Bio 4 – Study Guide 3 Chapter 12 & 13 – Mitosis and Meiosis Know the difference between a genome and a gene pool. Know the cell cycle and all the stages. What is binary fission? Know the phases of mitosis and meiosis (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, interkinesis). Know how they are different from each other. Know the following structures: centromeres, asters, spindle fibers, cell plate, metaphase plate, cleavage furrow, kinetochores, chiasma, tetrad, chromatin, chromosome, chromatids, homologous chromosomes. What is haploid vs. diploid? What is crossing over? What is independent assortment? What controls cell division? What is MPF? Cyclin? Cdk? What is cancer? Know the different types of sexual and asexual reproduction talked about in class (binary fission, regeneration, fragmentation, budding, hermaphrodites, parthenogenesis). What are the four sources of sexual variation? What is fertilization? What is a zygote? What is a karyotype? Compare and contrast mitosis with the first division of meiosis. At what points during meiosis does the potential for genetic variation occur? Know the information from the article “Closing in on the Centromere”. Chapter 14 & 15 – Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Who is Mendel? What is a trait? Gene? Know the following terms: dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, monohybrid, dihybrid, allele, genotype, phenotype, testcross, incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles,, ABO blood groups, Rh factor, amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling, ultrasound. What are the differences between a recessively inherited and a dominantly inherited disease? Know the examples discussed in class. Be able to work genetic problems with the correct genotypic and phenotypic ratios (monohybrid, dihybrid, sex-linked, sex influenced, incomplete dominance, and blood types). What is nondisjunction? Aneuploidy? Chapter 22 – Evolution What is evolution? What is the difference between micro and macroevolution? Who is Darwin? Where did he travel? What did he discover? What was the name of the ship? What was the name of his book? What is speciation? Who is Plato? Cuvier? Catastrophism? Hutton? Gradualism? Lyell? Uniformitarianism? Lamarck? Inheritance of acquired traits? What were the two basic concepts from Darwin’s book? What are the three types of natural selection and know which individuals the environment chooses against (graphs). Who was Malthus? What are the 5 statements and three conclusions summing up Darwin’s theory (written by Mayr)? What are the 6 pieces of evidence for evolution? Chapter 23 – Population Genetics What is the smallest unit that can evolve? Why? What is a species? Population? What is microevolution? Know the Hardy-Weinberg equation and how it is used. What are the 5 assumptions? What are the 5 agents of microevolution? (genetic drift, bottleneck effect, founder’s effect, gene flow, adaptive evolution, Darwinian fitness, female choice) What are the three types of natural selection? (know graphs and how the environment filters out individuals for each) What is sexual dimorphism? What are the 4 reasons evolution doesn’t make perfect organisms? Summarize the main points of the article, “Ecological and Genetic factors in Conservation: A Cautionary Tale.” Chapter 24 – The Origin of Species What are the four concepts for what a species is? (p488-490) What are the prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms? What is allopatric and sympatric speciation? What is adaptive radiation? What is punctuated equilibrium? What is gradualism? Chapter 46 & 47 – Animal Reproduction and Development What are gametes? Zygote? Know the male and female parts discussed in class along with their functions. Know the menstrual cycle and the ovarian cycle. Summarize the reproductive cycle of the human female. Be sure to include the gonadotropins, the ovarian hormone levels, the ovarian cycle and the phases. Know the different types of contraceptives and sterilization processes discussed in class. Know the human embryology discussed in class (egg, morula, blastula, blastomeres, blastocoel, blastopore, blastocyst, archenteron, chorion, amnion, allantois, yolk sac, gastrulation, meroblastic vs. holoblastic cleavage, invagination, involution, embryo, fetus). What is an ultrasound? Amniocentesis? Chorionic villi sampling?