Holt Physics Chap 1 Highlights

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Holt Physics Chap 1 Highlights
Physics
 A broad field of study that presents an organized way of modeling
and interpreting nature and uses a small number of basic
assumptions and equations to describe the physical world.
Areas Within Physics
 Mechanics
Motion and its causes.
Thermodynamics
 Heat and temperature.
Vibrations and wave phenomena.
 Sound, light, and RF (radio frequency) repetitive motions.
Electromagnetism
 Electricity, magnetism, and light.
Optics
 Light
Relativity
 Particles moving at speeds approaching the speed of light.
Quantum Mechanics
 Subatomic particle behavior.
Scientific Method
 Observations and data collecting are done to:
ask a question
 Hypotheses are formulated and objectively tested by:
experiments
Diagrams
 Drawings that simplify a physical situation by an illustration that
does not include detailed images of the objects.
 Diagrams do not measure an event or a situation.
Models
 Used by physicists to:
explain basic features of a complex phenomena.
are not used to manipulate variables in an experiment.
SI Basic Units of Measurement
 Mass – kg
 Length – meter
 Time – second
Prefixes for units of measurement
 Prefixes are used to easily state very large and very small
numbers. See chap 1 test cover sheet.
 Be able to pick an appropriate prefix for a measurement.
e.g. a tall building would be measured in meters, a
butterfly’s wings would be measured in cm, the length of a
car would be measured in meters.
Precision of Measurement
 The repeatability of the measurement.
 Typically is dependent on the limitations of the measuring
instrument.
Accuracy of Measurement
 How close it is to the accepted value of the measurement.
 The frequency of human error is reduced and the
minimizing of accuracy is reduced by:
o repeating measurements
o using the same method of measurement
maintaining instruments in good working order
Know the Greek letters uses to represent the sum or total and
the change in an amount of numbers.
Know how to add, subtract, divide, and multiply in scientific
notation.
Know how to determine the number of significant figures.
Know how to interpret graphs.
Know the basic equations of different graph shapes.
Know how to do conversions between prefixes in the metric
system.
Know how to determine the resulting unit from given units in
an equation.
e.g. in the expression ( v)2 / x, what is the resultant unit
of measurement?
e.g. what is the dimension (unit of measurement) of the
constant A in the equation x = Av?
Know how to make a diagram and how to arrive at a logical
conclusion.
e.g. how many 1cm3 blocks are there in a 1 m3 volume
block?
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