NOTES ch 17 sect 3 - Monmouth Regional High School

NOTES: Teddy Roosevelt
Chapter #17-section #3
Section #3 Key Terms:
Square Deal
The Jungle
Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act
Section #3 Key People:
Teddy Roosevelt
Upton Sinclair
Teddy Roosevelt
 Came from a wealthy family in NY
 Suffered from asthma as a child- was constantly trying to prove that he was strong (boxing,
horseback riding, wrestling, marksmanship)
 Graduated from Harvard University
 Served THREE terms in the NY State Assembly
 Served as the NYC Police Commissioner
 Served as the Assistant Secretary to the Navy
 1895: he commanded the “Rough-Riders” at the Battle of San Juan in Cuba during the SpanishAmerican War (became a national hero)
 Elected as governor of NY
 1900: nominated by the political bosses in NY for Vice-President of the United States (wanted
him out of NY and out of their business)
 Six months into his term, President William McKinley is assassinated and Teddy Roosevelt
becomes President
 Youngest person to ever serve as President (age 42).
“Modern Presidency”
“In life, as in a football game, the principle to follow is: Hit the line hard”- TR
Used his personality to push his political programs
Used his influence in the news media to help shape legislation
Thought the government should assume control of states whenever they proved incapable of
dealing with problems.
Had a child’s toy named after him- “Teddy Bear” (after he boxed with a bear cub)
Promoted the SQUARE DEAL- various progressive reforms and legislation.
President Roosevelt:
Square Deal: set of programs and legislation written to give the common people a “fair deal.”
1902 Coal Strike: 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for 5 months demanding a
20% raise, a 9 hour work day, and the right to organize
a. Schools, factories, and hospitals were affected because they had no coal for heat
b. Teddy Roosevelt called for workers and the owners to meet at the White House for
arbitration instead of sending in federal troops (set a precedent for future
Trustbusting: by 1900, trusts controlled 4/5 of US industries and used unfair business practices
(unfair pricing, monopolies)
a. Sherman Antitrust Act 1890- 44 antitrust suits were filled under the act (Northern
Securities Company for establishing a monopoly over the Northwest Railroads; beef
trust; oil trust; tobacco trust) but almost all were ineffective
Railroad Regulation
a. 1887 Interstate Commerce Act:
i. Prohibited “pools” in which wealthy railroad owners divided the business in a
given area and shared the profits.
ii. Established the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to enforce new laws but
it lacked power (railroad owners could simply appeal to the federal courts which
could take 10 years to resolve)
1903 Elkins Act:
i. Made it illegal for railroad officials and shippers to give or receive rebates
ii. Specified that once a railroad had set rates it could not change them without
notifying the public.
Hepburn Act of 1906:
i. Strictly limited the distribution of free railroad passes (a form of bribery)
ii. Gave the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, subject to court approval
iii. *** increased the government’s power to regulate the railroads***
Health and Safety Programs Under President Teddy Roosevelt
Protection from unsafe food, drugs, and environmental pollution from businesses
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair: TR appointed a commission that confirmed the horrors of the food industry
1. Meat Inspection Act 1906: dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created a
program for federal meat inspection BUT… (1) it did NOT require companies to label canned
goods with date-of-processing information; (2) the government had to pay for the inspectors; (3)
meatpackers could appeal negative decisions in court.
2. Pure Food and Drug Act: halted the sale of contaminated foods/medications and required truth on
a. harmful preservatives/ additives in foods (coal-tar dye, borax, formaldehyde)
b. medications contained harmful drugs (opium, cocaine, alcohol) and promised to cure
ailments such as cancer.
Conservation Programs Under Teddy Roosevelt:
 1887 the US Forest Bureau was established
 TR extended the amount of federally protected lands
1. 148 million acres of forest preserve
2. 1.5 million acres of water-powered sites
3. 80 million acre of land for the US Geological Survey to explore for mineral and water resources
1905- named Gifford Pinchot head of the US Forest Service
 National Reclamation Act 1902: (aka Newlands Act) the money from the sale of public
lands in the west would fund large-scale irrigation projects (such as the Roosevelt Dam in
Civil Rights and Teddy Roosevelt:
 TR did NOT support the civil rights of African Americans but he DID support the efforts of a few
INDIVIDUAL African Americans
1. appointed an African American as head of the Charleston, SC custom house
2. refused to dismiss a black postmistress of a Mississippi post office (chose to close the station
3. as a symbolic gesture he invited Booker T. Washington (founder of the Tuskegee Institute) to
dinner at the White House.
 He fired an entire regiment of African American soldiers accused of rioting in
Brownsville, Texas.
NAACP 1909:
 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: African American and white
reforms committed to racial injustice but did not gain much support with the progressive
movement (By 1914 there were 6,000 members nationwide)