Defining relative clause

Setting up a business
When you think of setting up a business it
is good to know the following:
 Many large businesses are public limited
companies (plc), which means that the public
can buy and sell their shares on the stock
 The minimum share capital for a public limited
company is 50 000 pounds, so many new
businesses are likely to take one of the following
 Sole trader: this is the simplest way of starting a
business. You are self- employed and entirely
responsible for all aspects of your business.
 Partnership: Two or more people start a
business together. All partners are responsible
for the debts of the partnership, and profits and
losses are shared between them.
 Private Limited Company: a company can be
formed with a minimum of two people becoming
its shareholders. They must appoint a director
and a company secretary. If the company goes
out of business, the responsibility of each
shareholder is limited to the amount that they
have contributed, they have limited liability. Such
a company has a Ltd (Limited) after its name.
When you set up your own business, this
is what you have to do:
 You must generate ideas: what business will
you start?
 Then, when you have an idea, you must adapt it
to make it different to the competition.
 You will need both the technical skills and the
financial skills to maintain control, and you
will need selling skills to generate business.
Business ownership requires tremendous
commitment. Never set up just because you
can’t find a job.
Marketing plan:
 If you have no market, you have no business.
 Product, place, price and promotion are the key
components of marketing.
 Do you have a market for your idea? Who are
your competitors? Why should people use
your product, rather than somebody else’s?
 Financial backers will want evidence of this
market, but you need to convince yourself that
self-employment is a better option than working
for someone else.
 Is your idea financially viable?
 Many good ideas don’t make money. Only by
drawing up a plan will you find out if yours
makes financial sense.
 Minimise your overheads: buy only the
essential equipment.
 If you are going into business with a friend, a
partnership drawn up by a lawyer is vital. A
“gentleman’s agreement” is a thing of the past.
Employing people:
 You can start as a sole trader but as your
business grows you need to take on more staff,
your management structure develops and you
must have sufficient human resources
 Your responsibilities as an employer are many:
you must stick to the employment law, give
equal opportunities to all, equal pay, ensure the
possibility of parental leave, pension, handle
redundancies and deal with retirement.
Protecting your business ideas:
The law is there to protect and safeguard
your intellectual property but you’ll need to
take action to ensure this safety.
Your intellectual property is likely to be
valuable asset so if you have created a
new invention it could be commercially
good to have a patent which will allow you
to control how the invention is exploited.
Prefixes II
The relative clauses
Prefixes can sometimes be added to words to change
their meanings. Match the following prefixes with
their corresponding definitions:
 Inter
 Post
 Bi
 Pre
 Multi
 Ex
 More than one, many
 Later than, after
 Before, in preparation
 Former and still living
 Between, among a
 Two, twice, double
Match the prefixes form the previous slide
(inter, post, bi, pre, multi, ex) with the words
 ____ lingual
 ____ lingual
 ____ date
 ____ date
 ____ arranged
 ____ national
 ____ national
 ____ director
 ____ graduate
 ____ personal
 ____ husband
 ____ annual
Relative clauses are divided in two
 Defining relative clause: it gives vital
information and it is essential to the meaning of
the sentence.
e.g. : The company is compiling a library of
software components that companies can then
slot together.
 Non-defining relative clause: it gives us extra
information which is not essential to understand
the main point of the sentence.
e.g. : Apricot, which ran a version of
Microsoft’s operating system, had a particular
Look at the following sentences and decide
whether they are defining or non-defining:
The design that we selected was in fact the most
expensive. ____
Wayne Calloway, who is from our Glasgow office, will
be making a presentation of the new project. ____
The new investment plan, which was announced on
Wednesday, will take five years to complete. ___
The manager who made the mistake lost his job.___
This is Jane Stewart, whose company manufactures
computer software. ____
The Marketing Department is the one whose
contribution has been the most significant this year.
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