Sociology Final Exam Review


Sociology Mid-Term Exam Review


Chapter 1: The Sociological Point of View

Latent function

Industrial Revolution

Sociological Perspective

Social Phenomenon



Charles Darwin

Social Darwinism

Karl Marx

Conflict, functionalist, & interactionist sociologist

Social science


Auguste Comte



What is the main focus of sociology?

What does it mean to have a sociological imagination?

Identify the major early sociologists.

What are the 3 main theoretical perspectives in sociology (be able to identify and describe each in detail), and which of the founders of sociology is connected to which perspective?

What social and political factors led to the emergence of sociology as a separate discipline?

Chapter 2: Cultural Diversity





Margaret Mead

Cultural universals

Symbolic interaction



George Murdock



Mores vs. folkways

Cultural relativism


Nonmaterial vs. Material culture

What are the differences between material culture and nonmaterial culture?

Identify and describe the 5 components of culture.

What is the difference between folkways and mores?

Differentiate between cultural trait, cultural complex, and cultural pattern.

Define and list examples of cultural universals.

What were the findings of Mead’s studies on the Arapesh and


How does ethnocentrism differ from cultural relativism?

Describe and correctly identify subcultures and countercultures.

Chapter 3: Cultural Conformity and Adaptation

Conformity to norms


Cultural lag


Negative vs. Positive sanctions

Vested interests

Resistance to change

Formal vs. informal sanctions

“The Culture of Narcissism”




“Buy America” campaign

Personal achievement

Explain how the physical environment and population changes can bring about social change.

Identify and describe seven traditional American values.

How does the concept of diffusion impact cultural change?

Explain the process of internalization of norms, providing at least two examples.

Why are Hollywood’s movies one of the greatest forces for cultural diffusion in the world today?



In what way is the traditional school year an example of cultural lag?

Identify the two methods through which society enforces norms.

Explain the difference between positive sanctions and negative sanctions, as well as formal sanctions and informal sanctions.

What role do government policies play in enforcing cultural values and social norms?

For what reasons do people resist change?

Chapter 4:

Harry Harlow’s monkey research


Hidden curriculum

Total institution

Anticipatory socialization

Game stage vs. Play stage

Looking-glass self

Significant others

“I” vs. “Me”

Imitation stage

What are the purposes and functions of groups?

What is the “iron law of oligarchy”?

What are the strengths and weaknesses of bureaucracies?

What are Max Weber’s 5 major characteristics of a bureaucracy?

What are the major divisions of societies?

What are the 5 most common forms of social interaction?

Differentiate between status and role, achieved status and ascribed status, role expectation and role performance, role conflict and role strain, dyan and triad, formal group and informal group, primary group and secondary group, in-groups and out-groups, instrumental leaders and expressive leaders.

Describe the exchange theory.

Be able to identify differences in exchange, competition, conflict, cooperation, and accommodation.

Identify examples as preindustrial, industrial, or postindustrial. o

Also hunting/gathering, pastoral, horticultural, and agricultural societies


Chapter 5:

Ascribed vs. achieved status

Industrial vs. postindustrial society

Social interaction

Social structure

Master status

Role conflict

Organic solidarity


Blue-collar job

Role performance


Conflict theory

Describe the positive AND negative effects of TV on socialization.

What is more important to a sociologist and why: Nature or Nurture?

What are the 2 components of the self, according to Mead?

What are the 4 factors that affect the development of personality?

 How can fairy tales/urban legends serve as agents of socialization?

Chapter 6




Primary vs. Secondary relationships

Social exchange

Informal groups

Social category

Social aggregate






Why are the beginning and end dates of adolescence somewhat blurred?

(Pg. 122)

Describe pressures on adolescents.

Identify negative consequences that are more likely for teenage than for adults pregnancies.

List 7 social factors that appear to affect the rates of teenage suicide.

Discuss historical factors that led to the development of casual dating.

Chapter 7:

Social control

Victim discounting

White-collar crime

Positive social sanction



Control vs. Strain theory

Labeling theory



Identify by description the 3 stages for women and 5 stages for men of early and middle adulthood.

Be able to identify the changes in the nature of work and reasons for this change.

Differentiate between young-old, middle-old, and old-old.

Identify effects of Alzheimer’s disease.

Identify what the main concerns are for people in each stage of late adulthood.

Chapter 8:



5 social functions of deviance

Strain theory


Control theory

Cultural transmission theory

Differential association

Labeling theory

Techniques of neutralization

Primary vs secondary deviance

Degradation ceremony

5 types of crime

Crime syndicate

Police discretion

Racial profiling




Explain the 3 main perspectives of deviance as well as theories.

Describe the 5 main positive functions of deviance.

Describe the 5 main types of crime.

Describe the 4 main important components of the criminal-justice system.

Explain what is meant by “the label of deviant is a self-fulfilling prophecy.”

Describe police discretion.

Describe recidivism.

What purposes does the corrections system fulfill?

Explain the cultural transmission theory.


Chapter 9



Cultural pluralism


Prejudice vs. Discrimination


Hate crime

“Tossed salad”

“Melting pot”

Ethnic minority



Chapter 10:

Institutionalized discrimination

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Elderly Americans

Men’s preference in a relationship

Gray power

Protective legislation

Feminization of poverty

Occupational sex segregation

Chapter 11:


Matrilineal vs. Patrilineal


Dual employment

Endogamy vs. Exogamy

Patrilocal vs. Matrilocal pattern

Neolocal pattern

Bilateral pattern

Extended family

Nuclear family

Homogamy vs. Endogamy vs. Heterogamy

Family of procreation

Chapter 15:

Review questions answered from this “Sports” chapter

Possible Extended Short Answer


Chapter 5:

What are the differences between an ascribed status and an achieved status?

Give examples.

Describe the simulated prison experiment. What does this say about the roles people are given? Give examples in everyday life.

Chapter 6

Describe Soloman Ash’s experiment.

Describe 5 types of group interaction

Discuss the use of power within an organization

Chapter 7:

Do you think white-collar crime is punished less severely than other types of crime? Why or why not?

Explain the two theories of deviance that are based on symbolic interactionism theory.

Can you think of a situation in which our society considers killing to be a deviant behavior? Can you think of a situation in which it would not be considered deviant behavior?

Chapter 9:

Explain the difference how biologists and sociologists view race.

Describe the five key features of a minority

Chapter 10:

Women argue that they receive a better education and become more productive and self-sufficient by attending all-women high schools and colleges. Why do you think they might believe this?

Distinguish between the concepts of sex, gender, and gender identity

In most communities, child-care workers receive very low pay, often no more than someone working at a fast food restaurant. Why do you think this is?

Chapter 11:

Describe at least 4 alternatives to the traditional nuclear family

Outline personal and societal factors that contribute to divorce in the United

States. Describe at least TWO factors

Format of your Final Exam:



120 questions: Multiple Choice / Matching / True-False


Extended Short Answer: You answer 5…you must use complete sentences!!

Bonus (possibility of 10 points)

REMINDER: You may use the note card provided throughout your final exam.

You may use the front AND back of this note card.

Please let me know if you have further questions!!!

Good Luck!!