mainly on what? p.110
17. What was the outcome of the Persian Wars? p.111
18. Why were the Athenians successful warriors on the seas? p.112
19. Who were the sophists? p.113
20. Name the 3 great classical Greek philosophers. p.113
21. Why was a large presence of slaves in Athens ironic? p.114
22. What was the cause of the Peloponnesian War? p.115
23. When Alexander died, how was his empire broken up? p.116
24. What does Hellenistic Age refer to? Describe at least 2 features of a Hellenistic society.
p.116
Cyrus- Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550
and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered
in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed
Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the
institutions and beliefs of subject peoples.
satrap- The governor of a province in the Achaemenid
Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for
protection of the province and for forwarding
tribute to the central administration. Satraps in outlying
provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy.
Zoroastrianism- A religion originating in ancient Iran with
the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent
Darius- Third ruler of the Persian Empire
(r. 521–486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial
resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to
Persians rather than to Medes. He established a system of
provinces and tribute, began construction of Persepolis, and
expanded Persian control in the east (Pakistan) and west
(northern Greece).
Persepolis- A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury
buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in
the Persian homeland. It is believed that the New Year’s
festival was celebrated here, as well as the coronations,
weddings, and funerals of the Persian kings, who were buried
in cliff-tombs nearby.
polis- The Greek term for a city-state, an urban center and the
agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic
deity—Ahuramazda—who engaged in a twelve-thousand year
struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a
pristine world. Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for
nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides in the
struggle between good and evil. Those whose good conduct
indicated their support for Ahuramazda would be rewarded in the
afterlife. Others would be punished. The religion of the Achaemenid
and Sasanid Persians, Zoroastrianism may have spread within their
realms and influenced Judaism, Christianity, and other faiths.
hoplite- A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic
and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx
formation. Hoplite armies—militias composed of middle- and upperclass citizens supplying their own equipment—were for centuries
superior to all other military forces.
democracy- A system of government in which all “citizens”
(however defined) have equal political and legal rights,
privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of
Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.
Herodotus- Heir to the technique of historia—“investigation”—
developed by Greeks in the late
Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and
traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the
Mediterranean lands. He traced the antecedents of and chronicled the
Persian Wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire,
thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing.
trireme- Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and
fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170
oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled
sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex
maneuvers.
Peloponnesian War- A protracted (431–404 B.C.E.) and costly
conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that
convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a
consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire
allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta
prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support.
Hellenistic Age- Historians’ term for the era, usually dated
323–30 B.C.E., in which Greek culture spread across western
Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander
the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic
kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the
spread of Islam in the seventh century C.E.
Alexandria- City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by
Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the
Ptolemies. It contained the famous Library and the Museum—a
center for leading scientific and literary figures. Its merchants
engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the
Indian Ocean.
form of political organization in southern and central Greece in
the Archaic and Classical periods. Of the hundreds of citystates in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions settled by
Greeks, some were oligarchic, others democratic, depending on
the powers delegated to the Council and the Assembly.
tyrant- The term the Greeks used to describe someone who
seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures
and traditions of the community. Tyrants appeared in many
Greek city-states in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E.,
often taking advantage of the disaffection of the emerging
middle class and, by weakening the old elite, unwittingly
contributing to the evolution of democracy.
Pericles- (ca. 495–429 b.c.e.) Aristocratic leader who guided
the Athenian state through the transformation to full
participatory democracy for all male citizens, supervised
construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial
expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War. He formulated
a strategy of attrition but died from the plague early in the war.
Persian Wars- Conflicts between Greek city-states and the
Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499–494
B.C.E.) through Darius’s punitive expedition that failed at
Marathon (490 B.C.E.) and the defeat of Xerxes’ massive
invasion of Greece by the Spartan-led Hellenic League (480–
479 B.C.E.). This first major setback for Persian arms launched
the Greeks into their period of greatest cultural productivity.
Herodotus chronicled these events in the first “history” in the
Western tradition.
Alexander- (356–323 b.c.e.) King of Macedonia in northern
Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian
Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greekstyle
cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later
known as Alexander the Great.
Socrates- Athenian philosopher (ca. 470–399 B.C.E.) who
shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from
questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He
attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies
by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others,
culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian state.
Ptolemies- The Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of
Alexander the Great’s officers, that ruled Egypt for three
centuries (323–30 B.C.E.). From their magnificent capital at
Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast, the Ptolemies largely
took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract
the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized nonGreeks serving in the military and administration.
Free Response Focus Questions: Answer these questions in a 4-6 sentence paragraph.
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In your own words. Do not simply copy from the book and memorize the response.
You must support your response with plenty of facts.
Understand where events fall historically (global context, cause/effect, etc)
1. Describe Persian religious beliefs during the height of the Persian Empire.
2. How did geography and the environment affect Greek development?
3. Discuss the development of Greek democracy. Was Greek democracy “democratic”?
4. Explain what is meant by the Hellenistic Age.
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