Chapter 4 Test Review Answer Key

Chapter 4 Review
Lesson 1
New vs. Old Immigrants – New Immigrants included Eastern and Southern Europeans (Italy, Greece,
Austria-Hungary, Russia, Japanese, Chinese). Old Immigrants were from Northern and Western Europe
(England, Ireland, Germany, France)
Push/Pull Factors – Push factors are reasons to leave home country (war, famine, political and religious
oppression, no jobs, etc.). Pull factors are what attracts you to the new country (jobs, family, religious and
political freedom)
Steerage – cheapest way to travel by boat below deck
Ports of Entry – NYC/Ellis Island for Europeans; San Francisco/Angel Island for Asians
Chinese Exclusion Act - first significant law restricting immigration for Chinese into the United States.
Nativism – hostility toward foreigners by native-born
Lesson 2
Where social classes lived – poor in ethnic neighborhoods, middle class in suburbs, upper class in city
Tenement – crowded and poor city dwellings. Unsanitary with lack of windows.
Leisure time/Popular Culture (Lesson 3) – Baseball, amusement parks, vaudeville
Political Machine/Bosses – Political Machines are an informal political group designed to gain and keep
power. Political machines and bosses provided favors in return for votes. While corrupt, they provided
necessary services.
William Tweed – One of the most famous political bosses and leader of Tammany Hall in NYC. Thomas
Nast is the cartoonist who exposed him.
Muckrakers – journalists who wrote to enact change. Upton Sinclair – The Jungle exposed the
meatpacking industry. Jacob Reiss – How the Other Half Lives exposed tenement housing conditions.
Lesson 3
The Gilded Age – Mark Twain named. Covered in gold. On the outside, this era seemed covered in gold
(new inventions, technology, progress, wealth) but upon closer examination, one sees poverty, poor
working conditions, greed, corruption.
Social Darwinism – “Survival of the Fittest” – Human society evolved through competition and natural
selection. This was also applied to laissez-faire capitalism.
Gospel of Wealth – Andrew Carnegie believed in philanthropy to help people help themselves by
building schools, hospitals, libraries, etc.
“Rags to Riches” literature – promoted the idea of individualism (anybody can rise up if they put enough
hard work in). Horatio Alger wrote novels about people who moved to the city and became successful.
Realism – art that portrayed the world realistically
Americanization – At school, immigrant children were taught English and American history/culture to
assimilate them.
Settlement houses – College educated women established these community centers to offer medical care,
English classes, recreational programs. Jane Addams opened Hull House in Chicago.
Lesson 4
Events leading up to civil service reform – assassination of Garfield led to the Pendleton Act which
required a civil service exam. People would be hired on merit.
Spoils System (Patronage) – Receiving jobs by who you know or for supporting a particular candidate
Sherman Anti-Trust Act – Curbed (limited) the power of big business
Greenbacks – money not backed by gold
Impact of tariffs – higher tariffs are designed to protect American goods, but make them expensive abroad
causing foreign countries to raise their tariffs which then make their goods more expensive to us. Lower
tariffs make our goods less expensive abroad and foster lower tariffs with our trading partners making
goods less expensive.
The Grange & The Farmer’s Alliance – Grange was 1st national farmers organization. Created
cooperatives, which member farmers worked together to increase prices and lower costs. Unsuccessful.
The Farmer’s Alliance organized large cooperatives called exchanges. Also failed.
The Populist Party (The People’s Party) - representing mainly farmers that favored free coinage of silver,
government control of railroads and other large industries, graduated income tax
Lesson 5
Exodusters – Freed slaves who moved west (mostly Kansas) for land and farming
Sharecroppers – rented land/equipment and paid back in crops. Cycle of debt.
African Americans & Populist Party – African Americans joined the Populist Party which would
endanger the Democratic party, therefore, the Democrats appealed to racism. The enacted a poll tax,
literacy test, and the grandfather clause to make it difficult for African Americans to vote.
Plessy v. Ferguson – Established “Separate but Equal”
Booker T. Washington – believed in education and trades over fight for civil rights
W.E.B. DuBois – founder of NAACP. Clashed with Booker T Washington
NAACP – founded by W.E.B DuBois