Chapter 12 Lecture 2nd War for Independence and Nationalism The

Chapter 12 Lecture
War for Independence and Nationalism
The most significant outcome of the War of 1812 was the upsurge of nationalism (intense
pride in one’s country) that resulted from the war effort.
The final battle of the war was the Battle of New Orleans (actually took place after Treaty
of Ghent, but news had not reached America), a major victory for the U.S. that
contributed to the feelings of nationalism
As America transitioned to the post war period a new era was ushered in – “The Era of
Good Feelings” – as we will see, though, not all that glitters is gold.
Examples of nationalism and support for the “Era of Good Feelings”
o Fledgling American factory system began to grow as a result of the war due to
stress put on America’s trade during the war
o American System – proposal by Henry Clay to focus on internal improvements.
Program included:
 Strong national bank that could provide easy and abundant credit –
stimulate economic growth
 A protective tariff (tax on imported goods) to protect American
manufacturers e.g. Tariff of 1816
 A network of roads and canals to connect different regions of the country
and stimulate interstate trade e.g. The Cumberland Road (also contributed
to western migration
o The emergence of a unique American culture i.e.: literature (James Fennimore
Cooper, Washington Irving), school textbooks (written by Americans for
Americans), art work (focus on American landscapes)
Examples of Sectionalism and an argument against “Era of Good Feelings”
o President Monroe vetoed the use of federal money for roads and canals – thought
they would benefit one region over another and thus were unconstitutional – New
England was also opposed to transportation projects b/c they felt that roads and
canals would lead to population drain from New England to the easier to reach
o Federalist opposition to the War of 1812 – openly opposed the war, in some cases
they even aided the British. Drafted the Harford Convention proposals – pushed
for Constitutional amendments that would have made it more difficult to add
states, declare war, or impose embargoes.
o The Panic of 1819 – Over speculation of land in the western territories led to a
major depression. The Bank of the U.S. had given money to the western branches
(wildcat banks) who then over invested in land loans. When the panic hit, the
loans defaulted and the bank had to foreclose on farms – people of the west
blamed the Bank of the U.S. (the devil), westerns come to view the bank as a
bank for the elite East coast investors.
The emergence of slavery as a national issue
o In 1819, the Missouri territory applied for admission to the union as a slave state.
This would have upset the political balance in the union – at the time, there were
11 Free states and 11 slave states.
o As a means to diminish Missouri’s impact as a slave state, the House of
Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment – no more slaves would be
allowed to be brought into Missouri and the children of the current slaves would
be freed on their 25th birthday – This Amendment also benefitted those who
wanted unhampered expansion of the West (slave owners had a competitive
advantage in buying up large land tracts)
o The South viewed the Tallmadge Amendment as an attempt by the North to upset
sectional balance; the Tallmadge Amendment was defeated in the Senate.
o The North was more heavily populated than the South and therefore had greater
representation in the House of Reps; however each state gets 2 Senators
regardless of size and the South had to hang on to the Senate to maintain political
o The South was also concerned about the dangerous precedent that would be set if
the Tallmadge Amendment was approved – What would be the future of slavery
if it was approved? Could slavery be impacted in states that already allowed it?
This conflict in Missouri over Missouri led to the Missouri Compromise
o Missouri was brought into the union as a slave state
o Maine was brought into the union as a free state
o For the remainder of the Louisiana territory slavery would not be allowed North
of the 36/30 line while it would be allowed South of the line
While the Missouri Compromise addressed the issue of slavery and its expansion for the
time, we see the issue of slavery morph into a debate not only over its political and
economic impacts, but also over the morality of its practice. – In the years after the
Missouri Compromise we will see the rise of the abolitionist movement
Significant Supreme Court Cases
o McCulloch v. Maryland – state of Maryland tried to tax a branch of the Bank of
the U.S. – John Marshall led Supreme Ct. ruled that the bank was constitutional
and that the states could not tax the Federal government (asserted power of
national government over states)
o Cohens v. Virginia – asserted the right of the Supreme Ct. to review all cases
heard by the Supreme Ct.’s of the states. (federal v. state power)
o Gibbons v. Ogden – Asserted the power of the federal government to regulate
interstate travel / trade (federal v. state power)
Monroe Doctrine – James Monroe asserted the America’s preeminence in the Western
Hemisphere. No new European colonies would be permitted in the Western Hemisphere.
If European countries interfered with any country in the Western Hemisphere, the U.S.
would interpret that as an interference with American business. We state that we don’t
interfere in Europe’s business so they shouldn’t interfere in ours
This was a strong statement for the U.S. because of the relative weakness of our military.
Any violation of this statement by Europe would be considered an act of war.
Monroe Doctrine was an expression of American nationalism as it asserted our autonomy
from Europe and also reinforced the concept of American neutrality and isolation from
Europe (continuation of George Washington’s Farewell Address, Jefferson’s Embargo,