Study Points for Final

This list is not exclusive, but is representative of the most important aspects of each
chapter we have covered. That does not mean that questions will ONLY be from
the material on this list, but that this list encompasses the vast majority of the
material that will appear on the final.
Chapter 1
 Energy-yielding nutrients, non-energy yielding nutrients
 Factors affecting food choices
 Energy density vs. nutrient density
 DRI—what each means/represents
 Review the nutrition information/misinformation section
Chapter 2
 Review the 7 diet-planning principles
 Dietary guidelines
 Diet-planning guides: food group plans, exchange lists, guidelines to groceries
 Food label components: nutrition facts; daily values
Chapter 3
 Anatomy/muscular action of digestive tract
 Enzymes/secretions of digestion
 Absorption of nutrients & points of entry into circulation (lymphatic, etc.)
Chapter 4
 CHO dietary recommendations
 Mono-, di- & polysaccharides
 Differences btwn soluble & insoluble fibers; examples of each and
benefits/functions of each
 CHO digestion: enzymes/absorption, etc.
 Metabolism of carbs: glycogen storage/breakdown; glucose for energy, etc.
 Hormonal regulation of blood glucose
 Diabetes
 Health effects of sugars/starches/fibers
Chapter 5
 Classifications/naming of fatty acids
 Triglycerides
 Phospholipid/sterol functions
 Lipid digestion/absorption: enzymes; bile; micelles; lymphatic system
 Lipid transport: chylomicrons; LDL/HDL, etc.
 Functions of lipids within body
 Health effects of lipids
 Recommended intakes
Chapter 6
 Protein structure; shapes
 Digestion/absorption
 Functions of proteins within the body
 Nitrogen balance
 Digestibility/quality of proteins
 Protein-energy malnutrition
 Recommended intakes
Chapter 7
 Definition of metabolism; anabolism; catabolism
 ATP—what it is and how do we get it?
 Energy pathways: glycolysis, TCA, ETC
o General inputs/outputs for each pathway
o Under what conditions energy is generated by each pathway
o Central unit of metabolism is AcCoA
o Cellular location of each pathway
 Feasting/fasting: what happens during caloric excesses/deficits?
Chapter 8
 Factors that affect food intake
o Hunger, appetite, satiety
o Overriding hunger/satiety mechanisms
 Components of energy expenditure
o Components contributing to & factors affecting BMR
o Physical activity
 Body weight/composition
o Waist circumference
o Fat distribution & its consequences
o Health risks of excess body fat/weight
Chapter 9
 Fat cell metabolism
 Leptin/ghrelin
 Factors contributing to obesity
 Problems with obesity
 Realistic weight loss strategies: caloric intakes/reductions, etc…
Chapters 10 & 11
 General characteristics of vitamins; bioavailability & factors affecting it
 Differences btwn fat- & water-soluble vitamins
 General functions of vitamins
 Good sources for each vitamin
Problems associated with deficiency
Chapter 12
 Roles of water in the body
 Water balance: sources; losses recommendations
 Factors regulating fluid balance/blood pressure: ADH, RAA system
 Electrolytes: contribution to fluid balance; intra- & extracellular ions
 Major minerals: functions
 Calcium absorption & regulation of absorption/mobilization
Chapter 13
 Functions of trace minerals: primarily Fe, Zn, I, Cu
 Problems associated with deficiencies
 Good sources
Chapter 14
 Benefits of fitness
 Guidelines for developing fitness
 Fuel sources for various intensity levels of physical activity
o Creatine phosphate
o Glycogen/glucose
o Fatty acids
o Protein?
 Affects of training on muscles, metabolic pathways
 Fluids/electrolytes during activity
o Dehydration; hyperthermia; heat stroke
o Hyponatremia
 Diets to support fitness
 Pre-/Post-competition meals
Chapter 15
 Critical periods
 Folate requirements; deficiency problems
 Chronic disease & its effects on pregnancy/fetus
 Maternal weight/weight gain during pregnancy
 Exercise during pregnancy
 Energy/nutrient needs
 Practices incompatible with pregnancy