Bio 4 – Study Guide 3

Bio 4 – Study Guide 3
Chapter 12 & 13 – Mitosis and Meiosis
Know the difference between a genome and a gene pool. Know the cell cycle and all the stages. What is binary fission? Know the
phases of mitosis and meiosis (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, interkinesis). Know how they are different from
each other. Know the following structures: centromeres, asters, spindle fibers, cell plate, metaphase plate, cleavage furrow,
kinetochores, chiasma, tetrad, chromatin, chromosome, chromatids, homologous chromosomes. What is haploid vs. diploid? What is
crossing over? What is independent assortment? What controls cell division? What is MPF? Cyclin? Cdk? What is cancer? Know
the different types of sexual and asexual reproduction talked about in class (binary fission, regeneration, fragmentation, budding,
hermaphrodites, parthenogenesis). What are the four sources of sexual variation? What is fertilization? What is a zygote? What is a
karyotype? Compare and contrast mitosis with the first division of meiosis. At what points during meiosis does the potential for
genetic variation occur? Know the information from the article “Closing in on the Centromere”.
Chapter 14 & 15 – Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance
Who is Mendel? What is a trait? Gene? Know the following terms: dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous,
monohybrid, dihybrid, allele, genotype, phenotype, testcross, incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles,, ABO blood
groups, Rh factor, amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling, ultrasound. What are the differences between a recessively inherited and a
dominantly inherited disease? Know the examples discussed in class. Be able to work genetic problems with the correct genotypic
and phenotypic ratios (monohybrid, dihybrid, sex-linked, sex influenced, incomplete dominance, and blood types). What is
nondisjunction? Aneuploidy?
Chapter 22 – Evolution
What is evolution? What is the difference between micro and macroevolution? Who is Darwin? Where did he travel? What
did he discover? What was the name of the ship? What was the name of his book? What is speciation? Who is Plato? Cuvier?
Catastrophism? Hutton? Gradualism? Lyell? Uniformitarianism? Lamarck? Inheritance of acquired traits? What were the two basic
concepts from Darwin’s book? What are the three types of natural selection and know which individuals the environment chooses
against (graphs). Who was Malthus? What are the 5 statements and three conclusions summing up Darwin’s theory (written by
Mayr)? What are the 6 pieces of evidence for evolution?
Chapter 23 – Population Genetics
What is the smallest unit that can evolve? Why? What is a species? Population? What is microevolution? Know the Hardy-Weinberg
equation and how it is used. What are the 5 assumptions? What are the 5 agents of microevolution? (genetic drift, bottleneck effect,
founder’s effect, gene flow, adaptive evolution, Darwinian fitness, female choice) What are the three types of natural selection?
(know graphs and how the environment filters out individuals for each) What is sexual dimorphism? What are the 4 reasons
evolution doesn’t make perfect organisms? Summarize the main points of the article, “Ecological and Genetic factors in
Conservation: A Cautionary Tale.”
Chapter 24 – The Origin of Species
What are the four concepts for what a species is? (p488-490) What are the prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms?
What is allopatric and sympatric speciation? What is adaptive radiation? What is punctuated equilibrium? What is gradualism?
Chapter 46 & 47 – Animal Reproduction and Development
What are gametes? Zygote? Know the male and female parts discussed in class along with their functions. Know the menstrual cycle
and the ovarian cycle. Summarize the reproductive cycle of the human female. Be sure to include the gonadotropins, the ovarian
hormone levels, the ovarian cycle and the phases. Know the different types of contraceptives and sterilization processes discussed in
class. Know the human embryology discussed in class (egg, morula, blastula, blastomeres, blastocoel, blastopore, blastocyst,
archenteron, chorion, amnion, allantois, yolk sac, gastrulation, meroblastic vs. holoblastic cleavage, invagination, involution, embryo,
fetus). What is an ultrasound? Amniocentesis? Chorionic villi sampling?