American Studies Sem1, 20112012 Kozina Unit5 Study Guide (ch16,ch17,ch18) Things to know, understand, and/or be able to do: Which of these statements was not true of the United States by the year 1900? o Industrial production had risen rapidly due to mechanization. o Over half of the nation's industrial labor force was foreign born. o Mature industries such as steelmaking were in a decline. o The rise of industry had led to rapid urbanization. Which of these statements best describes New York's Lower East Side in 1900? o an industrial area that employed hundreds of thousands of immigrants o an abandoned area after a fire consumed most of the wooden structures o a densely populated neighborhood with an inadequate infrastructure o a middle-class neighborhood with indoor plumbing and running water the Pendleton Act social Darwinism the Social Gospel movement the Second Great Awakening George Washington Carver Which of the following effects best completes the flowchart? Examine the map below. What does the map reveal about immigrant-settlement patterns at this time? o o o o o o o o Children who lose their jobs protest the new laws The number of children in school increases dramatically. The number of children living on the streets increases sharply. Many working mothers quit work to care for their children at home. Poor immigrants often lived alongside upper-class families. Most immigrants did not settle in cities. Wealthy immigrants settled in newly built suburbs. Immigrant groups often clustered together in urban neighborhoods. Party bosses and political machines What statement was the cartoonist trying to make about party bosses? o They were corrupt public officials. o They were progressive reformers. o They were followers of social Darwinism. o They were unfairly treated by muckrakers. Direct primary Political convention Recall election Secret ballot Initiative (legislation) Referendum Which of the following was not a goal of the NAACP during the Progressive Era? o to ensure equal rights for all African Americans o to use the legal system to fight segregation o to secure the passage of antilynching laws o to urge accommodation among African Americans Which of the following progressive reforms was enacted by a constitutional amendment? o women’s suffrage o consumer protection o regulation of monopolies o conservation of the environment “We demand that big business give the people a square deal; in return, we must insist that when anyone engaged in big business honestly endeavors to do right he shall himself be given a square deal.” - Which Progressive Era president was the most likely author of this quotation? o Woodrow Wilson o Howard Taft o Theodore Roosevelt o William McKinley How did Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson work to protect the environment? o by requiring factories to clean up their toxic wastes o by creating a federal agency to monitor pollution o by protecting wilderness lands from development o by setting aside land for national parks Why did President Wilson establish the Federal Reserve System? o to give trusts more opportunities to expand their businesses o to regulate the money supply and prevent future economic panics o to help the federal government keep the budget balanced o to create banks that could collect the new federal income tax Which of the following statements best summarizes the data in the table? o Most people in 1913 made more than $75,000 a year. o Only the very rich were required to pay taxes. o Tax rates in 1913 were higher than those today. o People with higher incomes were required to pay more taxes. The second part of the test will be a documentbased question. o In part A, you will examine a photograph, a cartoon, and text excerpts to complete various tasks (describing problems, summarizing solutions shown in the materials) o In part B, you will write a short essay that evaluates this statement: Progressives were successful at solving many of the problems they saw in American cities. The essay will contain these elements: An opening paragraph in which you state your position (thesis) on the statement above and introduce your basic argument One or more paragraphs in which you provide evidence to support your position A conclusion in which you restate your thesis and leave the reader with something to think about Second part materials: Excerpt from New York Times Article, 1896 The chief objections to the old-style tenements are contracted [tight] quarters, lack of family privacy... lack of light and air, and of sanitary accommodations, insuring a large death rate, and danger from fire- that ever-present tenement horror. Excerpt from the New York Tenement House Act, 1901 In all now existing tenement houses, all school sinks, privy vaults [outhouses] or other similar receptacles used to receive...sewage, shall before January first, nineteen hundred and three, be completely removed... [and] replaced by individual water-closets [rooms with a toilet] of durable non-absorbent material, properly sewer connected. Excerpt from Lincoln Steffen's The Shame of the Cities Tammany's democratic corruption rests upon the corruption of the people, the plain people... The leader and his captains have their hold because they take care of their own. They speak pleasant words, smile friendly smiles, notice the baby, give picnics up the River or the Sound, or a slap on the back; find jobs, most of them at the city's expense...They permit violations of the law, and, if a man has broken the law without permission, see him through the court... But they sell out their own people. They do give them coal and help them in their private troubles, but, as they grow rich and powerful, the kindness goes out of the charity...They sacrifice the children in the schools; let the Health Department neglect the tenements, and, worst of all, plant vice in the neighborhood and in the homes of the poor.