1 Sociology Final Exam Review 2013 Chapter 1: The Sociological Point of View Latent function Industrial Revolution Sociological Perspective Social Phenomenon Group Symbol Charles Darwin Social Darwinism Karl Marx Conflict, functionalist, & interactionist sociologist Social science Verstehen Auguste Comte Theory Anthropology What is the main focus of sociology? What does it mean to have a sociological imagination? Identify the major early sociologists. What are the 3 main theoretical perspectives in sociology (be able to identify and describe each in detail), and which of the founders of sociology is connected to which perspective? What social and political factors led to the emergence of sociology as a separate discipline? Chapter 2: Cultural Diversity Culture Society Ethnocentrism Symbol Margaret Mead Cultural universals Symbolic interaction Law Subculture George Murdock Counterculture 2 Mores vs. folkways Cultural relativism Value Nonmaterial vs. Material culture What are the differences between material culture and nonmaterial culture? Identify and describe the 5 components of culture. What is the difference between folkways and mores? Differentiate between cultural trait, cultural complex, and cultural pattern. Define and list examples of cultural universals. What were the findings of Mead’s studies on the Arapesh and Mundugumor? How does ethnocentrism differ from cultural relativism? Describe and correctly identify subcultures and countercultures. Chapter 3: Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Conformity to norms Self-control Cultural lag Internalization Negative vs. Positive sanctions Vested interests Resistance to change Formal vs. informal sanctions “The Culture of Narcissism” Diffusion Ideologies Narcissism “Buy America” campaign Personal achievement Explain how the physical environment and population changes can bring about social change. Identify and describe seven traditional American values. How does the concept of diffusion impact cultural change? Explain the process of internalization of norms, providing at least two examples. Why are Hollywood’s movies one of the greatest forces for cultural diffusion in the world today? 3 In what way is the traditional school year an example of cultural lag? Identify the two methods through which society enforces norms. Explain the difference between positive sanctions and negative sanctions, as well as formal sanctions and informal sanctions. What role do government policies play in enforcing cultural values and social norms? For what reasons do people resist change? Chapter 4: Harry Harlow’s monkey research Self-concept Hidden curriculum Total institution Anticipatory socialization Game stage vs. Play stage Looking-glass self Significant others “I” vs. “Me” Imitation stage What are the purposes and functions of groups? What is the “iron law of oligarchy”? What are the strengths and weaknesses of bureaucracies? What are Max Weber’s 5 major characteristics of a bureaucracy? What are the major divisions of societies? What are the 5 most common forms of social interaction? Differentiate between status and role, achieved status and ascribed status, role expectation and role performance, role conflict and role strain, dyan and triad, formal group and informal group, primary group and secondary group, in-groups and out-groups, instrumental leaders and expressive leaders. Describe the exchange theory. Be able to identify differences in exchange, competition, conflict, cooperation, and accommodation. Identify examples as preindustrial, industrial, or postindustrial. o Also hunting/gathering, pastoral, horticultural, and agricultural societies 4 Chapter 5: Ascribed vs. achieved status Industrial vs. postindustrial society Social interaction Social structure Master status Role conflict Organic solidarity Obligations Blue-collar job Role performance Rights Conflict theory Describe the positive AND negative effects of TV on socialization. What is more important to a sociologist and why: Nature or Nurture? What are the 2 components of the self, according to Mead? What are the 4 factors that affect the development of personality? How can fairy tales/urban legends serve as agents of socialization? Chapter 6: Group Authority Primary vs. Secondary relationships Social exchange Informal groups Social category Social aggregate Groupthink Conformity Conflict Coercion Cooperation Why are the beginning and end dates of adolescence somewhat blurred? (Pg. 122) Describe pressures on adolescents. Identify negative consequences that are more likely for teenage than for adults pregnancies. List 7 social factors that appear to affect the rates of teenage suicide. Discuss historical factors that led to the development of casual dating. 5 Chapter 7: Social control Victim discounting White-collar crime Positive social sanction Crime Stigma Control vs. Strain theory Labeling theory Deviance Retreatism Identify by description the 3 stages for women and 5 stages for men of early and middle adulthood. Be able to identify the changes in the nature of work and reasons for this change. Differentiate between young-old, middle-old, and old-old. Identify effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Identify what the main concerns are for people in each stage of late adulthood. Chapter 8: Deviance Stigma 5 social functions of deviance Strain theory Anomie Control theory Cultural transmission theory Differential association Labeling theory Techniques of neutralization Primary vs secondary deviance Degradation ceremony 5 types of crime Crime syndicate Police discretion Racial profiling Corrections Recidivism 6 Explain the 3 main perspectives of deviance as well as theories. Describe the 5 main positive functions of deviance. Describe the 5 main types of crime. Describe the 4 main important components of the criminal-justice system. Explain what is meant by “the label of deviant is a self-fulfilling prophecy.” Describe police discretion. Describe recidivism. What purposes does the corrections system fulfill? Explain the cultural transmission theory. Chapter 10: Minority Cultural pluralism Stereotype Prejudice vs. Discrimination Racism Hate crime Ethnic minority Assimilation Genocide How is ethnicity different from race? How does discrimination become institutionalized? Why might people engage in scapegoating? Identify 3 characteristics of prejudiced people having an authoritarian personality. Identify AND explain the 7 groups of patterns of minority group treatment. Identify AND explain the 5 major minority groups in the United States. Describe the 3 sources of discrimination and prejudice. Chapter 11: Gender roles Gender identity Patriarchy Sexism Suffrage 7 Wage gap Glass ceiling Second shift Ageism Graying of America Medicare Medicaid ADA Gender equalities still exist even though women have made notable gains recently. Explain how this is possible in the following areas: education, work, and politics. Explain the two reasons for the “Graying of America”. Explain the main concerns of the elderly. What conditions does the term disability cover? What is the purpose of the ADA? Explain the three main concerns of health care in American society. Explain the three main health–care issues that are at the center of political debates. (Pg.; 285-287) What evidence do sociologists have that gender roles are socially created rather than biologically based? Explain how social status is related to health in the United States. Explain the self-fulfilling prophecy of sexism. Chapter 12: Family Matrilineal vs. Patrilineal Patriarchy Dual employment Endogamy vs. Exogamy Patrilocal vs. Matrilocal pattern Neolocal pattern Bilateral pattern Extended family Nuclear family Homogamy vs. Endogamy vs. Heterogamy Family of procreation What are the sociological functions of the family? What are the major disruptions to the family? What 6 trends in the American family are being noticed by sociologists? 8 Chapter 13: Factors of production Primary sector Secondary sector Tertiary sector Capitalism Socialism Laws of supply and demand Laissez-faire Free-enterprise Communism Totalitarianism Corporations Oligopoly Power Authority What are the types of authority and types of government? Describe the American political system? How has e-commerce changed the American economy? Chapter 14: Education vs. schooling Hidden curriculum Tracking Education reform Charter schools School choice Homeschooling Bilingual education Zero tolerance Sacred vs. profane Functions of religion Rituals Symbols Animism Theism, monotheism vs. polytheism Ethicalism Ecclesia Denomination Sect Cult 9 How do the functionalists and conflict sociologists view the school as an agent of social control? Conflict sociologists believe that the opportunities for educational success and social mobility are distributed unequally. What is the basis for their view? What is the “hidden curriculum” and what purpose does it serve? What do supporters AND opponents say about bilingual education? Chapter 16: Demography Birthrate Fecundity vs. Fertility Death rate Life expectancy Migration rate, in vs. out migration Growth rate Doubling time Malthusian theory Demographic transition theory Urbanization Overurbanization Urban ecology Urban sprawl Urban anomie theory Compositional theory Subcultural theory How are birth rates, death rates, migration rates, and growth rates calculated? What is used to study population composition such as age and gender? What three ideas did Malthus have to prevent worldwide starvation? Describe the models of urban ecology. What social problems has urbanization helped to create? Chapter 17: Collective behavior Collectivity Crowd Mob 10 Riot Panic Mass hysteria Fashion Fad Urban legend Propaganda Contagion theory Emergent norm theory Value added theory Reactionary moevements Conservative movements Revisionary movements Revolutionary movements Relative deprivation theory Resource mobilization theory Explain how social movements are different from other types of collective behaviors, and give an example of a social movement. Discuss the 4 stages in the life cycle of social movements. Describe the 3 factors that distinguish collectivities from other social groups.