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Sci App Unit 5: Food Day 60 Fats & Lipids
Lipids are a group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water (do not dissolve).
They contain C, H and O in a long chain and contain a carboxyl (COOH) at one end.
One of the main body uses is to make membranes that separate different parts of the
body. Liquid solutions that are within a membrane do not transfer to another part of the
body.
Lipids and fats are used to store energy because fats contain more calories per gram than
do carbohydrates (9 cal/1 g to about 4 cal/g). They also insulate the body from heat loss.
Main source will be meats and dairy products.
Many animals stockpile fat to survive a long winter of hibernation or flight in migration.
Fatty acids are the simplest fats and have long chains of single bonded carbons with each
other bond filled by a H. These are saturated fats.
If a double bond were in the chain, it becomes an unsaturated fat.
Saturated fats tend to create heart problems with the blockage of vessels a prominent
problem.
Waxes are very long chains fatty acids and have a long chain alcohol group attached
together. They are a solids at room temp. Animals use these to coat fur and feathers for
protection from water.
Some fatty acids can exist as an oil because of the number of C atoms in the chain and
the bonding structure. They usually have double bonds in the chain. These include corn
oil, safflower oil canola oil, olive oil etc.
Phospholipids contain a phosphate group in the structure and make important biological
membranes.
Triglycerides consist of three fatty acid chains and a glycerin molecule (alcohol)
HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH
It is a form of dietary fat and can create health problems similar to cholesterol.
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