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BIOLOGY__Chapter 20-PROTISTA notes

I.The Kingdom Protista

• Defined more by differences than similarities

• Not actual plants ,animals or fungi

• Many _________________________- and all eukaryotes

• So diverse that many biologists suggest they should be composed of several kingdoms

• Classification based on :

• 1)________________________________-heterotrophs,autotrophs,decomposers and parasites

• 2)Some classified by how they move

II. Animallike protists:___________________________________

4 Phylla: distinquished by modes of movement

• ___________________use whiplike flagella;many are aquatic;many absorb food through cell

membranes;many reproduce asexually and some sexually by meiosis

• Sarcodines use _________________for movement and feeding:example-amoebas-move by extensions of psuedopods:have food vacuoles;_______________secrete calcium carbonate


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• Ciliophora move by hairlike __________________;best known are of genus ____________-has micronucleus and macronucleus,gullet or oral groove,anal groove,contractile vacuole to

balance water content,reproduce asexually and sexually by conjugation

_____________do not move;many parasites,reproduce by ________

--Diseases from protists

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• ****-_____________________-caused by Plasmodium and Anopheles mosquito,many forms

resistant to drugs

Other Protistan diseases_Trypanosoma

Carried by ______fly

Amebic dysentery

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• Giardia


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Digests wood for termite!!!!

III.Plantlike Protists

Unicellular algae

Contain chlorophyll and undergo photosynthesis

***_____________________-plantlike,have flagella and no cell wall

_________________________________-yellow-green algae and golden brown algae

_______________________-thin ,delicate CELL WALLS OF SLICA-GLASSLIKE

DINOFLAGELLATES-half are photosynthetic and half are heterotrophic,some luminescent

• PHYTOPLANKTON-near surface of ocean and food source

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• Algal blooms that are massive depletion of nutrients and many cells die-an indicator of pollution

• IV .Plantlike protists-red,brown and green algae

• Red algae-__________________-uses chloroplyll a and accessory pigments and can live at great depths;most multicellular and play role in coral reef

• Brown algae________________________-have chlorophyll a and c and an accessory pigment:largest and most complex of algae-kelp can grow 60 m in length

• Green algae-_______________________-have chlorophyll a and b;unicellular,colonial,and multicellular


• -animal and human food source

• -used in medications

• -ice cream

• -used in making plastics,waxes,deodorants,paints,transitors ,lubricants,agar,toothpaste

V.Funguslike protists

• Have centrioles and LACK chitin cell walls of regular fungus kingdom

• Heterotrophs as decomposers

• SLIME MOLDS-on forest floor-spore forming

WATER MOLDS-hyphae and spores-connected to great “Potato Famine”