Define the following terms/people: Ancient Greece Study Guide - KEY Mythology: stories about gods and heroes that explain how Tyranny: Ruled by someone who illegally took control the world works Monarchy: Ruled by a King or Monarch Thucydides: wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War Leonidas: King of the Spartans Agora: Greek marketplace Epic Poem: Long poem that tells of a hero's deeds Sparta: Greek city-state, won the Peloponnesian War. Minoans: Early Greeks, lived on island of Crete Militaristic. Mycenaeans: After Minoans, early Greeks Xerxes I: The king of the Persians during part 2 of the Mt. Olympus: Believed that gods lived on top of this Persian War. mountain Parthenon: Temple built to honor Athena. Battle of Marathon: Ended first Persian War, runner died Zeus: King of the gods announcing victory. Golden Age: Historical period marked by prosperity in Pericles: Ruled during the Golden Age of Greece. Ancient Greece. Lyric Poem: A poem set to music Barbarian: Any non-Greek Alexander the Great: large empire; conquered Persia, Greece Polis: Greek city-state and other lands. Fables: short stories that teach a lesson Olympics: games to honor Zeus Persian Wars: series of wars between Greece and Persia Homer: Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey Peloponnesian War: 27 year war between Athens and Socrates: Philosopher, sentenced to death Sparta. Hephaestus: Causes earthquakes/volcanic eruptions Fresco: paintings done on wet plaster Hellenistic: Blend of Greek, Persian, Syrian and Egyptian Acropolis: hill on which the fort and temples are built cultures Democracy: People rule Tragedy: plays that deal with disaster Direct Democracy: every citizen votes on the laws Comedy: Oligarchy: Government ruled by small group of people Plays that make fun of political figures Answer the following questions: *What was commonality in most Greek architecture? Columns *What led to the Fall of Minoans? Earthquakes/volcanic eruptions *What happens as a result of the Persian Wars? (More than one thing) Greek uniqueness, Athens power increases, alliances *What was life like in Sparta? Violent, based on war, boys sent to army at age of 7 *What was life like in Athens? Revolved around education (physical and intellectual) *What are the causes of the Persian Wars? Who won? Greeks interfered and Persia wanted revenge. The Greeks win. *Which city-state is in charge of the Peloponnesian League? Sparta *Which city-state is in charge of the Delian League? Athens Short Answer and Extended Response Questions: *Who taught whom out of Plato, Alexander, Socrates and Aristotle? (4 pts) Socrates Plato Aristotle Alexander *Why was the Battle of Thermopylae (300) such a crucial moment in the Persian Wars? How did this event lead to Greece’s victory in the end? Explain. (2 pts.) The Spartans were able to hold the pass so that the Greeks could retreat and fight another day. *Name two gods/goddesses and what they are the god/goddess of. (2pts.) Varied. * Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta. Include at least two similarities and two differences. (4 pts.) Varied.