Lesson IV

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PREFACE
New Second Steps in Latin continues the sequence begun by New First Steps (Focus Publishing,
2000). It is a text for young adolescents who are learning Latin by the grammar-translation method. As we
wrote in the Teacher’s Manual for New First Steps, “We have chosen the grammar/translation method to
teach Latin because it exercises uniquely the linguistic skills involved in building categories and forming
expectations about individual words, phrases, whole sentences, and texts.”
In New Second Steps, the student’s syntactical horizon expands. The various pronouns,
complementary infinitives, and indirect statement make longer, more complex, and more idiomatic
sentences possible. Additional genitive, dative, and ablative constructions and subordinating conjunctions
also allow the student to experience the expression of complex relationships between elements of a
sentence and between ideas.
With this advanced syntax available to us, we were able to base many of our sentences on ancient
authors. In some cases, we have been able to quote an author’s words with no or minimal change; when we
have done so, we indicate the source.
Vocabulary in New Second Steps is based on Cicero, Vergil, Ovid, and Pliny. New Second Steps
adds about 230 words to the 150 in New First Steps.
New Second Steps includes an important feature, chapters devoted to reading connected prose
(Chapters VII, XII, XVII, XXII, XXVII, and XXX). We believe that reading narrative in Latin requires
skills in addition to those necessary for reading sentences, and that these skills can be systematically taught.
In the reading chapters we have used the well-known story of Perseus adapted from Fabulae Faciles to
develop these skills.
Together, New First Steps and New Second Steps make up a two-year sequence for middle school
students or perhaps a one-year sequence for high school classes. We intend to follow New Second Steps
with New Third Steps, which will complete the basic morphology and syntax of Latin and prepare students
to read Cicero, Ovid, Pliny, Vergil, and other ancient authors.
It is a pleasure here to renew our thanks to those who have made New Second Steps possible. The
Episcopal Academy’s Class of 1944 continued its generous support of the New Steps in Latin project. Jay
Crawford, Jon Kulp, and other members of Episcopal’s administration allowed us to devote time and
energy to this project and energized us by their belief in it. Martha Gimbel read and evaluated many of the
sentences in New Second Steps. Ron Pullins and his staff at Focus Publishing have followed the
outstanding job that they did with New First Steps with the elegantly produced volume in your hands.
Finally, we are grateful to our students in Episcopal’s Middle and Upper Schools, whose enthusiasm for
Latin and efforts to learn it have made the New Steps project both exciting and necessary.
The Episcopal Academy Classics Department
Michael Klaassen, Mary Allen, Tim Kent,
Elizabeth Klaassen, Molly Konopka,
Lee Pearcy
It is assumed that students have a thorough knowledge of the contents of New First Steps as follows:
I. Vocabulary: All Words Listed in New First Steps
II. Forms:
a) All Regular Declensions of Nouns
b) All Regular Declensions of Adjectives
c) All Regular Conjugations of Verbs in the Indicative, Active and Passive
d) the Irregular Verb sum
III. Syntax:
a) Agreement
1. First Rule of Concord: Agreement of Subject and Verb
2. Second Rule of Concord: Agreement of Adjective and Noun
3. Agreement of Appositives
4. Agreement of Predicate Noun, Predicate Adjective and Subject
b) Uses of Cases
1. Nominative:
a) Subject
b) Predicate Noun
c) Predicate Adjective
2. Genitive:
a) Possession
b) often translated by “of”
3. Dative:
a) Indirect Object
b) with Certain Adjectives
c) often translated by “to” or “for”
4. Accusative:
a) Direct Object
b) Motion Towards or Place To Which (ad, in)
c) Duration of Time or Time How Long
d) with Certain Prepositions (ad, in)
5. Ablative:
a) Means or Instrument
b) Personal Agent (with , ab)
c) Accompaniment (with cum)
d) Place Where or In Which (in, pr, sub)
e) Motion Away From or Place From Which (, ab, d, , ex)
f) Time When
g) with Certain Prepositions (, ab, cum, d, , ex, in, pr, sine, sub)
1
CONTENTS
Lessons
Pages
I.
Demonstratives: Is, Ea, Id and dem, Eadem, Idem
2
II.
Personal Pronouns; Cum as Enclitic
4
III.
Participles
6
IV.
Infinitives; Complementary Infinitive
8
V.
Review I-IV; FYI: Compounds of Ag
10
VI.
Hic, Haec, Hoc; Formation of Adverbs
12
VII.
Reading: Connected Prose; Perseus 1 and 2
14
VIII.
Regular Comparison of Adjectives; Quam; Ablative of Comparison
16
IX.
Irregular Comparison of Adjectives; Ablative of Degree of Difference
18
X.
Review VI-IX; FYI: Prefixes: dis-, ante-, post20
XI.
Ille, Illa, Illud and Iste,Ista, Istud; Cause: Ob or Propter with Accusative and Ablative of Cause
22
XII.
Reading: Connecting Ideas; Perseus 3 and 4
24
XIII.
Possum; Uses of Infinitives: Accusative and Infinitive with iube and vet, Subject, Object
26
XIV.
Reflexive Pronouns and Adjectives; Cum as Enclitic; Eius, Erum, Erum
28
XV.
Review XI-XIV; FYI: The Compounds Possum and Nm
30
XVI.
Relative Pronoun: Qu, Quae, Quod; Antecedent and Third Rule of Concord; Cum as Enclitic
32
XVII. Reading: One Thing at a Time; Perseus 5 and 6
34
XVIII. Deponent Verbs
36
XIX.
Fer; Ablative of Manner
38
XX.
Review XVI-XIX; FYI: Compounds of Fer and Sequor
40
XXI.
Vol, Nl, Ml; List of Verbs with Complementary Infinitives
42
XXII. Reading: Dividing the Sentence (1); Perseus 7 and 8
44
XXIII. Indirect Statement: Accusative and Infinitive with Introductory Verb in the Present Tense
46
XXIV. Indirect Statement with Introductory Verb in Various Tenses; Pronoun Subjects
48
XXV. Review XXI-XXIV; List of Introductory Verbs for Indirect Statement; FYI: Compounds of Sum and Vol 50
XXVI. E; Ipse, Ipsa, Ipsum
52
XXVII. Reading: Dividing the Sentence (2); Perseus 9 and 10
54
XXVIII. Comparison of Adverbs; Comparison with Magis and Maxim; Quam with the Superlative
56
XXIX. Adjectives with Genitive in –us and Dative in –; Cardinal Numbers 1-10, 100; Ordinal Numbers
58
XXX. Review Lessons XXVI-XXIX; FYI: Compounds of E; Perseus 11
60
APPENDIX
Rules of Syntax
Regular Verb Conjugations: Indicative, Participles and Infinitives
Irregular Verb Conjugations: Indicative, Participles and Infinitives
Deponent Verbs: Indicative, Participles and Infinitives
Noun Declensions
Adjective Declensions
Comparison: Adjectives and Adverbs
Pronoun Declensions
Demonstratives and Intensive
Numbers
Classified Vocabulary
Latin - English Vocabulary
English - Latin Vocabulary
Index
1
62
67
70
72
74
74
76
77
77
79
80
86
95
103
Lesson I
DEMONSTRATIVES: IS, EA, ID AND DEM, EADEM, IDEM
A DEMONSTRATIVE is used to point out a person or thing for special attention.
is, ea, id that, those; this, these; or he, she, it, they
Singular
Plural
Masculine Feminine
Neuter
Masculine Feminine
Nom. is
ea
id
e
eae
Gen. eius
eius
eius
erum
erum
Dat.
e
e
e
es
es
Acc. eum
eam
id
es
es
Abl.
e
e
e
es
es
Neuter
ea
erum
es
ea
es
Demonstratives may be used as adjectives or as pronouns.
As an adjective, is,
ea, id agrees with the noun it modifies in case, number, and gender:
is puer that boy; eius mtris of that mother; ea verba those words
As a pronoun, is,
ea, id takes the number and gender of the noun it replaces:
Eum puerum am. I love that boy.
Es mtrs vocat.
He calls those mothers.
Ea verba audvimus. We heard those words.
The pronoun is,



Eum am.
Es vocat.
Ea audvimus.
I love him.
He calls them.
We heard them.
ea, id in the nominative case is used to emphasize the subject or to indicate a change of subject.
dem, eadem, idem the same
Singular
Masculine
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
dem
eiusdem

eundem
edem
Feminine
Neuter
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
eadem
eiusdem
edem
eandem
edem
idem
eiusdem
edem
idem

edem
erundem
esdem
esdem
esdem
eaedem
erundem
esdem
esdem
esdem
eadem
erundem
esdem
eadem
esdem

dem, eadem, idem is the demonstrative is, ea, id with the suffix -dem. Note, however, the following changes:
Change a final -m in the forms of is, ea, id to -n- before adding the suffix.
The masculine singular nominative drops the final -s of is and lengthens the vowel.
The neuter singular nominative and accusative drop the final -d of id before the suffix -dem.
Edem di idem vdimus. We saw the same (thing) on the same day.
2
Vocabulary I
Demonstratives
Conjunctions
dem, eadem, idem the same
is, ea, id
that, those; this, these; he, she, it, they
autem
enim
etiam
nam
2nd Conjugation Verbs
arde, ardre, ars, arsrus
burn, blaze; be inflamed
habe, habre, habu, habitum have, hold; consider
2nd Declension Nouns
equus, -, m. horse
socius, -, m. ally
however, but; moreover
for (postpositive)*
even, also
for
3rd Declension Noun
tempus, tempris, n. time
*A postpositive word does not begin a clause.
Exercise I
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Is rx erat amcus et socius Rmnrum.
That king was a friend and ally of the Romans.
Eius etiam domus prm lce ardbit.
His home also will burn at dawn.
E equ habentur bon.
Those horses are considered good.
Is rtus equus onera multa portbat.
That angry horse was carrying many burdens.
Id onus est magnum; serv autem id portbunt.
That burden is large; however, slaves will carry it.
dem equus  duce nostr captus est.
The same horse was captured by our leader.
Eum nn habbimus ducem, nam est amcus malrum.
We will not have him (as) leader, for he is the friend of wicked people.
Mare arsit e ann. (Livy 23.31.15)
In that year the sea burned.
Edem tempore etiam socius erum erat.
At the same time also he was their ally.
Msimus mlits, nam eaedem gents in bella surgbant.
We sent soldiers, for the same tribes were causing an insurrection [lit. rising into wars].
Mults anns rgs urbem Rmam haburunt.
For many years kings held the city Rome.
Rx et rgna mults nvs in mar haburunt, cvs enim eius rgn erant nautae bon.
The king and queen had many ships on the sea, for the citizens of that kingdom were good sailors.
That king held Rome for many years.
Is rx Rmam anns mults habuit.
The books of these girls are burning.
Libr erum puellrum ardent.
We gave many horses to his allies.
Mults equs eius socis dedimus.
At the same time many houses were burning in that city.
Edem tempore multae doms in e urbe ardbant.
The soldiers were placing all (their) hope in the horses, for they were swift.
Mlits omnem spem in equs ponbant, e enim erant celers. (Use pronoun for change of subject.)
We consider the same things good.
Eadem bona/ esdem rs bons habmus.
The same burdens used to make the slaves tired.
Eadem onera servs fesss facibant.
At that time the name of the Romans was great, for they seemed to rule all nations.
E tempore nmen Rmnrum erat magnum, omns enim gents regere vs sunt.
His horse has fled, for the slaves punished it because it had destroyed a field.
Eius equus fgit, nam serv eum pnvrunt quod is agrum dlverat.
My brother, however, will give him a good horse, for he has many.
Meus frter autem e equum bonum dabit, mults enim habet.
The allies of the Romans have good horses, but they will not give them to the Romans.
Soci Rmnrum bons equs habent sed es Rmns nn dabunt.
We will take the horses of the allies and make them ours, for we are masters of many lands.
Equs socirum capimus et es nostrs facimus, nam sumus domin terrrum multrum.
3
Lesson II
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
The first and second person pronouns occur in all five cases, and are used like nouns.
FIRST PERSON
Singular
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
ego
me
mihi
m
m
Plural
ns
nostr, nostrum
nbs
ns
nbs
I
of me
to / for me
me
(from) me
we
of us
to / for us
us
(from) us
SECOND PERSON
Singular
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
t
tu
tibi
t
t
Plural
vs
vestr, vestrum
vbs
vs
vbs
you
of you
to / for you
you
(from) you
you
of you
to / for you
you
(from) you
Is, ea, id can be used as the third person pronoun.
Personal Pronouns in the Nominative
Personal pronouns in the nominative are used to emphasize the subject of the sentence.
Ego rgem vd. I saw the king.
Ns rgem vdimus.
T rgem vdist. You saw the king.
Vs rgem vdistis.
We saw the king.
You saw the king.
Personal pronouns are used in compound subjects as follows. Note the person and the number of the verb.
Ego et t sumus amc.
You and I (=we) are friends.
1st + 2nd person subjects  1st pl. verb
Ego et puer sumus amc. The boy and I (=we) are friends. 1st + 3rd person subjects  1st pl. verb
T et Caesar estis amc. You and Caesar (=you) are friends. 2nd + 3rd person subjects  2nd pl. verb
In English compound subjects, the first person comes last: “you and I” or “my father and I.”
In Latin compound subjects, the first person comes first: “ego et t” or “ego et pater.”
Cum with the First and Second Person Pronouns
The preposition cum, when used with a personal pronoun, becomes enclitic: it is attached to the end of the personal
pronoun to form one word.
mcum with me
nbscum with us
tcum with you
vbscum with you
4
Vocabulary II
3rd Declension Nouns
mns, mentis (-ium), f. mind; intention
ignis, ignis, (-ium) m. fire
hostis, hostis, (-ium) m. enemy
fnis, fnis, (-ium) m.
end; in plural, territory
Adverb
modo only, just
nn modo...sed etiam not only...but also
Pronouns
ego, me
I, me
ns, nostr / nostrum we, us
t, tu
you (sg.)
vs, vestr / vestrum you (pl.)
Conjunctions
aut
or
aut...aut
either...or
dum (+ present indicative) while
Exercise II
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
 nbs urbs dlta erat.
The city had been destroyed by us
Nostr fns ad vestra flmina tendunt.
Our territory extends to your rivers.
Ego tibi multa dna ded, nam t m ambs.
I gave you many gifts, for you were loving me.
T mihi verba sapientia potae dxist.
You told me the wise words of the poet.
Tua ra in m fuerat magna.
Your anger against me had been great.
Eius ments sunt amcae mihi, sed nn tibi.
His intentions are friendly to me, but not to you.
Dum ns in urbe ignem sacrum servmus, vs in mar cum nvibus hostium pugntis.
While we are protecting the holy fire in the city, you are fighting on the sea with the ships of the enemy.
Omnia mala  t mente tu sapient cernentur.
All evils will be perceived by you with your wise mind.
Vs aut in taliam tenditis aut bellum es gentibus partis.
Either you areproceeding into Italy or preparing war for those tribes.
Quod iter longum est, ns in camp manbimus.
Because the journey is long, we will remain in the plain.
Vs cum es ex ingent camp in alts monts exercitum dcmin.
You will be led with them from the vast plain into the high mountains.
Ego eum audv, surrx, sed verbum d r nn fc.
I heard him, got up, but did not say a word about the affair.
He warned us about the intentions of the enemy.
Ns d mentibus hostium monuit.
Your letters to them were seized by us at night.
Tuae epistulae ad es nocte  nbs captae sunt.
You concealed your evil intentions with friendly words.
Tegist tus ments mals amcs verbs.
The enemy will be captured with us by them.
Hosts nbscum ab es capientur.
While the fire burns, we will remain in the mountains.
Dum ignis ardet, in montibus manbimus.
While it is night the enemy will carry the bodies away from our walls.
Dum nox est, hosts corpora  nostrs murs portbunt.
In that year you(sg), our enemy, wrote letters to the tribes.
Tu, noster hostis, e ann epistuls ad gents scrpsist
You (pl), not they, sent the letters out of the city with your men.
Vs, nn e, epistuls ex urbe cum vestrs virs msistis.
(Our) slaves were carrying the fire for us, because the horses were terrified by it.
Serv igns nbs portbant, quod equ e terrbantur/ terrt sunt.
Not only do we love you (sg), but we also praise your rivers and mountains.
Nn modo t ammus, sed etiam flmina montsque tus laudmus.
I will either come with you, or I will send a messenger to you.
Aut tcum veniam aut ad t nntium mittam.
They used to flee from us by day, but they were seized by us at night.
Di  nbs fugibant, sed nocte  nbs capt sunt.
5
Lesson III
PARTICIPLES
PARTICIPLES are verbal adjectives.
Active
Pres. 1st and 2nd conj.: present stem + -ns, -ntis
3rd and 4th conj.: present stem + -- + -ns,
amns, amantis
monns, monentis
dcns, dcentis
capins, capientis
audins, audientis
Passive
-ntis
NO FORM
leading
perfect passive stem + -us,
Perf.
amtus, -a, -um
monitus, -a, -um
ductus, -a, -um
captus, -a, -um
audtus, -a, -um
NO FORM
-a, -um
amtrus, -a, -um
monitrus, -a, -um
ductrus, -a, -um
about to, going to lead
captrus, -a, -um
audtrus, -a, -um
futrus, -a, -um
Note that sum has only a future active participle: futrus, -a, -um.
Fut.
-a, -um
led, having been led
perfect passive stem + -r- + -us,
(to be discussed later)
The present participle is a 3rd declension adjective of one termination declined like ingns, ingentis.
The future active and perfect passive participles are 1st / 2nd declension adjectives declined like bonus,
-a, -um.
Because participles are adjectives, they agree with the words that they modify in case, number, and gender and may be
used substantively. Because participles are verbs, they can take objects.
rx dcns, rgis dcentis the leading king, of the leading king
fugients fleeing (ones) = fugitives
potae scrptr librs the poets about to write books
Tenses of the Participle
The present active participle expresses action taking place at the same time as the main verb.
sede. I sit writing the book.
I sit while I am writing the book.
Scrbns librum sd.
I sat writing the book.
I sat while I was writing the book.
The perfect passive participle expresses action completed before the time of the main verb.
vide.
I see the captured city.
I see the city which has been captured.
Urbem captam vd.
I saw the captured city.
I saw the city which had been captured.
.
The future active participle expresses action that will be completed after the time of the main verb.
audit.
The girl about to speak listens.
The girl who is about to speak listens.
Puella dictra audvit. The girl about to speak listened.
The girl who was about to speak listened.
6
Vocabulary III
1st Declension Nouns
fma, -ae, f.
rumor; reputation; glory
flamma, -ae, f. flame
fortna, -ae, f. fortune, luck
fuga, -ae, f.
flight, escape
grtia, -ae, f.
favor; (in plural) thanks
invidia, -ae, f. envy; hatred
vta, -ae, f.
life
3rd Conjugation Verbs
ag, agere, g, actum
do; drive; treat, deal with
agere d (+ ablative)
talk about, debate about
grtis agere (+ dative) give thanks, thank
vtam agere
lead a life
pet, petere, petv, pettum seek; ask for
Adverbs
crs
tomorrow
heri
yesterday
hodi today
Exercise III
A. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Epistulae  t scrptae dlbuntur.
The letters written by you will be destroyed.
Longam vtam nn sine mults amcs git.
He led a long life not without many friends.
Nostrae sorrs captae mans tendents vtam petbant.
Our captured sisters, stretching forth their hands, were begging for their life.
Soci invidi ardents, grtis nbs nn agent.
Burning with envy, the allies will not give thanks to us.
Ego et t equs onera porttrs vdimus.
You and I saw the horses about to carry the burdens.
Heri serv fgrunt; hodi domin fugients petunt.
Yesterday the slaves ran away; today the masters are looking for the fugitives.
Fuga puellrum et servrum mihi misera vidbtur.*
The escape of the girls and slaves seemed wretched to me.
Heri modo t mihi dna dedist; hodi ego tibi grtis ag; crs tibi amcus er.
Only yesterday you gave me gifts; today I thank you; tomorrow I will be friendly to you.
Puerum multa agentem nn vdimus, is enim in urbem fgerat.
We did not see the boy doing many things, for he had fled into the city
T et soci tu aut cum hostibus pugnbitis aut  nbs fugitis.
You and your allies will either fight with the enemy or flee from us.
Dum nmina derum sacra habmus, e nbs amc erunt.
While we consider the names of the gods sacred, they will be friendly to us.
Mihi d trist fortn omnium gentium  Rmns rectrum scrpsist.
You wrote to me about the sad fortune of all the tribes ruled by the Romans.
* The passive of vide,
B. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
-re, vd, vsum, may mean “seem, appear.”
Girls and boys do not lead the same life.
Puellae puerque eandem vtam nn agunt.
A good mind does not fear bad fortune.
Mns bona malam fornam nn timet.
The sailors, however, have fled because they have ships.
Nautae, autem, fgrunt quod nvs habent.
We will lead the horses carrying burdens out of the city.
Equs onera portants/s ex urbe ducmus.
Many things have been written about men seeking favor.
Multa [ multae rs] d virs gratiam petentibus scrpta [ scrptae] sunt.
Yesterday they were all singing; today, however, they are asking for (their) life.
Heri omns cantbant; hodi, tamen, vtam petunt.
Today we seek fame, but tomorrow we will fear the envy of all our friends.
Hodi famam petimus, sed crs invidiam omnium amcrum nostrrum timbimus.
While the horses were wandering in the woods, the soldiers did not have hope of escape.
Dum equ in silvs errant, mlits spem fugae nn haburunt.
We not only saw fire destroying homes, but also flames burning on the mountains.
Nn modo ignem doms delentem vdimus sed etiam flamms in montibus ardents/s.
Because our minds were being directed (use tend) towards small things, the teachers, moved by anger, punished us.
Quod ments nostrae ad rs parvs tendbantur, magistr, r mt, ns pnvrunt.
All the allies of the Romans will give thanks to us because we have waged many wars against the enemies of Rome.
Omns soci Rmnrum grtis nbs agent, [ns] autem multa bella in hosts Rmae gessimus.
Either we will accept the misfortunes of life with a strong heart, or we will be destroyed by the waves of bad fortune.
Aut cass vtae pectore fort accipimus aut dlbimur flctibus malae fortnae.
7
Lesson IV
INFINITIVES
INFINITIVES are verbal nouns, which may be used as subjects or objects. They have tense and voice, but not person or
number. They may take objects, or be modified by adverbs. A FINITE VERB has a personal ending; an infinitive has no
personal ending.
Active
Passive
Pres. 2nd principal part
1st, 2nd and 4th conj.: present stem + -r
3rd conj.: 2nd principal part minus -ere + -
amre
monre
dcere
capere
audre
esse
Perf.
Fut.
amr
monr
dc
to be led
cap
audr
to lead
perfect active stem + -isse
perfect passive participle + esse
amvisse
monuisse
dxisse to have led
cpisse
audvisse
fuisse
amtus, -a, -um esse
monitus, -a, -um esse
ductus, -a, -um esse to have been led
captus, -a, -um esse
audtus, -a, -um esse
4th principal part (always –um) + r
future active participle + esse
amtrus, -a, -um esse
monitrus, -a, -um esse
ductrus, -a, -um esse to be about to lead
captrus, -a, -um esse
audtrus, -a, -um esse
futrus, -a, -um esse
amtum r
monitum r
ductum r to be about to be led
captum r
audtum r
The COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVE completes the meaning of another verb. Verbs of wishing, deciding, beginning, etc.
and the passive forms of verbs of saying and thinking often take complementary infinitives.
Pugnre cnstituit. He decided to fight.
Pugnvisse puttur. He is thought to have fought.
The infinitives of transitive verbs may take objects.
Nvem mittere cnstituit. He decided to send a ship.
In the future active and perfect passive infinitives, the participle, declined like bonus,
subject of the clause in case, number, and gender.
Nvs missae esse dcuntur.
Puella epistulam scrptra esse dcitur.
-a, -um, agrees with the
The ships are said to have been sent.
The girl is said to be about to write a letter.
8
Vocabulary IV
nd
2 Declension Nouns
locus, -, m.
place
pl. loca, locrum, n.
arma, -rum, n.
arms
arma capere,
take up arms
castra, -rum, n.
camp
rd
3 Declension Noun
moenia, -ium, n.
walls
Verbs taking a Complementary Infinitive
put, putre, putv, puttum
think; consider
cnstitu, cnstituere, cnstitu, cnstittum decide; determine; establish
incipi, incipere, incp, inceptum
begin
Exercise IV
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Soci bellum in hosts parre incipiunt.
The allies are beginning to prepare war against the enemy.
Dum hosts in castrs sunt, omnia dlbantur.
While the enemy were in camp, all things were [everything was] being destroyed.
Vta mlitis misera esse dcitur, nam nn longa est.
The life of a soldier is said to be miserable, for it is not long.
Moenia ex castrs ad aquam dcere incipiunt.
They begin to lead walls from the camp to the water.
Audx in rbus difficilibus esse puttur.
He is thought to be bold in times of trouble [lit. difficult circumstances].
Ego  t rogta mults epistuls man me scrbam.
Asked by you, I will write many letters with my own hand.
Territ sumus, nam tla ardentia in nostrs nvs mittere cnstituit.
We were terrified, for he decided to send burning javelins against our ships.
Heri prts pnre incpisse puttus es, sed hodi lber sunt.
Yesterday you were thought to have begun to punish the pirates, but today they are free.
Fma fugae erum ab hostibus audta esse puttur.
Rumor of their escape is thought to have been heard by the enemy.
Is ad bellum socirum ventrus esse dcitur.
He is said to be about to come to the war of the allies.
In e loc arma capere et castra hostium dlre cnstituistis.
You decided to take up arms in that place and to destroy the enemy’s camp.
Edem fratrs ad Olympum tendents montem in monte pnbant.
The same brothers, striving towards Olympus, were placing mountain on mountain.*
* This refers to a Greek myth of the Aloadae, twin giants named Otus and Ephialtes, who tried to climb to Olympus by
piling up three mountains, filling the sea with land.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Huge waves were beginning to rise.
Flcts ingents surgere incipibant.
You will lead the frightened horse to that place.
Equum terrtum ad eum locum ducs.
The water is thought to be about to cover the fields.
Aqua agrs tectra esse puttur.
The mountains stretching towards the sea are high.
Monts ad mare tendents sunt alt.
They were beginning to carry water onto the ships.
Aquam in nvs/s portre incipibant.
You (pl) have decided to give many gifts to your friends.
Dna multa amcs vestrs dare constituistis.
He had decided to conceal his bad intentions.
Ments mals tegere constituerat.
I was thought to have remained on the bridge with our allies.
In ponte cum socis nostrs mnsisse puttus sum.
Their queen is thought to have been sent to a guarded place.
Erum rgna ad locum servtum missa esse puttur.
Having been ruled by kings for many years, the city was wretched.
Urbs,  rgibus mults anns recta, erat misera.
He was thought to have been loved by you, for you used to send messengers to his house.
 t amtus esse puttus est, nam nntis ad eius domum mittbs.
We had begun to have hope because the teacher was teaching us many useful things.
Spem habre incpermus, quod magister ns multa tilia [ mults rs utils] docbat.
9
Lesson V
review
Vocabulary I - IV
put
autem
vta
vs
socius
enim

begin
envy
flame
either...or
for
burn
s
arma
nam
fma
heri
mns

moenia
locus
equus
habe 
 
hodi 
thanks
camp
decide
yesterday
fire
you (pl.)
today
mind
while
rumor
not only...but also
aut
ns

 

 
arde 

is
dem
fnis
fuga



tis
castra
n modo...sed etiam
arms
horse
we
that
drive
seek
think
flight
the same
place
tomorrow
ally



dum
aut...aut

hostis
ns
walls
for
you (sg.)
life
moreover
end
have
even
enemy
fortune
territory
or

I. Replace the underlined words with is, ea, id and dem, eadem, idem.
1. Fliam magistr ad flmen ms.
3. Puers gratis ag.
5. Rgna invidiam derum timbat.
eius, eiusdem
es, esdem
I sent the teacher’s daughter to the river. I give thanks to the boys.
2. Librs ab mtre me accprunt.
4. Multa verba socis dxit.
es, esdem; e, edem
They received books from my mother.
erum, erundem
The queen feared the hatred of the goddesses.
6. Exercitus nvs derat.
Ea, Eadem
es, esdem
He spoke many words to the allies. The army had seen the ships.
II. Modify the underlined words with is, ea, id and dem, eadem, idem.
1. F audv.
3. In castrs manbimus
5. Liber eius verba habet.
eam, eandem
I heard the rumor.
2. Puer librum haburunt.
es, esdem
We will remain in camp.
4. Prtae ns terrent.
ea ,eadem
The book has its words.
6. s puellae gimus.
eum,eundem
E, edem
The boys had a book.
The pirates frighten us.
III. Translate all the pronouns into Latin. Use any necessary prepositions.
1. I will give you a present.
4. He was saved by them.
Ego, tibi/ vbs
Is, ab es
2. We will guard the city with you.
3. You and I saw the ghost.
Nōs, tcum, vbscum
Ego, t/vs
IV. Translate the underlined participle phrases.
e, edem
We thanked the girls.
5. The girls were talking to us.
nbs
6. The citizens praise you (pl.) and us.
vs,nōs
1. The soldier sitting on the horse wandered from the way. 4. They destroyed the camp set up in that place.
Mls in equ sdens
castra in e loc posita
2. We carry the allies wounded with javelins into camp.
socis tls vulnerts
5. About to write a letter, my mother was sitting.
Scrptra mter mea
3. The horses, terrified by the flames, fled into the forest.
Equ flamms terrt
6. Rolling waves rose up because of the mighty wind.
Flcts volvents
V. Give the six infinitives of habe and cnstitu.
habre (to have); habuisse (to have had); habitrus esse (to be about to have);
habr (to be held); habitus esse (to have been held); habitum r (to be about to be held)
constituere (to decide); constituisse (to have held); constitutrus esse(to be about to decide);
constitu (to be established); constittus esse (to have been established; constittum r (to be about to be established).
VI. Name the tense and translate the underlined infinitives.
1. The city is said to have been destroyed by fire.
dlta esse
2. Our allies were thought to be about to flee.
fugitr esse
3. This god is considered to be our ally.
esse
4. The enemies are reported to have been seen.
vs esse
5. They decided to shelter the wounded.
tegere
6. He is said to have risen from the dead.
surrxisse
10
For Your Information
COMPOUNDS OF AG
Many verbs in Latin serve as bases to which prefixes are added to modify their meanings.
One of these is ag, agere, g, actum do; drive; treat, deal with.
cum + agg, cgere, cog, coactum
drive together, gather; force, compel.
ex + ag exg, exgere, exg, exactum
drive out
re + ag redg, g, redactum drive back
Exercise V
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Umbrae in silvs vsae es terrurunt.
Shadows seen in the woods frightened them.
Pr socis mes gratis mults tibi ag.
I give you many thanks on behalf of my allies.
M mea fortna servvit.
My fortune saved me.
Ea loca mihi tibique sacra habentur.
These places are considered sacred to you and me.
Rogtus librum tibi scrbbam.
Having been asked, I was writing you a book.
Epistulam scrbam, frter enim meus eam accipere ambit.
I will write a letter, for my brother will like to receive it.
Heri es equs  castrs dcere cnstituimus, nam e erant aegr.
Yesterday we decided to lead those horses out of camp, for they were sick.
Mlits  t miss fmam nntivrunt.
The soldiers sent by you reported the rumor.
Fuga hostium nbs pugnantibus nntita est.
The flight of the enemy was announced to us (as we were) fighting.
Nn bona dicta puellae meae nntibitis.
You will report not good words to my girl.
Hosts nostr, autem, ns vidents, esdem equs cprunt.
Our enemies, however, seeing us, seized the same horses.
Nn modo flamms, sed etiam aqus surgentibus moenia dlbantur.
The walls were being destroyed not only by flames but also by rising waters.
Voices announcing the end of the war were heard.
Vcs fnem bell nntiants audtae sunt.
In the minds of many, anger and envy are similar.
In mentibus multrum, ra invidiaque sunt simils.
His life is held dear by (his) many friends.
Eius vta ab amcs mults cara habtur.
While the fires burn in the woods, we will save our houses.
Dum igns in silvs ardent, doms nostrs servbimus.
But you (sg), blazing with great anger, will fight with them.
Sed t, r magn ardens, cum es pugnbis.
The burning fires announced the evil deeds of the enemies.
Igns ardents facta mala hostium nntivrunt.
Our soldiers, wounded by the weapons of the enemy, are beginning to flee.
Mlits nostr tls hostium vulnert fugere incipiunt.
At that wretched time you and Marcus were friends on all my journeys.
E tempore miser t et Marcus erant amc in omnibus itineribus mes.
We decided to flee, for we had seen the enemy about to capture the ships.
Fugere constituimus, nam hosts nvs captrs vdermus.
Yesterday you were holding back your anger, but today you have taken up arms.
Heri ram tuam tenbs, sed hodi arma cpist.
Many difficult things are thought to have been done on the same day.
Multa difficilia [ Multae rs difficils]* edem di facta[factae] esse putantur.
We have decided to give thanks to the god of the city, for he has saved us.
De urbis grtis agere constituimus, nam is ns servvit.
*Henceforth we will give either the neuter plural or rs where both are acceptable.
11
Lesson VI
DEMONSTRATIVES: HIC, HAEC, HOC
FORMATION OF ADVERBS
hic, haec, hoc this, these
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
hic
huius
huic
hunc
hc
haec
huius
huic
hanc
hc
hoc
huius
huic
hoc
hc
h
hrum
hs
hs
hs
hae
hrum
hs
hs
hs
haec
hrum
hs
haec
hs
Demonstratives may be used as adjectives or pronouns.
As an adjective, hic,
haec, hoc agrees with the noun it modifies in case, number, and gender:
hic puer this boy; huius mtris of this mother; haec verba these words
As a pronoun, hic,
haec, hoc takes the number and gender of the noun it replaces:
Hunc librum am.
I love this book.
 Hunc am.
I love this (one).
Hs epistuls msit.
He sent these letters.  Hs msit.
He sent these.
Haec verba audvimus. We heard these words.  Haec audvimus. We heard these (things).
Formation of Adverbs
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs do not decline.
1st / 2nd declension adjectives usually form adverbs by adding - to the stem:
altus, -a, -um deep
aeger, aegra, aegrum sick


altaegr-
3rd declension adjectives often form adverbs by adding
and -ter for audx:
cer, cris, cre keen, sharp
sapins, sapientis wise
x, audcis bold
alt
deeply
aegr painfully, with difficulty
-iter to the stem; -er for adjectives ending in -ns;
cr criter
sapint-  sapienter
c-  audcter
keenly, sharply
wisely
boldly
The following adverbs are formed irregularly:
bonus, -a, -um good
malus, -a, -um bad
parvus, -a, -um small
magnus, -a, -um great




bene
male
parum
magnpere
well
badly, poorly
too little, not enough
greatly
A few adverbs are simply the accusative neuter singular or ablative neuter singular form:
prmus, -a, -um first
 prm
at first
multus, -a, -um much, many  multum
much
facilis, -e easy
 facile
easily
Adverbs not following these patterns will be given as vocabulary.
12
Vocabulary VI
Adverbs
bene
long
magnopere
multum
parum
prm
aegr
well
far
greatly
much
too little
at first
painfully, with difficulty
Demonstrative
hic, haec, hoc this, these
3rd Declension Noun
comes, comitis, m. companion
Exercise VI
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
In hc loc aegr mnserant.
They had stayed in this place with difficulty.
Hae sunt meae fliae amtae.
These are my beloved daughters.
Prm soci nbs mults gratis grunt.
At first the allies gave many thanks to us.
Hc hr mlits fidem ducibus mnstrre constituunt.
At this hour the soldiers are deciding to show loyalty to (their) leaders.
Ns nostraque facta parum laudtis, quod multum fcimus.
You are praising us and our deeds too little, because we have done a lot.
Comits huius long  port mnsisse dcuntur.
The comrades of this man are said to have stayed far from the gate.
Prm haec omnia mihi tilia esse vsa sunt.
At first all these things seemed to be useful to me.
Ns d hs misers virs rgem interficere parantibus monuist.
You warned us about these wretched men (who were) preparing to kill the king.
Hic sapienter et bene ns iter longum factrs monet.
This man advises us, about to make a long journey, wisely and well.
Hic socius ad m e nocte vnit, quod e hs epistuls mittere magnopere timbam.
This ally came to me during that night, because I was greatly afraid to send these letters to him.
M multum ambunt, tla enim capins erum urbem audacter servb.
They will love me a lot, for, taking up arms, I will save their city boldly.
Equus dem in agr  nbs vsus ex hostium manibus fgerat.
The same horse, seen in the field by us, had fled out of the hands of the enemy.
These are your (sg.) words.
Haec sunt verba tua.
These songs were sung well by our companion.
Haec carmina  nostr comite bene cantta sunt.
The master advised these slaves too little.
Dominus hs servs parum monuit.
At first we thought you to be angry.
Prim t esse rtum putvimus.
The soldiers will move the camp far from this river, (which is) rising much.
Mlits castra long ab hc flmine multum surgente movbunt.
These books were badly prepared by your (sg) companions.
H libr  tus comitibus mal part sunt.
We will accept these gifts, but we will not love you (sg) well on account of them.
Haec dona accipimus, sed t propter ea bene nn ambimus.
They have decided to put these horns, taken in war, into my hands.
Haec cornua in bell capta in mans mes ponere constiturunt.
The farmers were thought to be about to fight keenly for (=on behalf of) their allies.
Agricolae pr socis acriter pugntr esse putt sunt.
The inhabitants greatly feared to be captured by our soldiers.
Incolae ab nostrs mlitibus cap magnopere timurunt.
This boy easily sees the wandering steps of his friend.
Hic puer errants grads amc eius facile videt.
You (pl.) will not kill the king of this tribe, because he is said to be good and wise.
Rgem huius gentis nn interficitis, quod bonus et sapiens esse dcitur.
13
Lesson VII
READING: CONNECTED PROSE
When you began the study of Latin, you learned how to read aloud, translate, and write individual sentences. Sentences
may combine to tell a story, persuade an audience, or express a sequence of ideas. Such combinations of sentences are
called CONNECTED PROSE. Reading connected prose requires skills in addition to those that you have used in reading
individual sentences. In reading connected prose, it is important to identify the GIST of a passage. The gist is the central
idea of the passage.




recognize KEY WORDS. Key words are the words that convey the most important elements of
the passage.
notice the connections between sentences and thoughts.
guess the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases.
be sensitive to the order of thoughts in Latin. Try to understand Latin in the Latin order.
Chapters like this one will help you to develop and practice these skills.
Gist and Keywords
First of all, read through the passage out loud and in Latin, preferably two or three times. The
objective is to understand the gist of the passage and to identify key words in it.
How do you get the gist of a passage?
As you read through, do not try to translate, but do look for clues.




Does the passage have a title? Are there notes or a glossary to help you?
Are there any proper nouns (capitalized words within a sentence)?
Are any words repeated?
Can you recognize any nominatives, accusatives, and verbs?
These questions will help you identify the key words in the passage. Proper nouns are likely to be
the names of important people and places. Repeated words emphasize important elements that play
a role in every part of the story. Nominatives, verbs, and accusative direct objects tell you who is
doing what to whom.
The Story of Perseus
An oracle had predicted that King Acrisius of Argos would be killed by his grandson. When the
king discovered that his daughter, Danaë, had given birth to a son, he tried to escape his fate by
casting mother and son adrift in the sea. With the help of Jupiter, who was Perseus’ father, they
landed safely on the island of Seriphos, where Perseus grew to manhood. King Polydectes of
Seriphos then attempted to kill Perseus by sending him to bring back the head of the monster
Medusa, one of the Gorgons. Perseus accomplished this dangerous task, and on the way back he
rescued and married Andromeda, an Ethiopian princess. After many years he returned to Seriphos
and revenged himself on Polydectes; he then went back to Argos and, in fulfillment of the oracle,
killed his grandfather Acrisius by accident with a discus.
14
Vocabulary VII
Adverbs
nunc
tamen
tum
tunc
now
nevertheless, yet
then, at that time
then, at that time
Conjunctions
antequam
before
igitur
therefore
postquam
after
Prepositions with the Accusative
ob
because of, on account of
propter because of, on account of
For all the readings, various vocabulary words will be translated in italics. Other words will be presented with English
derivatives in parentheses from which you should try to deduce the appropriate English translation. Some compound
verbs are shown divided into their elements in an effort to help you in recognition and translation.
1. The Family of Perseus
Haec nrrantur  pots d Perse. Perseus flius erat Iovis, rgis derum. Avus eius, Acrisius
These things are told by poets about Perseus. Perseus was the son of Jupiter, king of the gods. His grandfather, Acrisius
nmine, Perseum propter orculum timns, puerum interficere cnstituit. Comprehendit igitur
by name, fearing Perseus on account of an oracle, decided to kill the boy. Therefore he seized
Perseum infantem, et cum mtre in arc lgne inclsit. Tum arcam in mare conicit. Dana, Perse
the infant Perseus, and shut him in a wooden chest with his mother. Then he threw the chest into the sea. Danae, mother
mter, magnopere territa est; tempests enim magna mare turbbat. Perseus autem in sin mtris
of Perseus, was greatly frightened, for a great storm was stirring up the sea. However Perseus was sleeping in his
dormibat.
mother’s lap.
nrr (1) (narrative, narrate)
Iuppiter, Iovis m. Jupiter
avus, - m. grandfather
rculum, -i n. oracle
comprehend, comprehendere, comprehend,
comprehnsum grasp, seize
adhc, adv. to this point, yet, still
infns, infantis m. / f. (infant, infantile)
arca, -ae f. chest, box
lgneus, -a, -um of wood, wooden
incld, -ere, -cls, -clsus shut up in, enclose,
imprison
conici, conicere, conic, coniectum (conjecture)
throw together, throw, cast, hurl
tempests, tempesttis f. (tempestuous) weather;
tempest, storm
turb (1) (disturb)
sinus, -s m. embrace; bosom
dormi, dormre, dormv, dormtum (dormitory,
dormant)
2. Jupiter Saves His Son
Nunc Iuppiter tamen haec omnia vdit, et flium servre cnstituit. Tranquillum igitur fcit mare, et
Now Jupiter however saw all these things and decided to save his son. Therefore he made the sea calm and
arcam ad insulam Serphum perdxit. Huius insulae Polydects tum rx erat. Postquam arca ad
brought the chest to the island of Seriphos. Polydectes was king of this island then. After the chest was brought to shore
ltus flctibus portta est, Dana in harn quitem capibat. Brev tempore  pisctre inventa est,
by the waves, Danae was taking a nap on the sand. In a short time she was found by a fisherman, and was brought to
et ad domum rgis Polydectis adducta est. Is mtrem et puerum amc accpit, et es sdem ttam
the house of king Polydectes. He received the mother and boy in a friendly manner and gave them a safe shelter in
in fnibus dedit. Dana hoc dnum libenter accpit, et pr benefici rg grtis git.
his territory. Danae gladly received this gift and thanked the king for his kindness.
tranquillus, -a,-um (tranquil)
insula, -ae f. (insular)
perdc = per + dc; bring
harna, -ae f. (arena) sand
quis, quitis f. (quiet)
pisctor, pisctris m. fisherman
inveni = in + veni, come upon, find
addc = ad + dc; [lit. lead to] escort
sdes, sdis f. seat; abode
ttus, -a, -um safe
libenter, adv. willingly, gladly
beneficium,- n. kindness, service,benefit
15
Lesson VIII
REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Adjectives have three DEGREES of comparison: POSITIVE, COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
longus, -a, -um
longior, longius
longissimus, -a, -um
long
longer, rather / too long
longest, very long
Comparatives
The comparative is a two-termination 3rd declension adjective.
It is formed by adding –ior to the stem. For the neuter singular nominative and accusative, substitute –ius.
long-  longior, longius
audc-  audcior, audacius
longus, -a, -um long
audx, audcis bold
longer
bolder
The comparative, unlike most 3rd declension adjectives, is not an i-stem.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Singular
Masc. / Fem.
Neuter
Plural
Masc. / Fem.
Neuter
longior
longiris
longir
longirem
longire
longius
longiris
longir
longius
longire
longirs
longirum
longiribus
longirs
longiribus
longira
longirum
longiribus
longira
longiribus
Superlatives
The superlative is normally formed by adding –issimus, -issima, -issimum to the stem of the adjective.
longus, -a, -um long
audx, audcis bold
long-  longissimus, -a, -um longest
audc-  audcissimus,- a, -um boldest
The superlative is a 1st / 2nd declension adjective declined like bonus,
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
-a, -um.
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
longissimus
longissim
longissim
longissimum
longissim
longissima
longissimae
longissimae
longissimam
longissim
longissimum
longissim
longissim
longissimum
longissim
longissim
longissimrum
longissims
longissims
longissims
longissimae
longissimrum
longissims
longissims
longissims
longissima
longissimrum
longissims
longissima
longissims
Comparison Constructions
Two nouns joined by quam (than) must be in the same case.
Servus est flcior quam rx. The slave is happier than the king.
- When quam is omitted from a comparison, the second of the two things compared is in the
ablative case. This ablative construction is used only when the first of the two things compared is in the nominative or
the accusative.
ABLATIVE OF COMPARISON
Servus est flcior rge. The slave is happier than the king.
16
Vocabulary VIII
Prepositions with Accusative
ante
before
circum around
inter
between; among
per
through
post
after; behind
trans
across
3rd Declension Nouns
genus, generis, n. kind, sort
s, ris, n.
mouth
scelus, sceleris, n. crime*
Conjunction
quam than, rather than
*scelus
gerere commit a crime
Exercise VIII
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Fuit tilior in castrs quam in urbe.
He was more useful in camp than in the city.
Propter invidiam eris miserior quam is.
You will be more wretched than he (will be) on account of your jealousy.
Inter es monts longius iter facere incipi.
I am beginning to make a longer journey between those mountains.
Tunc omns bon omnium generum erant nbscum.
At that time all good (men) of all sorts were with us.
Nunc d vir audcissim in exercit hostium agimus.
We are now discussing the boldest man in the enemy’s army.
Fortissim comits ante s flminis stbant.
The bravest comrades were standing before the mouth of the river.
Ob scelera magna, de in caput eius multa mala posurunt.
On account of the great crimes, the gods have placed many evils upon his head.
Antequam bellum cum es gentibus gerbat, gratis magns des git.
Before he was waging war with those tribes, he gave thanks to the great gods.
Postquam serv territ ltora fgerant, ad urbem celeriter tendbant.
After the frightened slaves had fled the shores, they were quickly proceeding to the city.
Nn vta, sed somnus longissimus  des nbs datus est.
Not life but a very long sleep has been given to us by the gods.
Hae gents circum ns sunt audcirs es mlitibus trns flmen pugnantibus.
These tribes around us are bolder than those soldiers fighting across the river.
Mults per gents multaque per maria ductus, ad eum locum vn.
Led through many tribes and through many seas, I have come to this place.
Higher mountains were around our city.
Monts altiors erant circum urbem nostram.
The sweetest songs come from her mouth.
Dulcissima carmina ex re eius veniunt.
He came through those very bold tribes.
Per es audcissims gents vnit.
(There) is a bolder horse behind the gate.
Est audcior equus post portam.
The captured (people) are wiser than those free (people).
Captt sapientirs sunt quam e lber.
We now are waging a longer war than our allies have waged.
Longius bellum iam gerimus quam soci nostr gessrunt.
The god called the sailors with a great voice (use s, ris).
Deus nauts magn re vocvit.
He made a rather long journey around the mountains.
Longius iter circum monts fcit.
You (sg) will be punished, for your crimes seem very serious to all.
Pniris, nam tua scelera gravissima omnibus videntur.
(There) is a longer river between the city and the mountains.
Flmen longius est inter urbem montsque.
At that time, all my friends were of the same sort.
E tempore omns amc me erant eiusdem generis.
She was moved by his appearance rather than by his reputation.
Speci eius quam fam mta est.
17
Lesson IX
IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
The following common adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms.
Positive
Comparative
bonus, -a, -um good
malus, -a, -um bad
magnus, -a, -um great
parvus, -a, -um small
multus, -a, -um much, many
Superlative
melior, melius better
peior, peius worse
maior, maius greater
minor, minus smaller
sg. pls (neuter noun only) more
pl. plrs, plra several, more
optimus, -a, -um
pessimus, -a, -um
maximus, -a, -um
minimus, -a, -um
plrimus, -a, -um
best
worst
greatest
smallest
most, very many
Adjectives Ending in –er
Any adjective ending in -er in the masculine forms the comparative regularly, but forms the superlative irregularly.
The superlative is formed by adding –rimus,-rima,-rimum to the masculine nominative singular in -er.
sacer, sacra, sacrum holy
miser, misera, miserum unhappy
cer, cris, cre sharp
Positive
sacer, sacra, sacrum holy
miser, misera, miserum unhappy
cer, cris, cre sharp
sacer- 
miser- 
cer- 
sacerrimus, -a, -um
miserrimus, -a, -um
cerrimus, -a, -um
Comparative
sacrior, -ius holier
miserior, -ius more unhappy
crior, -ius sharper
holiest
most unhappy
sharpest
Superlative
sacerrimus, -a, -um
miserrimus, -a, -um
cerrimus, -a, -um
holiest
most unhappy
sharpest
Six Adjectives Ending in -lis
Six 3 declension adjectives ending in –lis form their comparative regularly, but form their superlatives irregularly.
Their superlative is formed by adding –limus,-lima,-limum to the stem.
rd
facilis, facile easy
facil-  facillimus, -a, -um easiest
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
facilis,-e easy
facilior,-ius easier
facillimus, -a, -um
difficilis,-e difficult difficilior,-ius more difficult
difficillimus, -a, -um
similis,-e like
similior, -ius more like
simillimus, -a, -um
dissimilis, –e unlike dissimilior, -ius more unlike
dissimillimus, -a, -um
gracilis, -e slender
gracilior, -ius more slender
gracillimus, -a, -um
humilis, -e low
humilior, -ius lower
humillimus, -a, -um
Note that other adjectives ending in -lis form their superlative regularly: tilis, tilior, tilissimus.
ABLATIVE OF DEGREE OF DIFFERENCE
easiest
most difficult
most like
most unlike
most slender
lowest
- The degree or measure of difference in a comparison is expressed by the use of
the ablative without a preposition.
Puella pede brevior est quam puer.
Mare mult altius est flmine.
The girl is shorter than boy by a foot.
The girl is a foot shorter than the boy.
The sea is deeper than the river by much.
The sea is much deeper than the river.
18
Vocabulary IX
Irregular Comparative Adjectives
maior, maius
greater
melior, melius better
minor, minus
smaller, less
peior, peius
worse
Adjectives
dissimilis, -e
gracilis, -e
humilis, -e
dissimilar, unlike
slender, graceful
low; poor
Irregular Superlative Adjectives
maximus, -a, -um greatest, very great
optimus, -a, -um
best, very good, excellent
minimus, -a, -um
smallest, very small, least
pessimus, -a, -um
worst, very bad
plrimus, -a, -um
most, very many
nd
2 Declension Noun
oculus, -, m. eye
3rd Declension Noun
ps, pedis, m. foot
Exercise IX
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Peds tu sunt mes maiors.
Your feet are larger than mine
Fuit facillimum equs per hanc portam dcere.
It was very easy to lead the horses through this gate.
Miserrima ab oculs eius fgit.
The most wretched woman fled from his sight.
Des debusque maxims gratis gimus.
We have given the greatest thanks to the gods and goddesses.
Hic est similior mihi quam tibi.
This (fellow) is more like me than you.
Verba eius erant simillima facts.
His words are very similar to his deeds.
Erat facilius vidre tus oculs quam mes.
It was easier to see with your eyes than mine.
Tuum scelus est mult peius quam meum.
Your crime is much worse than mine.
Tristissima fortna tu fratris optim m multum movbat.
Your excellent brother’s very bad luck moved me a lot.
Propter tua scelera hic locus difficilior est mihi.
On account of your wickedness [lit. crimes], this place is rather difficult for me.
Postquam verba eius in castrs audta sunt, acerrim mlitum eum laudvrunt.
After his words were heard in the camp, the keenest of the soldiers praised him.
D hc sacerrim loc potae multa dxisse videntur.
The poets seem to have said much (ie.many things) concerning this most sacred place.
They saw very large fires in the mountains.
Maxims ignes in montibus vdrunt.
The very wretched man flees quickly from my eyes.
Miserrimus vir ab oculs mes celeriter fugit.
Those ships seem to me to be rather low in the water.
Eae naves mihi humilirs in aqu esse videntur.
This place is much holier than your (pl.) city.
Hic locus est mult sacrior quam vestra urbs.
He has more slender feet than I have; your (feet), however, are the most slender.
Graciliores pedes habet quam ego; tu tamen sunt gracillim.
I was greatly moved by the very wretched appearance of that (man).
Multum miserrim speci eius magnopere/ multum motus sum.
(While) preparing their weapons quickly, they saw the lights in the camp of the enemy.
Arma celeriter parants lcs in castrs hostium vdrunt.
I was very happy because all your (sg.) companions were very like you.
Flicissimus eram quod omns comits tu erant tibi simillim.
The waves of the sea were higher than the ships by many feet.
Flcts maris erant altirs quam nvs mults pedibus.
The messenger standing before your (sg.) eyes was sent by the king of the gods.
Nntius ante oculs tus stans  rge derum missus est.
The man wandering at night is thought to have seen (his) mother among very many ghosts.
Vir nocte errāns mtrem inter plrims umbrs vdisse puttur.
Your (sg.) teacher spoke very sad words to you about your friend (who was) going to make a rather difficult
journey on behalf of (his) sick father.
Magister tuus verba tristissima/miserrima tibi d amc tu, difficilius iter pr patre aegrō factūrō, dxit.
19
Lesson X
REVIEW
Vocabulary VI - IX
minimus
nunc
aegr
ps
s
peior
igitur
maior
prm
plrimus
inter
comes
ante
gracilis
pessimus
magnopere
parum
per
humilis
bene
optimus
propter
genus
dissimilis
hic
melior
tamen
post
circum
maximus
tum
antequam
quam
postquam
scelus
tunc
oculus
tunc
ob
long
minor
this
on account of
after (prep.)
too little
nevertheless
dissimilar
eye
because of
around
low
with difficulty
crime
smallest
before (prep.)
greatly
then
after (conj.)
better
then
well
kind
smaller
than
companion
far
greater
mouth
worst
less
most
therefore
before (conj.)
between
slender
best
at first
now
foot
through
greatest
worse
16. equs hs
I. Modify the following nouns with hic, haec, hoc.
1. generibus hs
6. loc hc
11. ignem hunc
2. peds h, hs
7. moenium hrum
12. fmae huius, huic, hae 17. fortnc
3. capita haec
8. flamms hs
13. s hs
18. vtae huius, huic, hae
4. comitis huius
9. hoste hc
14. mentem hanc
19. castra haec
5. scelera haec
10. socis hs
II. Identify case, number, gender of underlined words.
1. Comits haec dxrunt. acc,pl,n
15. invidiae huius, huic, hae20. fnium hrum
4. E sunt flciors quam h. nom,pl,m…nom,pl,m
The friends said these things
Those (people) are happier than these.
2. H ocul ardent. nom,pl,m
5. Hoc flmen est longius e. nom,sg,n…abl,sg,n
These eyes are burning.
This river is longer than that (one).
3. Ocul hrum r ardent. gen,pl,f
6. Nn enim time huius comitis invidiam. gen,sg,m
The eyes of these women are burning with anger.
For I do not fear the hatred of this companion.
III. Form adverbs from the following adjectives:
1. sapins sapienter
6. tilis tile
11. cer criter
2. malus mal
7. similes simile
12. bonus bene
3. er aegr
8. rtus rt
13. magnus magnopere
4. altus alt
9. miser miser
14. ardns ardenter
5. optimus optim
10. dulcis dulce
15. flx fliciter
IV. Form the comparatives and superlatives of the underlined adjectives.
1. monts alt
4. mals sceleribus
7. comitis audcis
altirs, altissim
peiribus, pessims
audciris, audcissim
2. rgna pulchra
5. parvum genus
8. bonae ment
pulchrior, pulcherrima
minus, minimum
melr, optimae
3. hostium crium
6. fortnam similem
9. multa arma
crirum, acerrimrum
similirem, simillimam
plra, plrima
20
For Your Information
The prefix dis- apart is used with many verbs, such as discd, depart and dmitt, send away.
It may also be a strong negative:
dis + facilis easy
= difficilis difficult
dis + similis similar = dissimilis dissimilar
The prepositions ante and post occur in the abbreviations a.m. (ante diem, before midday)  p.m. (post
merdiem, after midday). They are also commonly used as verb prefixes, as in postscrb, write after, add in
writing from which we get the abbreviation p.s. (post scrptum, written after).
Exercise X
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Comits me haec es nn dcent.
My comrades will not tell them these things.
Hic locus mntissimus est.
This place is the most fortified.
Caesar nvs humilirs celerirsque fcit quam hs.
Caesar has made ships lower and faster than these.
Gracils peds meae amtae vide.
I see the slender feet of my beloved (girl).
Cum dissimillim patre vtam aegr agbat.
With difficulty he led his life with a very dissimilar father.
Tunc gracilior flamma circum caput eius ardre vsa est.
At that time a rather slender flame seemed to burn around his head.*
Nunc ob plrima scelera tua amcs nn plrims habs.
Now you do not have very many friends on account of your very many crimes.
Propter minims igns ex hs castrs celeriter fugere cnstiturunt.
They decided to run away quickly from this camp on account of the very small fires.
Magnopere heri terrbar; hodi igitur inter hs silvs manb.
Yesterday I was very frightened; therefore today I will stay among these woods.
Ego arma capins, urbem ardentem fugere constitu.
Taking up arms, I decided to flee the burning city.
Urbs surgentibus aqus dlta mihi hc r parv miserior vidtur.
The city, destroyed by rising waters, seems more miserable to me than this small matter.
Postquam  dom tu discesseram, tu patris umbra ante mes oculs vsa est.
After I had left your house, your father’s ghost appeared before my eyes.
* In the Aeneid the son of Aeneas, Ascanius, was seen to have his hair on fire without suffering any harm. This was a
sign of his future greatness.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
The gods will punish him because of his very many crimes.
De eum ob eius plrima scelera pnient.
All good (people) of all kinds will come happily into the city.
Omns bon omnium generum in urbem fliciter venient.
Before the gods had spoken, we were rather bold because of our good fortune.
Antequam de dxerant, ermus audacirs propter nostram fortunam bonam.
After we had heard him speaking these sharp words, we were greatly afraid.
Postquam eum haec cria verba dcentem audvermus, magnopere timbmus.
Before his foot was wounded, he was fleeing his enemies quickly.
Antequam eius ps vulnertus est, hosts celeriter fugibat.
(After I was) seen singing in the woods, I began to receive many gifts.
Cantans in silvs vsus/a, multa dona accipere incp.
With my eyes I saw you (pl.) boldly saving the ships.
Mes oculs vs nvs audacter servnts vd.
The dark land covered me because of (my) bad fortune.
Terra tra m propter fortunam malam/ fortun mal txit.
We saw the ships burning on the shore after our leaders fled.
Nvs in ltore ardents vdimus postquam nostr ducs fgrunt.
At that time your (sg.) works were much greater than ours.
Tunc verba tua erant mult maira quam nostra.
After the worst (men) fled from the city, they remained in the mountains for very many days.
Postquam pessim ex urbe fgrunt, plrims dis in montibus mnsrunt.
At first I had decided to remain; now, however, I shall make a journey happily among the tribes.
Prm manre constitueram; nunc autem inter gents fliciter iter faciam.
21
Lesson XI
DEMONSTRATIVES: ILLE, ILLA, ILLUD AND ISTE, ISTA, ISTUD
CAUSE
ille, illa, illud that, those
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
ille
illus
ill
illum
ill
illa
illus
ill
illam
ill
Neuter
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
illud
illus
ill
illud
ill
ill
illrum
ills
ills
ill
illae
illrum
ills
ills
ills
illa
illrum
ills
illa
ills
Demonstratives may be be used as adjectives or as pronouns.
As an adjective, ille, illa, illud agrees with the noun it modifies in case, number, and gender:
ille puer that boy; illus mtris of that mother; illa verba those words
As a pronoun, ille, illa, illud takes the number and gender of the noun it replaces:
Illum librum am.
I love that book.
 Illum am.
Ills epistuls msit.
He sent those letters.  Ills msit.
Illa verba audvimus. We heard those words.  Illa audvimus.
I love that one.
He sent those.
We heard those (things).
Ille is often used to contrast with hic:
Magister hunc puerum laudvit, sed illum pxnvit.
The teacher praised this boy, but punished that (one).
iste, ista, istud that of yours, those of yours (sometimes with contempt implied)
Iste, ista, istud is declined like ille, illa, illud.
Ista mala fugis. You will flee those evils (of yours).
Dux ists pnvit. The leader punished those men.
Ad m d ist Marc, amc tu, scrbis. You are writing to me about that Marcus, your friend.
Cause
Ob or propter with the accusative expresses cause or reason.
Ob verba laudbitur.
She will be praised because of her words.
Propter flmen cnstitimus. We stopped on account of the river.
THE ABLATIVE OF CAUSE - The ablative without a preposition also expresses cause or reason.
Facts pntur. He is punished for his deeds.
Tus operibus laudris. You are praised for your works.
22
Exercise XI
3rd Conjugation Verbs
cnsist, cnsistere, cnstit, 
stop
excd, excdere, excess, excessum go out, depart
incd, incdere, incess, incessum
go in
relinqu, relinquere, relqu, relictum leave, leave behind
trah, trahere, trax, tractum
drag
vv, vvere, vx, vctum
live
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Demonstratives
ille, illa, illud that, those
iste, ista, istud that, those
(sometimes with contempt implied)
In illum locum bonum incdit.
He went into that good place.
Vvere est dulce mihi propter illum.
To me living is sweet because of him.
Illa moenia sunt altissima et longissima.
Those walls are very high and very long.
Circum illum montem igns maxim ardent.
Very great fires are burning around that mountain.
Ill gravs sapientsque vir erant rtissim.
Those serious and wise men were very angry.
Hoc opus difficillimum ill erit, quod eius amc heri excessrunt.
This task will be very difficult for him, because his friends left yesterday.
Illa dictr, surgere excdereque incipibant.
About to say those things, they were beginning to rise /stand up and leave.
Istus r tlsque territ, in umbrs noctis fugimus.
Terrified by the anger and weapons of that man, we will flee into the shadows of the night.
T vvis flcior quam ego; ns autem vvimus flcirs ills.
You live a happier man than I; however we live more happily [lit. happier people] than they.
Hodi ob ista scelera  t gesta hoc bellum miserrimum gerimus.
Today we are waging this most miserable war on account of those crimes committed by you.
Ist invidi magn m dlbis.
You will destroy me with that great hatred of yours.
Postquam in illam urbem incesserant, omns doms dlvrunt.
After they had gone into that city, they destroyed all the houses.
Those (people) lived for many years.
Ill mults anns vvbant.
You (pl) departed from our allies’ land by means of ships.
 terrs socirum nostrorum nvibus excessistis.
That man seems happiest to me.
Ille flcissimus mihi vidtur.
They saw the horse left behind on the shore by the enemies.
Equum in ltore ab hostibus relictum vdrunt.
Those flames are much higher than the walls of the camp.
Illae flammae sunt mult altirs quam mr castrōrum..
The same night the soldiers came out of that horse.
Edem nocte mlits ex ill equ vnrunt.*
I saw the fires burning in our city and those men killing the citizens.
Igns in urbe nostr ardents et ills virs cvs interficients vd.
After we had departed from the city, we gave thanks to the gods.
Postquam ex urbe excessermus, des grtis gimus.
We stopped in that place because you (sg.) had left behind those books.
In ill loc constitimus quod ists librs relquers.
We left our allies behind because of the very difficult journey.
Ob iter difficillimum socis nostrs relquimus.
They begin to drag the horse through the very well fortified gates.
Equum per ports mntissims trahere incipiunt.
The allies remained in that place, but you (pl.) left the camp quickly.
Soci in ill loc mansrunt, sed castra celeriter relqurunt.
* In order to get inside Troy’s walls, the Greeks hid inside a great wooden horse, which the Trojans pulled inside their
city. The Greeks stole out of the horse at night and slew the Trojans as they slept.
23
Lesson XII
READING: CONNECTING IDEAS
When you read a Latin passage, it is important to understand the Latin in its own word order. The
pieces of a passage will be joined in a way that shows the flow of ideas. These ideas are usually
connected to each other. One thought leads to the next.
In Latin, the connection between one thought and the next is usually signaled by
 connecting words; for example, conjunctions
 repetition of words
 punctuation; for example, commas or semicolons
Even when we physically separate the sentences of a paragraph, the connectedness remains. Here is
a passage from Lesson VII divided into sentences with some connective signs italicized:
Comprehendit igitur Perseum adhc infantem, et cum mtre in arc ligne inclsit.
Tum arcam in mare conicit.
Dana, Perse mter, magnopere territa est; tempests enim magna mare turbbat.
Perseus autem in sin mtris dormibat.
What do these connecting devices do?






Igitur, “therefore,” shows that the statement comprehendit Perseum adhc infantem is a
consequence of what has gone before.
Et connects the two things that Acrisius did: comprehendit et inclsit.
Tum, “then,” shows that the event arcam in mare coniēcit follows the events of the
preceding sentence.
Māter repeats cum mātre in the first sentence and connects the sentence about Danaë to what
has gone before.
Enim, “for,” shows that tempestās magna mare turbābat explains the preceding statement
that Danaë was frightened.
Autem, “however,” calls our attention back to Perseus and contrasts his sleeping with his
mother’s terror.
These signs help show the development of thought.
Note that signs of connection often introduce a grammatical piece which can be dealt with
separately (a sentence or the clauses within a sentence). These connecting signs will help you to
divide a passage into smaller, more manageable pieces.
24
Vocabulary XII
Adverbs
di
hc
ibi
tandem
for a long time
here
there
finally, at length
Conjunction
ubi when, where
1st Declension Noun
via, viae, f. road, way
lna, lnae, f. moon
3. Perseus Is Sent On His Travels
Perseus igitur mults anns ibi habitbat, et cum mtre vtam betam agbat. Polydects autem
Therefore Perseus lived there for many years and led a happy life with his mother. However, Polydectes
Danan magnopere ambat et Perse dxit, “Tuam mtrem in mtrimnium ductrus sum.”
loved Danae greatly and said to Perseus, “I am going to marry your mother.”
Hoc tamen cnsilium Perse nn grtum erat. Polydects igitur Perseum dmittere cnstituit. Tum
Nevertheless this plan was not agreeable to Perseus. Therefore Polydectes decided to send Perseus away. Then
iuvenem ad rgiam vocvit et haec dxit: “Turpissimum est hanc ignvam vtam agere; iam di t
he called the youth to the palace and said these things: “It is very disgraceful to lead this lazy life; for a long time now
adulscns es. Tempus est arma capere et virttem praestre. Relinque hs terrs et caput Medsae
you have been (lit. are) a young adult. It is time to take up arms and to show courage. Leave these lands behind and
ad m refer.”
bring back to me the head of Medusa.”
turpis, -e disgraceful
ignvus, -a, -um idle, lazy
habit (1) live, dwell
betus, -a, -um (beatify) blessed, happy
adulscns, -tis m. (adolescent)
tempus, temporis n. time
virts, virttis f. (virtue) courage
in mtrimnium dcere to marry
cnsilium, -i n. plan
grtus, -a, -um pleasing, agreeable
praest, praestre, praestit, praestitum show, exhibit
relinque (present imperative) leave behind
refer (present imperative) bring back
dmitt = dis + mitt
iuvenis, -is m. (juvenile)
rgia, -ae f. palace
4. Perseus Gets His Outfit
Perseus ubi haec audvit, ex insul discessit, et postquam ad continentem vnit, Medsam petvit.
When Perseus heard these things, he departed from the island, and after he came to the mainland, he searched for
Di frustr petbat; namque ntram loc ignrbat. Tandem Apoll et Minerva viam e
Medusa. For a long time he searched in vain, for he did not know the nature of the place. Finally Apollo and Minerva
mnstrvrunt. Prm Graes, sorrs Medsae, invnit. Ab hs tlria et galeam magicam
showed him the way. First he came upon the Graeae, the sisters of Medusa. From them he received winged sandals
accpit. Apoll autem et Minerva falcem et speculum dedrunt. Tum postquam tlria pedibus
and a magic helmet. Moreover, Apollo and Minerva gave him a scimitar and a mirror. Then, after he put the sandals
induit, in caelum ascendit. Di volbat; tandem tamen ad eum locum vnit ubi Medsa cum cters
on his feet, he rose into the sky. He was flying for a long time; finally however he came to the place where Medusa
Gorgnibus habitbat. Gorgns autem mnstra erant speci horribil; capita enim erum erant
was living with the other Gorgons. Moreover, the Gorgons were monsters with a horrible appearance; for their heads
anguibus tecta erant. Mans etiam ex aere factae erant.
were covered with snakes. Their hands also were made out of bronze.
galea, -ae f. helmet
falx, falcis f. curved sword, sickle
speculum, - n. mirror, looking glass
discd, -ere, -cess, -cessum withdraw, depart, leave
continns, -ntis f. (continent)
frustr (frustration) adv. in vain
indu, induere, indu, indtum put on, clothe
ignr (1) (ignorant)
caelum, - n. air, sky, heaven
Graeae, -rum f. The Graeae were three old women who
had one eye and one tooth in common and took
turns in using them.
inveni, -re, -vn, -ventum find, come upon
vol (1) fly
cter, -ae, -a the rest of, the remaining
horribilis, -e (horrible)
anguis, anguis m. / f. serpent, snake
aes, aeris n. bronze, copper
tlria, tlrium n. pl. winged sandals
25
Lesson XIII
IRREGULAR VERB: POSSUM, POSSE, POTU;USES OF THE INFINITIVE
possum, posse, potu,  be able, can
In the present system, possum is a compound of the verb sum.
The prefix is pos- when the form of sum begins with s.
The prefix is pot- when the form of sum begins with e.
In the perfect system the tenses are formed regularly.
Like sum, possum has no passive voice.
PRESENT
possum
potes
potest
I can/am able
you can
he / she / it can
IMPERFECT
FUTURE
poteram
poters
poterat
poter
poteris
poterit
I could/was able
you could
he / she / it could
I will be able
you will be able
he / she / it will be able
possumus we can
potestis you can
possunt they can
potermus we could
 you could
poterant they could
poterimus we will be able
poteritis you will be able
poterunt they will be able
PERFECT
PLUPERFECT
FUTURE PERFECT
potueram
potuers
potuerat
potuer
potueris
potuerit
potui
potuist
potuit
I could
you could
he / she / it could
potuimus we could
potuistis you could
poturunt they could
I had been able
you had been able
he / she / it had been able
potuermus we had been able
 you had been able
potuerant they had been able
potuerimus we will have been able
potueritis you will have been able
potuerint they will have been able
PARTICIPLES
Pres.
Perf.
Fut.
I will have been able
you will have been able
he / she / it will have been able
INFINITIVES
posse
potuisse

(possum has no participles)
to be able
to have been able
Note the –u- in the stem for perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.
Possum is usually accompanied by a complementary infinitive.
Ea scrbere poterunt. They will be able to write this.
Audre possumus. We can hear.
Accusative and Infinitive with iube and vet
 and vet need both a person and an action to make their meaning clear.
They g
Dux mlits urbem mnre iussit.
Magister discipuls dcere vetat.
The leader ordered the soldiers to fortify the city.
The teacher orders the students not to talk.
Infinitive as Subject or Object
The infinitive is a verbal noun. It is always neuter, always singular, and either nominative or accusative.
Subject:
Object:
Dulce est vcem tuam audre. It is sweet to hear your voice. Hearing your voice is sweet.
Cantre am.
I like to sing.
I like singing.
26
Vocabulary XIII
2nd Declension Nouns
Verbs taking Infinitives
vet, vetre, vetu, vetitum order...not, forbid
iube, iubre, iuss, iussum order, command, bid
possum, posse, potu, 
can, be able
animus, -, m.
mind, spirit; in plural, bravery
discipulus, -, m. student
umerus, -, m.
shoulder
Exercise XIII
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Pota ns verba derum audre iussit.
The poet has ordered us to listen to the words of the gods.
Tandem in urbe sumus—nunc bene vivere poterimus!
We are finally in the city – now we will be able to live well.
Mlits, tls hostium vulnert, lce lnae fugere poturunt.
The soldiers, wounded by the weapons of the enemies, have been able to flee by the light of the moon.
Deus ns vtam facilem agere vetat; ille igitur onera plrima nbs dedit.
The god forbids us to live easily; he therefore has given us very many burdens.
Dux enim ns corpora hostium in castrs relinquere vetuit.
For the leader has forbidden us to abandon the bodies of the enemy in the camp.
Dux ns in castrs manre iussit, sed miserirs in e loc quam in silvs erimus.
The leader ordered us to remain in the camp, but we will be more wretched in that place than in the woods.
 magistr nn pnimur; nem enim ns in mrs scrbents vdit.
We will not be punished by the teacher, for no one saw us writing on the walls.
Vir bon mns in edem loc manet, et ille fortn mal vulnerr nn potest.
The mind of a good man stays in the same place and he is not able to be wounded by bad luck.
Vide melira laudque, sed ea facere nn possum.
I see better things and I praise them, but I can not do them.
Nn omnia (facere) possumus omns. (Vergil Eclogues 8.63)
We cannot all do everything.
Mult in urbem venre nn poterant, quod ille pons flctibus surgentibus dltus erat.
Many were not able to come into the city because that bridge had been destroyed by the rising waves.
Discipul pessim, heri in hc mr mala plrima scrpsistis; ego igitur vs propter scelera vestra pnr iubb.
You,very bad students, wrote very many bad things on this wall yesterday; therefore I will order you to be punished for your
wickedness.
Before the eyes of the sailors, the leader of the enemy could not flee with the queen.
Ante oculs nautrum, dux hostium cum rgn fugere nn potuit.
We have in mind to leave behind arms in camp.
In anim habmus arma in castrs relinquere.
Yesterday (our) leader ordered (our) allies to send us horses.
Heri dux socis nōbīs equs mittere issit.
The wise man can have a brave spirit and a good mind.
Vir sapiens animum fortem bonamque mentem habre potest.
The leader orders the walls of the city not to be destroyed.
Dux moenia urbis dlr vetat.
A poet (who has been) ordered to write will make bad songs.
Poeta scrbere issus mala carmina faciet.
While I was speaking about these things, my horse was able to wander into the road.
Dum haec dic/ d hs ag, equus meus in viam errre potuit.
The soldiers are able to carry the same burdens (on their) shoulders.
Mlits eadem onera umers portre possunt.
While we live, we will be able to seek better things.
Dum vivimus, melira petere poterimus.
The brave soldiers had been forbidden to make a fire in camp on account of the great wind.
Forts mlits ignem in castrs facere propter magnum ventum vetit erant.
We ordered the slave to drag the very great burdens; he, however, left them behind because of his bad spirit.
Servum onera maxima trahere issimus; ille tamen propter malum animum ea relinquit.
Having been ordered by the teacher to write, the students stopped, sat (down), and began to write about things of
all sorts.
Discipul  magistr scrbere iuss, constitrunt, sdrunt, et incprunt d rbus omnium generum scrbere.
27
Lesson XIV
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS refer to the subject of the clause or sentence in which they stand.
FIRST PERSON
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Singular

me
mihi
m
m
SECOND PERSON
Singular

of myself
to / for myself
myself
(from) myself
tu
tibi
t
t
of yourself
to / for yourself
yourself
(from) yourself
Plural
Plural
Nom. 

Gen.
nostr of ourselves
vestr of yourselves
Dat.
nbs to / for ourselves
vbs to / for yourselves
Acc.
ns
ourselves
vs
yourselves
Abl.
nbs (from) ourselves
vbs (from) yourselves
Note that the third person reflexive is identical in the singular and the plural forms.
The reflexive pronoun cannot be in the nominative case.
The reflexive pronoun must have the same person, number, and gender as the subject.
THIRD PERSON
Singular

su of himself, herself, itself
sibi to / for himself, herself, itself
s himself, herself, itself
s (from) himself, herself, itself
Plural

su of themselves
sibi to / for themselves
s themselves
s (from) themselves
Puer s laudat. The boy praises himself.
Puer s laudant. The boys praise themselves.
M in umer vulnerv. I wounded myself on the shoulder.
Vs regitis. You rule yourselves.
The preposition cum is regularly placed after and joined to a reflexive pronoun.
scum with himself / herself / itself / themselves
Su, sibi, s, s can often be translated simply as him, her, it, or them, referring to the subject.
Pater flium ad s vocat. The father calls the son to him.
Pater flium scum dcit. The father brings the son with him.
Reflexive Possessive Adjectives and eius, erum, erum
The REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE emphasizes the ownership of something by the subject of the main verb.
For the 1st person and 2nd person forms use the possessive adjectives learned earlier:
meus, -a, -um; tuus, -a, -um; noster, -tra, -trum; and vester, -tra, -trum.
The 3rd person reflexive possessive adjective is suus, -a, -um. It expresses possession by the subject of the sentence or
clause in which it stands. It agrees with the noun it modifies in case, number, and gender.
Mter flium suum vocat. The mother calls her (own) son.
When the possessor is not the subject of the clause, the reflexive adjective suus, -a, -um cannot be used.
Use the genitive form of is, ea, id (eius, erum, or erum).
Mter flium eius vocat.
Pater flium erum vocat.
The mother calls his (someone else’s) son.
The father calls their son.
28
Vocabulary XIV
Third Person Reflexive Pronoun
su, sibi, s, s himself, herself, itself, themselves
3rd Declension Noun (like mles)
nm, nminis, m. no one, nobody
Indeclinable Noun
nihil n. nothing
Adjective
suus, sua, suum his own, her own, its own, their own
Adverbs
numquam never
saepe often
semper always
Exercise XIV
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Mles s in umer vulnervisse vidtur.
The soldier seems to have wounded himself in the shoulder.
Ego m in aqu saepe vd.
I have often seen myself in the water.
Agricola suam domum et sus agrs semper amat.
A farmer always loves his (own) home and his (own) fields.
Nm Rmnus s ab ill loc mvit.
No (one) Roman moved himself from that place.
Antequam sus comits interfcit, ille nbs bonus vidbtur.
Before he killed his comrades, he seemed good to us.
Nm fmam itineris nostr accipibat.
Noone was hearing (lit. receiving) the story of our journey.
Vcem patris in silvs cantantis saepe audvimus.
We often heard the voice of our father singing in the woods.
Iste coms semper s esse optimum putat.
That comrade always thinks himself to be the best.
Ille plrima sua amcs relquit, hic nihil.
That man left his very many (possessions) to his friends; this (man left) nothing.
Ad illam urbem cnstitistis quod incdere nn potuistis.
You stopped near that city because you were not able to enter (it).
Hodi ex sus urbibus excdents maxims gratis des agunt.
Today, departing from their cities, they are giving the greatest thanks to the gods.
Hc tempore nihil melius actrus esse mihi vidris.
At this time you seem to me to be about to do nothing better.
Those (men) were dragging the ships behind them from the shore.
Ill nvs post s  ltre trahbant.
You will be able to do nothing more useful for yourself.
Tibi nihil tilius facere poteris.
We always have friends very similar to ourselves.
Amcs simillims nbs semper habmus.
Having in mind to fight, they quickly took up their own arms.
In anim habents pugnāre, sua arma celeriter cprunt.
I will leave behind nothing for myself, but all my (possessions) for my friends.
Nihil mihi relinquam, sed omnia mea amcs.
Because the road was long, we stopped at that city.
Quod iter longum erat, ad illam urbem constitimus.
They decided to punish themselves seriously, because they had not been able to save (their) king.
S graviter pnre constiturunt, quod rgem servre nn potuerant.
At length out of all his (goods) he left behind these (things) for his son.
Tandem ex omnibus sus haec fli (su) relquit.
No one going into the enemy camp that night was captured.
Nm in castra hostium ill nocte incdens captus est.
I often seemed to myself to be either most wretched or most sick.
Aut miserrimus aut aegerrimus esse saepe mihi vsus sum.
She thinks herself to be much better than those people.
Ea s esse mult melirem quam ills.
Fleeing, he carried his father on his own shoulders out of the burning city.
Fugiens (suum) patrem in umers sus ex urbe ardente portvit.
29
Lesson XV
REVIEW
Vocabulary XI -XIV
di
umerus
d
suus
ille
discipulus
hc
iste
vet
excd
saepe
animus
iube
trah
bi
nm
su
cnsist
relinqu
tandem

possum
ibi


semper
via
nihil
drag
student
that
that (of yours)
stop
always
forbid
no one
often
finally
go out
spirit
way
here
leave behind
be able
live
go in
there
order
for a long time
where, when
nothing
shoulder
his own
himself
I. Give the forms of ille and iste to modify these nouns:
1. agricol , illae, etc. rum, istrum
2. umer, ist; illīus nris ills, ists
17. discipulrum illrum, istrum
3. equs ills, ists 8. anims ills, ists
13. scelus illud, istud 18. fortnae illius, ill, illae, etc.
4. cvrum, istrum tis ills, ists
s ills, ists 10. comitis illius, istius
15. pedibus ills, ists 20. arma illa, ista
II. Translate the underlined words or phrases, using forms of is or su, and eius, erum, erum or suus, as appropriate.
1. I saw his son. eius
2. We praise her daughter. eius
3. She praises her own daughter.suam
4. Caesar summoned his men.sus
5. I killed his assassin. eius
6. This boy was talking to himself.sibi
7. Control them! es
8. He can’t control himself.s
15. He called himself king. s
9. They all defended themselves. s 16. We defended their camp. erum
10. I will bring their books. erum 17. They brought it with them. scum
11. She threw herself into the river.s18. He forgave his enemies. sus
12. I called her. eam
19. He hurt his shoulder. suum
13. They made him consul.eum
20. The doctor heals his shoulder. eius
14. The general gave them orders.eīs 21. They controlled themselves. s
III. Write a synopsis of possum in the 3rd singular and 1st plural indicative active.
IV. Express each underlined phrase three ways.
1. They were imprisoned for their crimes.
2. She fled because of the fire.
3. He was praised on account of his wise words.
ob/ propter sua scelera/ sus sceleribus
ob/ propter ignem/ ign
ob/ propter sua verba sapientia/sus verbs sapientibus
V. Translate.
1. Es pnre nn possum.
I cannot punish them.
2. Haec opera facere cnstitu.
I have decided to do these tasks.
3. Amc esse putantur.
They are thought to be friends.
4. Bonum est vtam bene agere.
It is good to live life well.
5. Ex urbe excdere time.
I am afraid to go out of the city.
6. s r
They seem to be leaving (their) books behind.
30
For Your Information
Compounds often merge their two components by dropping or combining syllables.
Possum is a compound verb composed of the adjective potis, able and sum, be.
Nm, no one, is a compound noun composed of n, not and hom, person, human.
Nm often uses forms of nullus, -a, -um, no, none, not any (Lesson XXIX) for the genitive singular (nullus and the
ablative singular (nullnull.
Exercise XV
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Gracile corn lnae  mar surgens vidēre possum.
I am able to see the slender curve/horn of the moon rising from the sea.
Postquam sibi omnia parvrant,  castrs excdere cnstiturunt.
After they had prepared everything for themselves, they decided to depart from camp.
Iuppiter, postquam flium suum in fns hostium msit, eum servre cnstituit.
After he sent his son into the territory of the enemy, Jupiter decided to save him.
In vi cnsistere nn possumus, hc enim di in urbem venre iuss sumus.
We cannot stop on the way, for we have been ordered to come into the city today ( lit. on this day).
Iste vtam sceleribus sus pessimam per mults anns git.
Through many years that man lived a very bad life because of his crimes.
Fnis huius libr est tilissimus! Magister ns iubet ibi haec verba petere.
The end of this book is very useful! The teacher orders us to look for these words there.
Verba postquam ex re fgrunt revocr nn possunt.
After words have fled from one’s mouth they cannot be recalled.
Sapins s numquam laudat; eum igitur amc saepe laudant.
A wise man never praises himself; therefore, his friends often praise him.
Hic in anim habet bona plrima facere; ille, scelera multa.
This man has in mind to do very many good things; that man (intends to commit) many crimes.
Fortiter ille castra sua dfenderat; tandem tamen  duce iussus, per flamms tlaque fgit et s servvit.
That man had defended his camp bravely; at length, however, ordered by the leader, he fled through flames and weapons
and saved himself.
Hic nminem sapientirem quam hs discipuls docuit, nam ill verba difficillima scrbere possunt.
This man has taught no one wiser than these students, for they can write the most difficult words.
Omns oculs nostrs vidre, mente cnstituere, anims forts esse possumus.
We all can see with our eyes, decide with our minds, be brave with our hearts (lit. spirits).
All things remain in their (own) place.
Omnia in su loc manent.
The gods of the Romans gave wise words to all their poets.
De Rmnrum verba sapientia omnibus pots (erum) ddrunt.
After death the spirit and mind flee from the body.
Post mortem animus mensque  corpore fugiunt.
Jupiter will save his own sons, but not those of that unhappy (man).
Iuppiter suōs fliōs servbit, sed nn ills illius miser.
The very sad book written by that poet will teach us about the queen.
Miserrimus liber ab ill pot scrīptus ns d rgn docbit.
We place all hope in horses, for without them we will not be able to flee.
Omnem spem in equs ponimus, nam sine es fugere nn poterimus.
(While they were) sitting in front of the eyes of the teachers, the students could not write very many bad things in
the books.
Dum pr oculs magistrrum sedent/ Pr oculs magistrrum sedents, discipul plrima mala in librs scrbere nn poterant.
No one can order that soldier not to save his arms from the burning ship.
Nm illum mlitem sua onera ex nvī ardentī servāre vetāre potest.
Today these slaves carry the most burdens on (their) shoulders, but tomorrow those men will place the same
things on the ships.
Hodi h serv plrima onera in umers portant, sed crs ill eadem in nvs ponent.
Because that man committed very many crimes, the citizens finally ordered him to be punished severely.
Quod ille/ iste plrima scelera gessit, cvs tandem eum graviter pnr iussit.
We cannot stop in the same place, for the master has ordered us to make a very long journey.
In edem loc consistere nn possumus, dominus enim iter longissimum facere ns iussit.
The citizens, punished by the wrath of gods and goddesses, were ordered to destroy their own city.
Cvs, r derum derumque pnt, suam urbem dlre iuss sunt.
31
Lesson XVI
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
The RELATIVE PRONOUN introduces an ADJECTIVE CLAUSE which modifies a noun or pronoun in the previous clause.
Qui, quae, quod who, which, that
Singular
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Translation
Nom. qu
quae
quod qu
quae
quae
who, which, that
Gen. cuius
cuius
cuius qurum qurum qurum whose, of whom / which
Dat.
cui
cui
cui
quibus
quibus quibus to / for whom / which
Acc. quem
quam
quod qus
qus
quae
whom, which, that
Abl.
qu
qu
qu
quibus
quibus quibus by / with / from whom / which
The word to which the relative pronoun refers is called its ANTECEDENT.
THIRD RULE OF CONCORD - The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number and gender.
The case of the relative pronoun is determined by its use in its own clause.
Urbs quae captae sunt dlbuntur. The cities which have been captured will be destroyed.
The antecedent urbs is plural and feminine; therefore the relative pronoun quae is plural and feminine.
Quae is the subject of captae sunt and is therefore nominative.
Urbs qus cpimus dlbuntur. The cities which we have captured will be destroyed.
The antecedent urbs is plural and feminine; therefore the relative pronoun quas is plural and feminine.
Qus is the direct object of cpimus and is therefore accusative.
Puerum cuius vcem audv n . I do not see the boy whose voice I heard.
The antecedent puerum is singular and masculine; therefore the relative pronoun cuius is singular and
masculine. Cuius shows possession of vcem and is therefore genitive.
Hae sunt puellae quibus librs ded. These are the girls to whom I gave the books.
The antecedent puellae is plural and feminine; therefore the relative pronoun quibus is plural and feminine.
Quibus is the indirect object of ded and is therefore dative.
Vir, d qu dbThe man, about whom we were speaking, was our leader.
The antecedent vir is masculine and singular; therefore the relative pronoun qu is masculine and singular.
Qu is the object of the preposition d, and is therefore ablative.
Cum with the Relative Pronoun
As with personal and reflexive pronouns, the preposition cum becomes enclitic when used with the relative pronoun.
Amc, quibuscum contendbtis, vs laudant.
My friends, with whom you were competing, praise you.
32
Vocabulary XVI
Pronoun
qu, quae, quod who, which, that
3rd Conjugation Verbs
contend, contendere, contend,  make effort, strive, compete; hurry; march
dfend, dfendere, dfend, dfensum
defend
vinc, vincere, vc, victum
conquer, defeat
3rd Declension Nouns
agmen, agminis, n. column (of men)
lmen, lminis, n. light
Exercise XVI
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Nauta, qu suam nvem amat, semper flx erit.
The sailor who loves his ship will always be happy
Nm Rmnus ab ill loc, quem dfendere iussus erat, s mvit.
No Roman moved himself from that place which he had been ordered to defend.
Mles, qu in agmine mnsit, cum hostibus audacter contendet.
The soldier who has remained in the column will compete boldly with the enemy.
ra nn eum, qui bonum animum habet, vincet.
Anger will not conquer that man/him who has a good mind.
Vcem patris, qu semper cantbat, saepe audvimus.
We often heard the voice of (our) father, who always was singing.
Fds in omnium anims lmen suum mittit.
Faith sheds [lit. sends] its own light onto the spirits of all.
Lminibus, quae in manibus portmus, vis vidre possumus.
We are able to see the streets by the lights which we carry in our hands.
Cnstitistis ante illam urbem in quam incdere nn potuistis.
You stopped before that city into which you could not proceed.
Flx est qu cum hostibus contendere potest et nn vinc.
Happy is he who is able to contend with the enemy and not be conquered.
Nminem, cuius fds est maior quam tua, vd.
I have seen no one whose faith is greater than yours.
Ille, qu sus comits interfcit, vbis optimus esse vsus erat.
That man who killed his comrades had seemed very good to you.
trae aquae flminis surgentis scum omnia  cvibus fugientibus relicta trahbant.
The dark waters of the rising river were drawing with them everything left behind by the fleeing citizens.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
We will hurry to those places which we have fortified well.
Ad ea loca quae bene munvimus contendmus.
The moon, rising from the mountains, will show the way to us.
Lna,  montibus surgens, iter/viam nbs monstrbit.
The lights, which had been left behind, showed the way for us.
Lumina, quae relicta erant, iter/viam nbs monstrvrunt.
We were conquered by the words of that man who was with us at that time.
Verbs illius qu tum nbscum erat vict sumus.
At length the army which had been in the mountains was conquered by us.
Tandem exercitus qu in montibus fuerat  nbs victus est.
I will be sent from Italy because of your deeds, about which we have all heard.
Propter tua facta, d quibus omns audvimus, ab Itali mittar.
After many disasters he finally began to call his friends to himself.
Post mults calamitts ad s sus amics vocre tandem incpit.
Those people who had been left in the city, strove keenly.
E popul qu in urbe relict erant acriter contendrunt.
I will give you the life which you have asked from me.
Vtam tibi dab quam  m petivist.
They were defended by the same soldiers who had defeated them.
Ab esdem mlitibus qui es vcerant, dfendbantur/dfens sunt.
You (sg), who have always been a friend to me, will not defend me, will not praise me, will not save me.
Tu, qu semper mihi fuist amcus, m nn dfends, nn laudbis, nn servbis.
The words which have been written by that poet are better than these.
Verba quae ab ill pot scrpta sunt, melira sunt quam haec.
33
Lesson XVII
READING: ONE THING AT A TIME
Once you have the gist of a passage, you can begin to build up its meaning in detail, one word,
phrase, clause, or sentence at a time. The connecting devices that you began to notice in Lesson XII
help to divide a long passage into phrases and clauses. Deal with these shorter pieces one at a time.
Take, for example, the sentence
Rs difficillima erat caput Gorgonis abscdere; eius enim cnspect homins in saxum
mtbantur.
Notice the postponed conjunction enim. This connecting device joins two clauses, each with its own
finite verb (erat and mtbantur).
Within each clause, look at each word as it occurs in the Latin.


Do you recognize it?
How does it function?
Do not go on to the second clause until you have understood the first.
Rs
difficillima
erat
caput
Gorgonis
abscdere
“thing, matter” could be nom. sing., nom. pl., or acc. pl.
“very difficult” must be nom. sing; therefore rs is also nom.sing.
“it was”
“head” could be nom. sing. or acc. sing.
proper noun
infinitive: “to ______”; caput could be its object.
What you know so far gives:
a thing very difficult / it was / head of a Gorgon / to ______.
Check the vocabulary list for the meaning of abscdere:
a thing very difficult it was head of a Gorgon to cut off.
If you want to translate this paraphrase into English, you will have to put the adjective phrase “very
difficult” before its noun and use one of the normal English ways of expressing subject infinitives:
It was a very difficult thing to cut off the head of a Gorgon.
Cutting off a Gorgon’s head was a very difficult matter.
Note that sentences can be divided into clauses and phrases which are grammatical pieces to be
dealt with separately as you move through a passage. In the next reading chapter we will discuss
these more fully.
34
Vocabulary XVII
Nouns
hom, hominis, m. human, man
saxum, -, n.
rock, stone
virg, virginis, f.
maiden
3rd Conjugation I-stem Verb
inspici, inspicere, inspx, inspectum look into or upon
Conjunctions
ac
and
at
but
atque and
Adverb
statim immediately, at once
5. The Gorgon’s Head
Rs difficillima erat caput Gorgnis abscdere; eius enim cnspect homins in saxum mtbantur.
It was a very difficult thing to cut off the Gorgon’s head, for at the sight of it, men were changed into stone.
Propter hanc causam Minerva speculum Perse dederat. Ille igitur tergum vertit, et in speculum
On account of this cause/ For this reason Minerva had given Perseus the mirror. Therefore he turned his back and was
nspicibat; hc mod ad locum vnit ubi Medsa dormibat. Tum falce su caput eius n ct
looking into the mirror; in this way he came to the place where Medusa was sleeping. Then with his scimitar he cut off
abscdit. Cterae Gorgns, quae  somn excittae erant et r ardbant, ubi rem vdrunt, arma
her head with one blow. The other Gorgons, who had been aroused from sleep and were burning with anger, when they saw
cprunt. Perseum interficere volbant. Ille autem dum fugit, galeam magicam induit; et ubi hoc
the situation took up arms. They wanted to kill Perseus. He, however, while he was fleeing, put on the magic helmet,
fcit, statim mnstra eum vidre nn poturunt.
and when he did this, immediately the monsters could not see him.
abscd, -ere,-cd, -csum cut away or off
cnspectus, -s m. sight
mt, -āre, -āvī, -ātum change, transform
causa, -ae f. cause, reason
tergum, - n. back
vert, -ere, vert, versum turn
modus, - m. way, manner
nus, -a, -um (unit, unify)
ictus, -s m. strike, blow
excit, -āre, -āvī, ātum rouse, awaken
vol, velle, volu (irreg) want
6. The Sea Serpent
Post haec Perseus in fns Aethiopum vnit, in quibus Cpheus ill tempore rx erat. Neptnus,
After this Perseus came into the territory of the Ethiopians, in which Cepheus was king at that time. Neptune, god of
maris deus, ab hc offnsus mnstrum horribile mserat. Hoc cottdi  mar venibat et homins
the sea, offended by this, had sent a horrible monster. This (monster) was coming out of the sea daily and devouring
dvorbat. Ob hanc causam pavor anims omnium occupverat. Cpheus igitur vtem de
men. On account of this reason, fear had seized the minds of all. Cepheus therefore consulted the prophet of the god
Hammnis cnsuluit, qu rgem issit suam fliam mnstr trdere. Eius autem flia, nmine
Hammon, who ordered the king to hand over his daughter to the monster. Moreover, his daughter , Andromeda by
Andromeda, virg pulcherrima erat et  su patre amta est. Cpheus ubi hoc audvit, magnum
name, was a most beautiful maiden and was loved by her father. Cepheus, when he heard this, felt great grief.
dolrem snsit. Optns tamen cvs sus  percul extrahere, ea quae deus iusserat facere
Hoping, however, to deliver his citizens from danger, he decided to do those things which the god had ordered.
cnstituit.
offend, -ere, -d, -sum (offense)
cottdi daily
dvor, -āre, -āvī, -ātum (devour) swallow, devour
pavor, -ris m. terror, panic
occup, -āre, āvī, ātum (occupy) seize, fill
vts, vtis m. seer; prophet
cnsul, -ere, -u, -tum (consult)
trd, -ere, -did, -ditum = trns + d
dolor, -ris m. (condolence) pain, grief
senti, -re, sns, snsum (sentiment) perceive, feel
opt, -āre, āvī, -ātum (option) desire
periculum, - n. danger, peril
extrah = ex + trah
35
Lesson XVIII
DEPONENT VERBS
DEPONENT VERBS are mostly passive in form and active in meaning. They have only three principal parts.
Principal Parts
I
II
III
1st sg. present indicative
present infinitive
1st sg.perfect indicative
1st conjugation
cnor
I try
cnr
to try
cntus sum I tried / have tried
2nd conjugation
vereor
I fear
verr
to fear
veritus sum
3rd conjugation
sequor
patior
I follow
sequ
pat
to follow
sectus sum I followed / have followed
passus sum I experienced / have experienced
-stem
4th conjugation
I experience
mentior I lie
to experience
mentr to lie
I feared / have feared
menttus sum I lied / have lied
Synopsis of sequor, sequ, sectus sum
Principal parts are in red.
Active forms are on the left. They are exceptions to the rule that deponents are passive in form.
INDICATIVE
Pres.
Impf.
Fut.
Perf.
Plup.
F. Perf.



sequor
sequbar
sequar
I follow



sectus, -a sum
sectus, -a eram
sectus,- a er
I followed / have followed
I was following
I will follow
I had followed
I will have followed
PARTICIPLES
Pres.
Perf.
Fut.
sequns, -ntis
following
sectrus, -a, -um
about to follow
sectus, -a, -um
having followed
INFINITIVES
Pres.
Perf.
Fut.


sectrus, -a, -um esse
sequ
sectus, -a, -um esse

to be about to follow
to follow
to have followed
Note: Although Latin has a passive form for the future infinitive (e.g., amtum r), deponent verbs use the active form.
Statim homins sequ cntus est. He tried to follow the men immediately.
Matr mentta labrs patitur. Having lied to (her) mother, she will endure hardships.
Medsam verents fgimus, ill autem mortu sunt. Fearing Medusa, we fled, but they died.
36
Vocabulary XVIII
1st conjugation
2nd conjugation
3rd conjugation
3rd conjugation I-stem
4th conjugation
Deponent Verbs
cnor, cnr, cntus sum
vereor, verr, veritus sum
lbor, lb, lapsus sum
sequor, sequ, sectus sum
morior, mor, mortuus sum
patior, pat, passus sum
mentior, mentr, menttus sum
try, attempt
fear
slip, collapse
follow
die
endure, suffer, experience
lie, tell a lie
Exercise XVIII
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Homins qu mentiuntur saepe errant.
Men who lie often make mistakes.
Rmn des verbantur, de enim es in bell saepe servvrunt.
The Romans revered the gods, for the gods often saved them in war.
Perseus d cael lapsus mnstrum interfcit.
Perseus, gliding down from the sky, killed the monster.
Mlits, qu multa pass sunt, in agmine morientur.
The soldiers who have suffered many things, will die in the marching column.
Qu bell multa passus est ad taliam vnit.
He who has endured many things in war has come to Italy.
Vbs qu gravira patimin deus etiam hs fnem dabit.
For you who are enduring more severe things the god will give an end also to these things.
Ignis  Iove missus discipulum qu semper mentibtur interfcit.
The fire sent from Jove/Jupiter has killed the student who was always lying.
 duce iuss equum ingentem in urbem trahere cnbmur.
Ordered by the leader, we were trying to drag the huge horse into the city.
Saxa multa, quae in ltore saepe vdermus,  virginibus relicta sunt.
Many rocks, which we had often seen on the shore, were abandoned by the maidens.
Errvit, lapsus est, nn putvit. (Cicero, For Ligarius 30)
He made a mistake, he slipped, he did not think.
Verba sapientium nn mortua sunt, nam in ills multa bona atque tilia vidr possunt.
The words of wise men have not died, for in them many good and useful things can be seen.
Is autem, qu semper bona facere cntur, mala tamen plrima propter mals patitur.
He, however, who tries always to do good things, nevertheless suffers very many evils on account of bad men.
It doesn’t follow; we will try; they were enduring; I will not die.
Nn sequitur; conbimur; patiēbantur; nn moriar.
Fearing; to fear; to be about to slip; having followed.
Verens; vereri; lapsurus esse; secutus.
A boy who lies often will be punished.
Puer qu saepe mentitur punitur.
The king discerned the mind of the gods and followed (their) words.
Rx mentem derum crvit et verba secutus est.
The wounded soldier was trying to rise, but he was not able.
Mles vulnertus surgere conbtur, sed nn poterat.
I will not lie to the men whom you have sent to me.
Nn mentiar virs qus ad m msist.
The consuls will be ordered to look into these laws.
Consuls hs legs inspicere iubbuntur.
(Those) who strive to defeat (their) enemies often suffer very difficult things.
Qu hosts vincere conantur saepe difficillims rs patiuntur.
The messenger of the gods often slips into our sleep and warns us.
Nuntius derum in somn nostr saepe labitur et ns monet.
Students often look into these books, in which many good (things) have been written.
Discipul in hs librs in quibus multa bona scrpta sunt saepe inspiciunt.
In your (sg) light we will not fear the shadows of the mind nor the evil intentions of our enemies.
In tu lmine nn verbimur umbrs mentis neque hostium mals ments.
Caesar will march with his soldiers into the enemies’ territory; they will try to capture their cities.
Caesar cum mlitibus sus in fns hostium contendet; urbs erum capere conbuntur.
37
Lesson XIX
IRREGULAR VERB: FER, FERRE, TUL, LTUM
fer, ferre, tul, ltum carry, bring, bear, endure
The verb fer is irregular in the present tense. Otherwise, it is conjugated like a regular 3 rd conjugation verb.
PRESENT SYSTEM
Active
fer
fers*
fert*
ferimus
fertis*
ferunt
ferbam
Pres.
Impf.
Passive
feror
ferris*
fertur*
ferimur
ferimin
feruntur
ferbar
I carry
you carry
he / she / it carries
we carry
you carry
they carry
I was carrying
I am carried
you are carried
he / she / it is carried
we are carried
you are carried
they are carried
I was being carried
Fut.
feram
I will carry
ferar
I will be carried
*Note that in the irregular forms, the ending is added directly to the stem without a connecting vowel.
PERFECT SYSTEM
Perf.
tul
I carried / have carried
ltus, -a sum
I was / have been carried
Plup.
tuleram
I had carried
ltus, -a eram
I had been carried
F. Perf.
tuler
I will have carried
ltus, -a er
I will have carried
PARTICIPLES
Pres.
ferns, -ntis
carrying
ltus, -a, -um
Perf.
Fut.
ltrus, -a, -um
having been carried
to be about to carry
INFINITIVES
Pres.
ferre
to carry
ferr*
to be carried
Perf.
tulisse
to have carried
ltus, -a, -um esse
to have been carried
about to carry
ltum r
to be about to be carried
Fut.
ltrus, -a,
*Note the double r.
-um esse
Ablative of Manner
The manner or way in which an action is done is expressed by the preposition cum with the ablative.
cum laude with praise
cum cr with care = carefully
An adjective modifying the object often precedes the preposition. With an adjective, cum may be omitted.
Magn cum cr scrbit.
Magn cr scrbit.
He writes with great care.
38
Vocabulary XIX
st
1 Declension Nouns
cra, -ae, f.
care, concern, worry
lacrima, -ae, f. tear
poena, -ae, f. punishment
poens dare pay the penalty
3rd Declension Nouns
labor, labris, m
work, labor; hardship
cnsul, cnsulis, m. consul
furor, furris, m.
rage, fury
Irregular Verbs
fer, ferre, tul, ltum
carry, bring, bear, endure
refer, referre, rettul, reltum bring back; refer
Conjunction
ut (+ indicative) as, when
Adverb
vix
scarcely, hardly
Exercise XIX
A.
1.
Fertur; ferar; ferbtis.
It is being carried; I will be carried; you (pl) were being carried.
2. Lta sum; reltae erunt; rettulrunt.
I was carried; they will have been carried back; they have brought back.
3. Referre; tulisse; ltra.
To carry back; to have carried; (she) about to carry.
4. Hunc labrem fortiter tulist, ut tuus dux mihi nntivit.
You have borne this hardship bravely, as your leader reported to me.
5. Cnsul scum librs ferre cnstituit.
The consul decided to carry books with him(self).
6. Plrim labrs maximam cram ferunt.
Very many hardships bring very great care.
7. “Sunt lacrimae rrum,” ut pota dxit.* (Vergil Aeneid 1. 462)
“They are the tears of things,” as the poet said.
8. Heri soci nostr arma ad ns ferbant.
Yesterday our allies were bringing arms to us.
9. Ista verba cum furre dicta ex ore tu excdbant.
Those words, spoken in anger, were going out of your mouth.
10. Antequam hodi vnit, in hanc urbem nn pedem tulerat.
Before he came today, he had not set foot into this city.
11. Ill agr bonam fortnam es, qui es accperint, ferent.
Those fields will bring good fortune to those who will have received them.
12. Ille ea, quae in ills gentibus nn potest, in s ferre potest.
That man can bear those things in himself which he cannot bear in those nations.
* Spoken by Aeneas when he sees images of the Trojan War on the walls of Juno’s temple in Carthage.
B.
1. They are carried; you (pl) will be carried; I was bearing.
Feruntur; ferminī; ferbam.
2. You (sg) will have borne; to have been carried; to be about to endure.
Tuleris; latus esse; laturus esse.
3. We will try to bring back great stones from the shore on our shoulders.
 ltore umers (nostrs) saxa magna referre conbimur.
4. He wrote his books about war with great hatred and anger.
Librs d bell (cum) invidi magnā et r scrpsit.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Those laws were passed (use fer) before they were written.
Illae legs latae sunt antequam scrptae sunt.
I am unable to endure his jealousy; I will not hold (back) my tears.
Eius invidiam ferre nn possum; lacrims mes nn tenēbō.
Now they carry rocks from the river to the land.
Nunc/ Iam saxa ab flmine ad terram ferunt.
He has been wounded in his foot with a weapon, but tears do not follow.
In pede tl vulnertus est, sed lacrimae nn sequuntur.
The consul was carried back to his native land with his soldiers by ships.
Consul ad patriam cum mlitibus nvibus latus est.
Brought back into her home with great care, she died the next night.
In domum magn cum cur relāta, proxim nocte mortua est.
On account of the many crimes in the city, they will pay the greatest penalty.
Ob/Propter multa scelera in urbe, maxims poens dabunt.
On account of the anger of the gods, men are said to be suffering many wretched hardships.
Propter ram derum homins mults labrs misers pat dcuntur.
39
Lesson XX
REVIEW
Vocabulary XVI - XIX
cra
cnor
virg
ac
lmen
cnsul
vx
statim
refer
mentior
lbor
poena
ut (+ indicative)
lacrima
sequor
atque
saxum
vinc
inspici
cuius
morior
patior
qu
atque
hom
agmen
poens dare
vereor
furor
fer
contend
labor
punishment
maiden
fear
at once
die
consul
light
and
whose
rock
care
pay the penalty
who
look upon
column (of men)
follow
rage
and
bear
as
allow
bring back
conquer
hasten
scarcely
human
which
slip
tear
try
lie
hardship
I. Combine each pair of sentences by using a relative clause.
1. Urbs victae sunt. Urbs dlbuntur.
Cities which were conquered will be destroyed.
2. Virg s habet.   potest.
The maiden who has feet can follow.
3. Hostem interfc. Hostis m sequbtur.
I killed the enemy who was following me.
4. Haec est urbs. Urbis moenia dlta erant.
This is the city whose gates had been destroyed.
5. Ille erat socius. Ill equum meum ded.
He was the ally to whom I gave my horse.
6. ta vd. tae vcem audveram.
I saw the poet whose voice I had heard.
7. Virginem laudvit. Virg multa passa erat.
He praised the girl who had suffered many things.
8. Homins ba. Cnsul .
Men were coming with whom the consul marched.
9. Lmen feram. men  m.
I will bring a light which will show the way.
10. Iste hom est malus. Iste semper menttur.
That manwho always lies is bad.
II. Review the Ablative of Comparison (Lesson VIII), the Ablative of Degree of Difference (Lesson IX), the Ablative of
Cause (Lesson XI) and the Ablative of Manner (Lesson XIX). Translate the underlined phrases and name the use of the
ablative.
1. That mountain is many feet higher than this one. 6. The king is shorter than the queen.
altior multīs pedibus hc – difference,comparison
brevior rgn - comparison
2. The poet has spoken with much hatred.
7. Because of their fires the enemy was seen.
mult (cum) invidi - manner
ignibus - cause
3. The maiden is much angrier than her mother.
8. Her sisters were burning with envy.
mult - degree of difference, rtior mtre – comparison
cum invidi - manner
4. Because of her anger she will be punished.
9. I think he is much wiser than I am.
r - cause
mult sapientior - degree of difference
5. He will be admired for his bold deeds.
10. He shouted with great rage.
audcibus facts – cause
magn (cum) r
III. Write the following synopses:
vereor: 2nd plural masculine.
patior: 1st plural feminine.
fer: 3rd plural masculine.
IV. Identify the conjugation, person, number, tense, mood and voice and translate the following verbs.
1. cnris
5. I will follow.
2nd,sg,pres ,ind ,dep
1st, sg,fut, ,ind ,dep
you are trying
sequar
2. morientur
6. You (pl.) suffered.
3rd,pl,fut, ind ,dep
2nd,pl,pf, ind ,dep
they will die
pass estis
3. vermur
7. They were dying.
1st,pl,pres, ind ,dep
3rd,pl,impf, ind ,dep
we fear
moriēbantur
4. lapsus eram
8. He will have lied
1st,sg,plupf,dep,ind
3rd,sg,futpf,dep,ind
I had slipped
menttus erat
*future participle of morior is irregular: moritūrus,-a,-um
40
9. fertur
3rd,sg,pres, ind, pass
he is being carried
10. refert
3rd,sg,pres, ind ,act
he brings back
11. pat
pres, inf ,dep
to suffer
12. verns
pres,dep,ptc,nom,sg,masc
fearing
13. following
pres,ptc,act
sequens
14. to have lied
pf,inf,dep
menttus esse
15. it had collapsed
3rd,sg,plupf,ind,dep
lapsum erat
16. we, about to die
fut,act,ptc,nom,pl,m
nōs moritūrī*
41
For Your Information
COMPOUNDS OF FER AND SEQUOR
Here are some of the compounds of fercarry, sequor follow.
Note how the prefix often changes form for ease in pronunciation.
cum + fer = confer , colltum bring together
in + fer
= infer    introduce; cause
per + fer = perfer  endure
cum + sequor = cnsequor, cnsequ, cnsectus sum pursue; result from
in + sequor = insequor, insequ, insectus sum
follow after
per + sequor = persequor, persequ, persectus sum be in hot pursuit
Exercise XX
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Nn omnis moriar. (Horace Odes 3.30.6)
I shall not altogether die.
Brev tempore cram omnem relquisse vidbimur.
In a short time, we will seem to have abandoned all care.
Omn me cur et me labre urbs servta est.
The city has been saved by all my care and diligence.
Prm vidre nn potu, sed servus lmen ad m tulit.
At first I was not able to see, but my slave brought a light to me.
Illus vta eiat mults hrs brevior quam huius (vta).
The life of that man will be many hours shorter than (the life) of this man.
Ille mtrem fugientem miser vce sectus est.
That (boy) followed his fleeing mother with a wretched voice.
Homins, qus ns semper servvimus, nbs gratis grunt.
The men, whom we always guarded, have given us thanks.
Tua fama semper nn parva per omnīs terrīs fertur.
Your always not small reputation will be carried through all lands.
Navis nostra in saxa iam lata est—aut in mar morimur aut ns ad terram illam refermus.
Our ship has now been brought upon the rocks – we will either die in the sea or we will bring ourselves to that land.
Mlits qu ns secut sunt hosts esse nn videntur, arma enim erum nstrs similia sunt.
The soldiers who have followed us don’t seem to be enemies, for their arms are similar to ours.
Multa dona mults rettulist; nm autem meliora pluribus dedit.
You have brought back many gifts to many people; however, no one has given better (gifts) to more people.
Qu furrem derum fortiter ferre potest vix invidiam hominum verbitur.
He who is able to endure bravely the anger of the gods shall scarcely fear the envy of men.
Either we will die fighting bravely or we will conquer.
Aut fortiter pugnantēs morimur aut vincmus.
The men who did not defend the city will pay the penalty.
Vir qu urbem non dfendrunt pons dabunt.
I will do those things which I am able to do.
Illa quae (facere) possum faciam.
Roman soldiers bore many hardships, as they had been ordered.
Rmn mlits mults labors tulrunt ut iuss erant.
They conquer who cannot be conquered.
Vincunt qu vinc nn possunt.
Poets, to whom the light of the moon and stars is dear, sing many songs in the night happily.
Potae quibus lmen lnae sderumque est carum, multa carmina nocte laet cantant.
Because we have carried many burdens, in a short time we will have slipped into sleep.
Quod multa onera tulimus, brev tempore in somnum laps erimus.
We were beginning the task with rage, but we were striving with care.
Ir opus incipibmus opus, sed cum cur contendbmus.
We strive to seek the nearest shores, and we bring the ships to the land which the sailors saw.
Contendimus proxims ors petere, et ferimus nvs ad patriam quam nautae vidrunt.
You will be ordered to strive by means of war, and you will not often be defeated.
Iubbimin bell contendere, et nn saepe vincmin.
Ordered by Caesar to march much more swiftly, the Roman armies came at first light to the territory of the enemies.
 Caesare contendere mult celerius iuss, exercits Rmn prim lce ad fns hostium vnrunt.
They are suffering many (things) in the column; nevertheless, the soldiers follow the leader because of loyalty.
Multa in agmine patiuntur, mlits tamen ducem ob fidem sequuntur.
42
Lesson XXI
IRREGULAR VERBS: VOL, NL, ML
vol,velle, volu
nl, nlle, nlu
wish, want, be willing
not wish, be unwilling
ml, mlle, mlu
wish more, prefer
These three verbs are irregular in the present tense. Otherwise, they are conjugated like regular 3rd conjugation verbs. They
have no passive forms.
VOL
NL
ML
PRESENT SYSTEM
I wish
you wish
he wishes
we wish
you wish
they wish
Impf.
vl
vs
vult
volumus
vultis
volunt
volbam
Fut.
volam
Pres.
I do not wish
you do not wish
he does not wish
we do not wish
you do not wish
they do not wish
I was wishing
nl
nn vs
nn vult
nlumus
nn vultis
nlunt
nlbam
I prefer
you prefer
he prefers
we prefer
you prefer
they prefer
I was not wishing
ml
mvs
mvult
mlumus
mvultis
mlunt
mlbam
I will wish
nlam
I will not wish
mlam
I will prefer
I have wished
nlu
I have not wished
mlu
I was preferring
PERFECT SYSTEM
Perf.
volu
Plup.
volueram I had wished
nlueram I had not wished
mlueram I had preferred
F. Perf.
voluer I will have wished
nluer
mluer
I will not have wished
I have preferred
I will have preferred
PARTICIPLES
Pres.
volns, -ntis wishing
—
nlns, -ntis not wishing
Perf.
—
—
—
Fut.
—
—
—
INFINITIVES
Pres.
velle
Perf.
 to have wished
to wish
nlle
to wish not
 to have wished not
—
—
Fut.
mlle
to prefer
 to have preferred
—
Vol, nl, and ml are usually accompanied by complementary infinitives.
Ille puer epistulam scrbere nlbat.
That boy was not willing to write a letter.
Audre quam dcere mlunt.
They prefer to listen rather than to talk.
Quod vs, facere nl.
What you want I am not willing to do.
The following verbs of wishing, trying, deciding, beginning, fearing, being able, etc. may take a complementary infinitive
cnor
cnstitu
contend
incipi
ml
nl
par
possum
tend
time
vereor
vol
43
in the passive:
dcor
putor
videor
Vocabulary XXI
th
4 Declension Nouns
fructus, s, m. enjoyment, profit, fruit
ictus, -s, m.
blow, strike
sentus, -s, m. senate
sus, -s, m.
use, application, practice; skill
Irregular Verbs
ml, mlle, mlu
prefer
nl, nlle, nlu
not wish, not want, be unwilling
vol, velle, volu
wish, want
Exercise XXI
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Volunt ns sequ, sed nlumus.
They want to follow us/They want us to follow, but we do not want (that).
Excdents ex urbe nn vidr mlunt.
Departing from the city, they prefer not to be seen.
Mvs esse lber, quam magnus.
You prefer to be free rather than great.
Nluist tuum patrem interfic.
You did not want your father to be killed.
Velle et mlle nn sunt eadem.
To wish and to prefer are not the same thing.
Agricola fructs labrum surum vidre vult.
The farmer wants to see the fruits of his labors.
Ml dominum bonum habre; icts pat nl.
I prefer to have a good master; I do not want to suffer blows.
Id dcere nolu; “mihi” dcere volu, tamen “huic” dx.
I didn’t want to say that; I wanted to say “to me,” however, I said “to to this man.”
(This is adapted from a remark in a play by Plautus, conveniently using forms of vol, nl, and pronouns.)
Quod fcist sentus laudvit.
What you have done the senate has praised.
Haec dna tibi d ad tuum sum frctumque.
I give you these gifts for your use and enjoyment.
Qu in sent sapiens habr vult, nn plrima dcit.
(He) who wishes to be considered wise in the senate does not say very many things.
ra cvium in sentum ferbtur, quod ille lgs mals fcerat.
The anger of the citizens was brought against the senate, because it had made bad laws.
Illae gents magnum sum in arms habbant, quod mults anns inter s contenderant.
Those tribes had great experience in arms because they had fought amongst themselves for many years.
Postquam in rgna nostra vnrunt, nn vnisse volent, nam noster rx est cerrimus.
After they have come into our realms, they will wish not to have come, for our king is very fierce.
We do not all prefer to be praised.
Ns omnēs laudr nn malumus.
I can follow, but I prefer to lead.
Sequ possum, sed dcere ml.
He wishes to be feared rather than loved.
Timr quam amr vult.
They wish to have the use and enjoyment of their (own) fields.
sum frctumque agrrum surum habre volunt.
We preferred to make the journey on foot.
Iter in pede facere maluimus.
Fortune wished to give us better things.
Fortuna nobs melira dare voluit.
They wish to carry back all the gifts which they have received.
Referre omnia dona volunt, quae accprunt.
You (sg) don’t wish to fight, for you fear the strikes of the javelins.
Pugnre nn vs, nam icts tlrum verris/tims.
The words which the poet wanted to write, the senate did not want him to write.
Verba quae pota scrbere volbat, sentus eum scrbere nlbat.
I do not want you to lie to the queen, for she holds you most dear.
T rgnae mentr nl, nam illa t carissimum habet.
He does not want to live his life badly, for his mother has taught him to do good (things).
Vtam mal agere nn vult, nam mater sua eum bona facere docuit.
They were always suffering either blows or falls, when they were following the very fierce leader.
Aut icts aut css semper patibantur, ubi ducem cerrimum sequbantur.
44
Lesson XXII
READING: DIVIDING THE SENTENCE (1)
In Lesson XVII you learned to read each word as it occurs in Latin and to pause at the end of a
group of words. Before you translate and before you check the vocabulary list, look at how the
sentence can be divided into groups. This lesson and the next reading lesson discuss how to
recognize what words go together in a sentence.
In Latin, a sentence may consist of a single word: Dxit, “He said.” Usually, however, sentences
consist of groups of words.


o
o
A PHRASE is a group of related words not containing a subject and predicate.
A CLAUSE is a group of words containing a subject and predicate.
The MAIN CLAUSE contains the main verb and is the grammatical core of the sentence.
A SUBORDINATE CLAUSE depends upon the rest of the sentence. It cannot stand alone.
Recognizing Clauses
The connecting devices that you began to notice in Lesson XII help to divide a long passage into
clauses. They stand at or near the beginning of a clause. Verbs often mark the end of a clause:
Andromeda, ubi ea dis vnit, ad ltus dducta est et in cnspect omnium ad saxum
adligta est. Ftum eius omns dplrbant, nec lacrims tenre poterant.
Read one clause at a time. If you are translating, do not move outside the boundaries of a clause
until you have translated every word inside them.
Connecting devices will often be conjunctions, which by definition join or connect in some way.
Conjunctions may mark new clauses.

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS connect a

quod, dum, postquam, ubi, ut
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS connect similar clauses or phrases:
et, sed, ac, atque, aut, autem, enim, nam, nec, neque, tamen
subordinate clause to the rest of the sentence:
Sometimes a subordinate clause may be nested inside another clause:
Andromeda, ubi ea dis vnit, ad ltus dducta est.
45
Vocabulary XXII
Verbs
curr, -ere, cucurr, cursum
clm (1)
senti, sentre, sns, snsum
Adverbs
iam now, already
subit suddenly
run, hasten
shout
feel, perceive
Conjunction
neque and not, nor
nec
and not, nor
neque...neque neither...nor
7. The Human Sacrifice
Tunc rx diem certam dxit et omnia parvit. Andromeda, ubi ea dis vnit, ad ltus dducta est et
Then the king set a certain day and prepared all things. Andromeda, when that day* arrived, was led to the shore and
in cnspect omnium ad saxum adligta est. Omns ftum eius dplrbant, nec lacrims tenre
in the sight of all was tied to a rock. All deplored her fate, and they were not able to hold back their tears.
poterant. At subit, dum mnstrum exspectant, Perseus accurrit. Omnia audvit et puellam
But suddenly, while they were awaiting the monster, Perseus hurried up. He heard everything and saw the wretched
miseram vdit. Subit fremitus terribilis audtur; ac cvs mnstrum horribil speci prgrediens
girl. Suddenly a terrible roar is heard**; and the citizens see from far off a monster with a horrid appearance approaching.
long cnspiciunt. Omns cnspect eius terrentur. Mnstrum magn celeritte ad ltus contendit,
Everybody is terrified at the sight of it. The monster with great speed hurried to the shore. and now came up
iamque accessit ad locum ubi puella est.
to the place where the girl is.
*dis may be masculine in the singular only. **present tense for more vivid narrative.
certus, -a, -um (certain)
accurr = ad + curr
ddc = d + dc
fremitus, -s m. roar, groan, rumble
adlig (1) tie, bind
prgredior, prgredi, prgressus sum march or go
dplr (1) lament, mourn
forward, advance
exspect = ex + spect, wait for
accd, -ere, -cess, -cessum approach, come up to
8. The Rescue
At Perseus haec vdns, gladium suum dxit, et postquam tlria induit, in caelum ascendit. Tum
But Perseus, seeing this, drew his sword and, after he put on the winged sandals, rose into the sky. Then
dsuper in mnstrum impetum subit fcit, et gladi su collum eius graviter vulnervit.
he made an attack on the monster from above and with his sword wounded his neck severely.
Mnstrum vulnus sentins, fremitum horribilem didit, et sine mor ttum corpus in aquam mersit.
Monster, feeling the wound, gave out a horrible roar and without delay immersed his whole body in the water.
Perseus circum ltus volns, reditum eius exspectbat. Mare autem undique sanguine inficitur. Post
Perseus, flying around the shore, waited for his return. Moreover, the sea was dyed with blood on all sides.
breve tempus mnstrum rrsus caput sustulit; mox tamen  Perse ict gravire vulnertum est.
After a short time the monster raised its head again; soon however it was wounded by Perserus with a more serious blow.
Tum iterum s in unds mersit, neque poste vsum est.
Then it plunged itself again into the waves; nor was it seen thereafter.
dc, ere, -dx, -ductum lead out; unsheath
gladius, - m. sword
dsuper = d + super, adv. from above
impetus, -s m. attack
collum, - n. (collar) neck
d, dere, did, ditum = ex + d
mora, -ae f. (moratorium) delay
ttus, -a, -um, whole, entire
merg, -ere, mers, mersum (submerge) plunge, sink
reditus, -s m. return
undique, adv. on all sides
infici = in + faci
sanguis, sanguinis m. blood
rrsus, adv. again
toll, -ere, sustul, subltum lift, raise
mox, adv. soon
iterum, adv. again
poste, adv. afterwards
unda, -ae f. wave
46
Lesson XXIII
INDIRECT STATEMENT
Any statement can be expressed directly or indirectly. INDIRECT STATEMENTS are introduced by verbs of saying,
thinking, knowing, telling, perceiving, and showing.
Direct: Your father is leading.
Direct: The girl is being advised.
Indirect: I say that your father is leading.
Indirect: She sees that the girl is being advised.
In English, an indirect statement is usually introduced by the conjunction “that” and is followed by a subordinate clause
with its own subject and finite verb.
Accusative and Infinitive of Indirect Statement
In Latin, an indirect statement uses an accusative subject and an infinitive verb in place of a nominative subject and a
finite verb. No conjunction introduces the subordinate clause; the English conjunction “that” is not expressed in Latin.
Dc patrem tuum iam dcere. I say that your father is already leading.
Puts puellam monr.
You think that the girl is being advised.
The accusative and infinitive construction is a NOUN CLAUSE and usually functions as a direct object to a transitive verb.
Direct Object:
Accusative and Infinitive:
Puellam videt.
She sees the girl.
Puellam legere videt. She sees that the girl is reading.
Tense of the Infinitive in Indirect Statement
The tense of the infinitive retains the tense of the verb of the direct statement.
If the verb of the direct statement is present, the tense of the infinitive will be present.
DIRECT STATEMENT
INDIRECT STATEMENT
Pater dcit.
His father is leading.
Dcit patrem dcere.
He says that his father is leading.
Puella montur.
The girl is advised.
Dcit puellam monr.
He says that the girl is being advised.
If the verb of the direct statement is future, the tense of the infinitive will be future.
Pater dcet.
His father will lead.
Dcit patrem ductrum esse. He says that his father will lead.
Puella monbitur. The girl will be advised. Dcit puellam monitum r.
He says that the girl will be advised.
If the verb of the direct statement is imperfect, perfect or pluperfect, the tense of the infinitive will be perfect.
Pater dxit.
His father led.
Puella monbatur. The girl was advised.
Dcit patrem dxisse.
He says that his father led.
Dcit puellam monitam esse. He says that the girl was advised.
In the future active and perfect passive infinitives, the participle agrees with the accusative subject of the infinitive in
case, number, and gender:
Dcit patrem ductrum esse. He says that his father will lead.
Dcit puellam monitam esse.
He says that the girl was advised.
47
Vocabulary XXIII
rd
3 Conjugation Verb
leg, legere, lg, lectum pick out, choose, read
2nd Declension Nouns
aurum, -, n.
gold
caelum, -, n.
sky, heavens
ftum, -, n.
fate
ferrum, -, n.
iron; sword
imperium, -, n. power, rule
Exercise XXIII
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Dc cnsulem venre; dcis cnsulem ventrum esse; dcit cnsulem vnisse.
I say that the consul is coming; you say the consul will come; he says that the consul has come.
Dcimus ferrum bonum esse; dcitis aurum melius esse; dcunt aquam optimam semper fuisse.
We say that iron is good; you say that gold is better; they say that water has always been the best.
Audit mlits vincere; audit mlits vcisse; audit mlits victrs esse.
He hears that the soldiers are winning; he hears that the soldiers have conquered; he hears that the soldiers will win.
Vide hosts vinc; vidmus hosts victs esse; vidtis hosts victum r.
I see that the enemy is being conquered; we see that the enemy was conquered; you see that the enemy will be conquered.
Ftum urbis  des cnstitutur.
The fate of the city will be decided by the gods.
Vidmus cnsuls ex urbe excessisse.
We see that the consuls have left the city.
Putat invidiam erum ferr nn posse.
He thinks that their envy cannot be borne.
Imperium nn ferr sed verbs tenr potest.
Power cannot be held by the sword but by words.
Pater sentit flium amici mentr d fact illus.
The father feels that his friend’s son is lying about the deed of that man.
Mult dcunt caelum domum derum esse.
Many say that the sky is the home of the gods.
Cnsul cernit mentem istus malam fuisse.
The consul perceives that the intention of that man was bad.
Ego dc aurum melius esse ferr; t autem ferrum mvs.
I say that gold is better than iron; you however prefer iron.
Dcunt sentum hanc rem ad cnsuls reltrum esse.
They say that the senate will refer this matter to the consuls.
Audmus eum in edem loc verba similia heri dxisse.
We hear that he said similar words yesterday in the same place.
We think that the students are shouting.
5.You (pl) think that the students have shouted.
Discipuls clamre putmus.
Discipuls clamvisse puttis.
They think that these students are best.
6. We think that those students will be best.
Hs discipuls esse optims putant.
Ills discipuls futrs esse optims putmus.
You say that we all prefer gold.
7. I have read that he did not want power.
Ns omns aurum malle dcis.
Eum imperium noluisse lg.
We think that she will pay the penalty.
8. He will say that this was my fate.
Eam poens datram esse putmus.
Id/Hoc fuisse ftum meum dcet.
You (sg) hear that the sailors are shouting and are running from the ships.
Nauts clamre et  nvibus currere auds.
The consul sees that that man has come into the senate.
Consul illum in sentum vnisse videt.
I think that my friend will send letters and books to the city for me.
Meum amcum epistuls librsque mihi ad urbem missrum esse put.
They say that those laws have been swiftly carried (use fer) by the senate.
Ills lgs celeriter  sent lts esse dcunt.
They hear that the consul is not willing to punish the enemies with blows.
Consulem hosts ictibus pnre nolle audiunt.
14. He always thinks that Roman citizens will listen to his words.
Cvs Rmns (sua) verba audtrs esse semper putat.
15. We see the farmer running; we see that the farmer is running.
Agricolam currentem vidmus; agricolam currere vidmus.
16. You (pl) see that our friends are coming today; you (pl) hear that our friends will come tomorrow.
Amcs nostrs hdi venre vidtis; amcs nostrs crs ventrs esse audtis.
13.
48
Lesson XXIV
INDIRECT STATEMENT
Translation of the Tense of the Infinitive
The translation of the infinitive into English depends on the tense of the introductory verb of saying, thinking, knowing,
telling, perceiving or showing.
In the following examples, note how the English translations of the infinitives change depending on the tense of the
introductory verbs.
A present infinitive expresses action taking place at the same time as the main verb.
Dcit
Dcet
Dcbat
Dxit
Dxerat
He says that your father is leading.
He will say
He was saying that your father was leading.
He said that
He had said
patrem tuum dcere.
A perfect infinitive expresses action completed before the time of the main verb.
Dcit
Dcet
Dcbat
Dxit
Dxerat
He says that your father led.
He will say
He was saying that your father had led.
He said
He had said
patrem tuum dxisse.
A future infinitive expresses action that will be completed after the time of the main verb.
Dcit
Dcet
Dcbat
Dxit
Dxerat
patrem tuum ductrum esse.
He says that your father will lead.
He will say
He was saying that your father would lead.
He said
He had said
Pronoun Subjects in Indirect Statement
Pronoun subjects of indirect statements must be expressed, unlike pronoun subjects of direct statements.
Timent.
They are afraid.
Putvimus es timre.
We thought that they were afraid.
Vocvimus. We called.
Audvit ns vocvisse.
She heard that we had called.
Capta est. She was captured. Mnstrs eam captam esse. You point out that she has been captured.
If the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main verb, the reflexive pronoun must be used.
Dcimus ns timre.
We say that we are afraid.
Audvit s voctam esse.
She heard that she had been called.
Dmnstrbunt s adfuisse. They will point out that they were present.
Direct Objects of the Infinitive
If the infinitive is a transitive verb, it may take a direct object. The indirect statement may therefore have two
accusatives, one the subject of the infinitive and the other the direct object of the infinitive.
Dcunt t aurum mlle.
Putvit s ills gents victram esse.
They say that you prefer gold.
She thought that she would conquer those peoples.
49
Vocabulary XXIV
st
nd
1 / 2 Declension Adjectives
antquus, -a, -um ancient
laetus, -a, -um
happy, joyful
novus, -a, -um
new
pblicus, -a, -um public
rs pblica state, republic
Irregular Verbs
absum, abesse, fu, futrus
adsum, adesse, adfu, adfutrus
be away
be present
Exercise XXIV
A.
1. Putvimus novs discipuls clmre.
4. Putverant ills discipuls laets esse.
We thought that the new students were shouting.
They had thought that those students were happy.
2. Putvist discipuls clmvisse.
5. Putvermus ns discipuls laetissims futrs esse.
You thought that the students had shouted.
We had thought that we would be very happy students.
3. Putvimus discipuls clmtrs esse.
6. Cnsul vdit illum in sent adfuisse.
We thought that the students would shout.
The consul saw that that man was present in the senate.
7. Cnsul dīxit illum in sent adfuisse.
The consul said that that man had been in the senate.
8. Pota dxit Rmam urbem antquam esse.
The poet said that Rome was an ancient city.
9. Cnsul semper putbat istum novs rs actrum esse.
The consul always thought that that man would do new things/lead a revolution.
10. Vidbimus agricolam currentem; vdimus eum currere.
We will see the farmer running; we saw that he was running.
11. Putmus eam futram esse; putvimus eam futram esse.
We think that she will be absent; we thought that she would be absent.
12. Audvrant cnsulem novum hosts re pblicae pnre nlle.
They had heard that the new consul was not willing to punish the enemies of the state.
13. Heri audvist amcs nostrs crs venturs esse; hodi vidbis es adesse.
Yesterday you heard that our friends would come tomorrow; today you will see that they are present.
14. Putbam meum amcum epistuls librsque mihi ad urbem missrum esse.
I thought that my friend would send letters and books to the city for me.
15. Dcent s omns aurum mlle quam ferrum; dcbant s omns aurum mlle quam ferrum.
They will say that they all prefer gold rather than iron; they used to say that they all preferred gold rather than iron.
16. Audis nauts clmre et d nvibus currere; audvist nauts clmre et d nvibus currere.
You will hear that the sailors are shouting and running from the ships; you heard that the sailors were shouting and
running from the ships.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
I said that I would come; you (sg) said that you were coming; he said that he had come.
Dx m ventrum esse; dxist t venre; dxit s ventum esse.
We used to say that iron was good; you (pl) used to say that gold was better; however, those (men) said that water was best.
Dcbmus ferrum esse bonum; dcbtis aurum esse melius; ill tamen dxrunt aquam esse optimam.
Everyone had heard that the soldiers would be present; he had heard that the soldiers were present; she had heard that the soldiers
had been present.
Omns audverant mlits adfutrs esse; audverat mlits adesse; ea audverat mlits adfuisse.
I saw that the enemy were being conquered; you (pl) saw that you would be conquered.
Vd hosts vinc; vdistis vs victum r.
The consul will see that his enemies are present in the republic.
Consul vidbit hosts (suōs) adesse in r pblic.
We heard that he had already said similar things in the same place.
Audvimus eum similia in edem loc iam dxisse.
They said that the senate would refer this new matter to the consuls.
Dxrunt sentum hanc rem novam ad consuls/consulibus relatrum esse.
The king said that the mountain was the ancient home of a god.
Rx dxit montem esse domum antquam deī.
I always say that books are stronger than the sword; you (sg), however, have often preferred the sword.
(Ego) semper dc librs esse fortirs quam ferrum; (tū) tamen ferrum saepe mluist.
The father perceived that his son was lying; the mother, however, thought that he had not lied.
Pater crvit flium mentr; mter tamen putvit illum nn menttum esse.
We saw the consuls departing from the city; you (sg) had already heard that they would depart.
Vdimus consls ex urbe excedents; iam audvers es excessros esse.
We think that their envy cannot be endured; we thought that their envy could not be borne.
Putmus invidiam erum nn ferr posse; putvimus invidiam erum nn ferr posse.
50
Lesson XXV
REVIEW
Vocabulary XXI - XXIV
vol
caelum
rs pblica
iam
curr
nec
adsum
ictus
sus
leg
aurum
clm
subit
imperium
pblicus
absum
senti
ftum
laetus
novus
nl
ferrum
fructus
sentus
neque...neque
antquus
ml
neque
power
be unwilling
be present
prefer
suddenly
state
happy
blow
senate
shout
new
enjoyment
of the people
ancient
gold
now
iron
fate
run
neither...nor
sky
skill
be willing
feel
already
read
and not
be away
I. The introductory verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, telling, perceiving, and showing which have been introduced are:

cern
m
dc
nti

refer
scrb
leg
mentior


senti
vide
Give their principal parts.
II. Sentences with indirect statements:
1. He says (that) the enemies are following.
Dcit hosts sequ.
2. We write (that) we will come.
Scrbimus ns ventrs esse.
3. They show (that) the students are present.
Monstrant discipuls adesse.
4. She shouted (that) she had seen fire.
Ea clamvit s ignem vdisse.
5. I reported (that) the king had been killed.
Nntiv rgem interfectum esse.
6. You (sg) saw (that) I was running.
Vdist m currere.
7. They discerned (that) the iron was not gold.
Crvrunt ferrum nn esse aurum.
8. I will show (that) that man has not been punished.
Monstrb illum nn pntum esse.
9. Mother read (that) father was suffering.
Mter lgit patrem pat.
10. We had heard (that) the consul would save us.
Audvermus consulem ns servtrum esse.
III. Vol, nl, ml, and possum often use complementary infinitives. Replace the form of vol with the same form of
nl, ml, and possum in these sentences.
1. Epistuls scrbere vol.
I want to write letters.
2. Perseus caput Medsae abscdere voluit.
Perseus wanted to cut off Medusa’s head.
3. Cvs lacrims tenre volbant.
The citizens wanted to hold back their tears.
4. Celerius contendere vs.
You want to march faster.
5. Mlits hosts pugnre volent.
6. Hae virgins semper cnri volunt.
These maidens are always willing to try.
7. In umer dextr vulnerr vol.
I want to be wounded in the right shoulder.
8. Agmen equrum cnsistere voluerant.
The column of horses had wanted to stop.
9. Illud saxum inspicere volumus.
We want to look at that stone.
10. Sentus eum esse cnsulem voluerit.
The soldiers will be willing to fight the enemy.
The senate will have wanted him to be consul.
51
For Your Information
COMPOUNDS OF SUM AND VOL
ad + sum = adsum, adesse, adfurus
absum, abesse, fufutrus
Note that fu assimilates the b of ab with the f of fu.
nn + vl nl, nolle, nlu
lml, mlle, m
Exercise XXV
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Hs rs ad sentum relts esse audvit.
He heard that these things had been referred to the senate.
Ille territus clmvit hominem ingentem adesse.
That frightened man shouted that a huge man was present.
Mults cum lacrims clmvit s umbram vdisse.
With many tears he cried that he had seen a ghost.
Sapients antqu putbant omnia ft facta esse.
The wise ancients/ Ancient wise men used to think that everything had been done by fate.
Omnia, sine quibus dcit s vvere nlle, sunt tilissima.
All the things, without which he says he is unwilling to live, are very useful.
Dx ns omns cucurrisse et petvisse, sed hominem nn vdisse.
I said that we all had run and searched, but had not seen the man.
Omns, qu aderant, clmvrunt nihil peius esse ill homine.
All who were present shouted that there was nothing worse than that man.
Rmnus magnus dxit s hostem Rmnrum etiam in sent sedentem vidre.
A great Roman said that he saw an enemy of the Romans sitting even in the senate.
Nocte servus meus sibi cernere vsus est umbram magn voce clmantem et ferrum habentem.
At night my slave seemed to himself to perceive a ghost crying with a loud voice and holding a sword.
Nn modo in antquissims librs, sed etiam in novs legimus sentum rem pblicam bene gessisse.
Not only in very old books, but also in new ones we read that the senate had run the state well.
E qu ns omns, qu rem pblicam, qu imperium Rmnum dlre cnt sunt,  des pnientur.
Those who have tried to destroy all of us, the state, and the Roman rule will be punished by the gods.
He preferred to be rather than to appear (to be) good.
Bonus esse quam vidr mluit.
I perceive that you (sg) are not happy as you write (writing).
T nn esse flcem scrbentem cern.
What you (pl) want, I want; therefore we will be friends.
Quod vultis, vol; erimus igitur amc.
Jupiter said that he would give power without end to the Romans.
Iuppiter dxit s imperium sine fne Rmns datrum esse.
What you (sg) said in the senate that you would do, you have not done.
Quod in sent dxist t factrum esse, nn fcist.
The son of Caesar, Augustus by name, wishes to write very many new laws.
Flius Caesaris, Augustus nmine, plurims lgs novs scrbere vult.
A great Roman says that he has seen an enemy of the state sitting even in the senate.
Rmnus magnus dcit s hostem re pblicae in sent sedentem vdisse.
What is not discerned with the eyes can nevertheless often be seen by the mind.
Quod nn oculs cernitur, saepe tamen mente vidr potest.
In the books about the laws it is often written that the laws of the Romans were very good.
In librs d lgibus saepe scrbitur lgs Rmnrum fuisse optims.
The leaders of the Romans were able to be defeated neither with gold nor with the sword.
Ducs Rmnrum neque aur neque ferr vinc poterant.
That man suddenly ordered letters to be brought back which he had already sent.
Ille subito epistuls, qus iam mserat, remitt iussit.
I seem to myself to see that this city, the light of the lands, is suddenly being destroyed by that man with fire and
sword.
Hanc urbem, lcem terrrum, ab ill vir igne ferrque subito dlr cernere mihi videor.
52
Lesson XXVI
IRREGULAR VERB: E, RE, I / V, ITUM
IPSE, IPSA, IPSUM
e, re, i/ v, itum go
Passive forms of e are rare.
PRESENT
e
s
it
mus
tis
eunt
IMPERFECT
bam
bs
bat
bmus
btis
bant
I go, am going
you go, are going
he goes, is going
we go, are going
you go, are going
they go, are going
PERFECT
FUTURE
b
bis
bit
bimus
bitis
bunt
I was going
you were going
he was going
we were going
you were going
they were going
PLUPERFECT
FUTURE PERFECT
/ v I went/ have gone
veram I had gone
The perfect stem v- usually drops the v.
PARTICIPLES
Present
Perfect
Future
I will go
you will go
he will go
we will go
you will go
they will go
/ ver I will have gone
INFINITIVES
ins, euntis
going
Present
Perfect
Future

itrus, -a, -um
about to go
re
to go
visse / sse
to have gone
trus, -a, -um esse to be about to go
Intensive Adjective: ipse, ipsa, ipsum
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
ipse
ipsus
ips
ipsum
ips
ipsa
ipsus
ips
ipsam
ips
Neuter
Plural
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
ipsum
ipsus
ips
ipsum
ips
ips
ipsrum
ipss
ipss
ipss
ipsae
ipsrum
ipss
ipss
ipss
ipsa
ipsrum
ipss
ipsa
ipss
Ipse, ipsa, ipsum emphasizes a noun or pronoun. It agrees with the word it modifies in case, number, and gender.
It may be translated: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself; ourselves, yourselves, themselves; in person; very.
Ips hoc fcimus. We did this ourselves.
We did this in person.
Illa umbra ipsa mih dxit. That ghost itself spoke to me.
That very ghost spoke to me..
Ipse, ipsa, ipsum may be translated “very,” especially when used with a demonstrative.
in hc ips urbe
Like any adjective, ipse,
in this very city
ipsa, ipsum may be used substantively.
Ips vdimus.
We saw the man himself.
53
Vocabulary XXVI
Irregular Verbs
e, re, i / v, itum
go
sube, subre, subi / subv, subitum undergo
3rd Declension Nouns
sdus, sderis, n.
star
Intensive Adjective
ipse, ipsa, ipsum
myself, yourself, himself,
herself, itself; ourselves
yourselves, themselves;
in person; very
Exercise XXVI
A.
1.
bant; i; re; visse; itrum esse.
They were going; I went; to have gone; to be about to go.
2. Dxit s ad ipss ports urbis re.
He said that he was going to the very gates of the city.
3. Dxit s ad ipss ports urbis itrum esse.
He said that he would go to the very gates of the city.
4. Ego ipse es vd; vs ips es vdistis.
I myself saw them; you yourselves saw them.
5. Ips multa mala nova subvimus.
We ourselves have undergone many new evil things.
6. Fugere nn poterant, quod in urbem ierant.
They could not flee, because they had gone into the city.
7. Ipse in Asiam re nlu. (Cicero Letters to Atticus 3.19.1)
I myself did not wish to go into Asia.
8. Illa sunt sdera quae vocantur “errantia.”
Those are stars which are called “wandering.”*
9. Ad exercitum Pompeius erat itrus, et statim iit. (Cicero Letters to his Friends 8.4.4)
Pompeius was about to go to the army, and suddenly he went.
10. Edem tempore rgnam ipsam cum comitibus mults vd.
At the same time I saw the queen herself with many companions.
11. Vdrunt es fugients ab s re.
They saw that those fugitives were going by themselves.
12. Ad m scrbis t in Asiam nn re cnstituisse.
You write to me that you have decided not to go to Asia.
13. Audvimus eum ills temporibus nn saepe in sent adfuisse.
We heard that he had not often been in the senate in those times.
14. Cvs rem pblicam ipsam dfendrunt, quam saepe laudvrunt.
The citizens defended the very state, which they often praised.
15. Ill serv, qu  domins fgerant, ips poens nn dedrunt.
Those slaves, who had fled from their masters, did not pay the penalty themselves.
16. Postquam Caesar mortuus est, Rmn sdus d cael lapsum per noctem mult cum lce cucurrisse dcbant.
After Caesar died, the Romans said a star slipping through the sky had run through the night with a bright light.
*Cicero referred to five planets (not the sun and moon) as “wandering stars.”
B.
1. You (sg.) were going; we will go; they are about to go.
bs; bimus; sunt tr.
2. We will go to the gates of the city where we will try to inspect the situation.
Ad ports urbis bimus, ubi rem inspicere conbimur.
3. I fortify myself at these times by the use of gold, not the sword.
Hs temporibus s aur, nn ferr, m mni.
4. You yourselves have read these very words in books written by ancient poets.
Vs ips haec ipsa verba in librs  pots antiqus scrīptīs lgistis.
5. Stretching (his) hands toward the stars, he called the gods.
Mans ad sdera tendens, des vocvit.
6. The fates could be discerned in the stars of the sky by the ancient Romans.
Fta in sderibus cael  Rmns antqus cern poturunt.
7. During the day the stars themselves cannot be seen by the eyes of men.
Diē sīdera ipsa oculis hominum vidr nn possunt.
8. While these things were being carried on in the city Rome, all the tribes of Italy had gone to arms themselves.
Dum haec in urbe Rom geruntur, omns gents taliae ad arma ipsae erant.
9. At night I can see the stars rising out of the very sea and into the sky.
Nocte sdera  mar ips et in caelum surgentia vidre possum.
10. He had undergone many more difficult things than these on behalf of the state.
Pr r public multa difficira suberat quam hs.
11. At this time on account of your letters he perceives that he will be very dear among you.
Hc tempore propter vestrs epistuls cernit s futrum esse carissimum inter vs.
12. For he said to me that you (sg) were in Italy and that he was sending the boys to you.
Mihi enim dxit t esse in tali et s puers ad t mittere.
54
Lesson XXVII
READING: DIVIDING THE SENTENCE (2)
Recall the distinction between clauses and phrases:


A phrase is a group of related words not containing a subject and predicate.
A clause is a group of words containing a subject and predicate.
Phrases are often built around prepositions, participles, or infinitives.

A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE consists of a preposition, its object, and any words modifying the
object. A preposition often, but not always, begins its phrase:
ad ltus
magn cum laude

nbscum
pr benefici
A PARTICIPLE PHRASE consists of a noun or pronoun, a participle, and any related words. The
related words often lie between the participle and the word with which it agrees; these
participle sandwiches form a single unit of meaning:
Cpheus maxim gaudi adfectus
Perseus haec audins
An INFINITIVE PHRASE consists of an infinitive and its object or any other words associated with it:
mtrem suam rrsus vidre
Prepositional, participle, and infinitive phrases can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs:
(Mtrem suam rrsus vidre) volbat.
Noun phrase (object of volbat)
Tandem igitur (cum uxre su) ( rgn Cphe) discessit.
Adverb phrases
Phrases must be translated as single units. Keep the elements of a phrase together as you translate.
Here are a few sentences [in which every subordinate clause has been put in brackets], every phrase
of more than one word has been put (in parentheses), every verb has been put in bold face type, and
every connecting device in red:
Perseus [postquam (ad ltus) descendit], prmum tlria exuit; tum (ad saxum) vnit [ubi
Andromeda adligta erat]. Ea autem (omnem spem saltis) dposuerat et [ubi Perseus adiit],
terrre paene exanimta erat. Ille vincula statim solvit, et puellam patr reddidit.
55
Vocabulary XXVII
Noun
coniunx, coniugis m. / f. spouse
Adverb
quondam once, at one time, formerly
Adjective
pauc, -ae, -a few
9. The Reward of Valor
Perseus postquam ad ltus descendit, prm tlria exuit; tum ad saxum vnit ubi Andromeda
After Perseus descended to the shore, first he took off the sandals; then he came to the rock where Andromeda
adligta erat. Ea autem omnem spem saltis dposuerat et ubi Perseus adiit, terrore paene
had been tied up. However, she had lost (set aside) all hope of rescue, and when Perseus came up, she was almost
exanimta erat. Ille vincula statim solvit, et puellam patr reddidit. Cpheus maxim gaudi
dead from fright. He immediately loosened her bonds and restored the girl to her father. Cepheus, moved by the
adfectus nn modo meritam gratiam pr benefici Perse rettulit, sed etiam Andromedam ipsam e
greatest joy, not only rendered deserved thanks to Perseus for his kindness, but also gave Andromeda herself to him in
in mtrimnium dedit. Ille libenter hoc dnum accpit. Paucs anns cum coniuge su in e
marriage. He gladly accepted this gift. For a few years he lived happily with his wife in that region
regine habitbat, et in magn honre ab omnibus Aethiopibus habbtur. Magnopere tamen
and was held in great honor by all the Ethiopians. However, he greatly wished to see his mother again.
mtrem suam rrsus vidre volbat. Tandem igitur cum uxre su  rgn Cphe discessit.
Finally, therefore, he departed with his wife from the kingdom of Cepheus
exu, -ere, exu, extum put or take off
sals, saltis f. safety, escape; freedom
dpon = d + pon
ade = ad + e
paene almost, practically
exanim, re, -v, -tum exhaust
vinculum,  n. bond
solv, -ere, solv, soltum loosen, unbind, release
redd = re + d (give back; restore)
adfici, -ere, -fc, -fectum do to, move, affect
gaudium, - n. gladness, joy
meritus, -a, -um deserved, due
gratiam referre, reward
uxor, uxris f. wife
10. Polydectes Is Transformed
Postquam Perseus ad insulam nvem git, s ad locum contulit ubi mter quondam habitverat; sed
After Perseus sailed his ship to the island, he went to the place where his mother had once lived; but he found
domum invnit vacuam et omnn dsertam. Trs dis per ttam insulam mtrem petbat; tandem
the house empty and completely deserted. For three days he searched for his mother throughout the whole island; finally
quart di ad templum Dinae pervnit. Hc Dana refgerat, quod Polydectem timuit. Perseus
on the fourth day he arrived at the temple of Diana. Dana had fled to this place, because she feared Polydectes. Perseus,
haec audins, r magn commtus est, atque ad rgiam Polydectis sine mor contendit. Ubi e
hearing these things, was moved by great anger and hastened to the palace of Polydectes without delay.
vnit, statim in trium inrpit. Polydects magn timre adfectus fugere voluit. Perseus tamen
When he came there, he immediately burst into the atrium. Polydectes, moved by great fear, wanted to flee. Perseus,
caput Medsae rg fugient ostendit. Ille autem hoc vidns, in saxum mttus est.
however, showed the head of Medusa to the fleeing king. He moreover, seeing this, was turned into stone.
confer, -ferre, -tul, colltum bring together;
(with s) take oneself, go
vacuus, -a, -um empty
omnn, adv. entirely
perveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventum arrive
hc, adv. to this place, hither
e, adv. to that place
inrump, -ere, irrp, irruptum burst in
ostend, -ere, ostend, ostentum show, stretch out
before
56
Lesson XXVIII
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
Latin adverbs have three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
fortiter
fortius
fortissim
bravely
more / rather / too bravely
most / very bravely
The comparative is formed by adding –ius to the positive stem of the adjective. This is also the neuter accusative
singular form of the comparative adjective. Adverbs do not decline.
altus, -a, -um deep
miser, misera, -um unhappy
sapins, -ntis wise
facilis, -e easy
cer, cris, cre keen
altmisersapientfacilcr-





altius
miserius
sapientius
facilius
crius
more / rather / too deeply
more / rather / too unhappily
more / rather / too wisely
more / rather / too easily
more / rather / too keenly
The superlative of the adverb is formed by adding - to the superlative stem of the adjective.
altissimus, -a, -um
miserrimus, -a, -um
sapientissimus, -a, -um
facillimus, -a, -um
cerrimus, -a, -um
altissimmiserrimsapientissimfacillimcerrim-





altissim
miserrim
sapientissim
facillim
cerrim
most / very deeply
most / very unhappily
most / very wisely
most / very easily
most / very sharply
Irregular Comparison of Adverbs
The following common adverbs have some irregular forms.
Adjective
bonus, -a, -um
malus, -a, -um
magnus, -a, -um
parvus, -a, -um
multus, -a, -um
Positive Adverb
bene
male
magnopere
parum
multum
di
well
badly
greatly
too little
much
for a long time
Comparative Adverb
melius
peius
magis
minus
pls
ditius
better
worse
more (quality)
less
more (quantity)
for a longer time
Superlative Adverb
optim
pessim
maxim
minim
plrimum
ditissim
best
worst
most / especially
least
most / very much
for the longest time
Peculiarities of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives whose stems end with a vowel form the comparative with magis and the positive adjective, and the
superlative with maxim and the positive adjective. The adjective of the construction agrees with the word it modifies
in case, number, and gender. The adverbs magis and maxim are indeclinable.
magis idoneus, -a, -um more suitable
maxim idoneus, -a, -um most suitable
When quam precedes a superlative adjective or adverb it shows the highest possible degree of comparison.
quam optimus vir the best possible man / the best man possible / as good a man as possible
quam facillim as easily as possible
57
Vocabulary XXVIII
1st / 2nd Declension Adjective
idoneus, -a, -um
suitable
rd
3 Declension Nouns
mors, mortis, f.
death
pars, partis, f.
part; direction
Adverbs
magis
quam (+ superlative)
ditius
ditissime
iam nōn
more; rather
as...as possible
for a longer time
for the longest time;
for a very long time
no longer
Exercise XXVIII
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Fortius cnmur, quod contendere ammus.
We are trying harder because we love to compete.
Melius scrbimus quam vs, nam omns epistuls nostrs legere possunt.
We write better than you, for all can read our letters.
Agricolae in agrs ditius opera faciunt quam in urbibus civs; ditissim autem nautae in nvibus.
Farmers do tasks longer in the fields than citizens in the city; however, sailors on ships (work) the longest.
Pauc celerius cucurrrunt quam t; ille autem qu celerrim cucurrit ab omnibus laudbitur.
A few ran faster than you; that one, however, who ran the fastest, will be praised by all.
T facillim vidbis m tibi amcum fuisse.
You will see very easily that I have been a friend to you.
Numa quam sapientissim Rmns regbat et lgs optims es dedit.
Numa ruled the Romans as wisely as possible and gave them the best laws.
Pythagoras et amc in urbe su vtam flcissimam agbant et maxim cum cr cvs docbant.
Pythagoras and his friends lived a very happy life in their city and taught the citizens with the greatest care.
Flcius mortuus est Augustus quam Gaius, nam Gaium hosts interfcrunt, Augustus autem longam vtam git.
Augustus died more happily than Gaius, for enemies killed Gaius, but Augustus lived a long life.
Iter per Asiam fc et vtam miserrimam in omnibus partibus vd.
I made a journey through Asia and saw the most miserable life in all parts.
Ditius in hc urbe nostr manre nn potes, nam scelera tua omnia ferre iam nn possumus.
You cannot stay longer in this city, for we can no longer bear all your crimes.
Rmn dcbant rgem suum Numam Pythagorae discipulum fuisse, sed errbant, nam mults anns ante
Pythagoram rxit Rmns Numa.
The Romans said that their king Numa had been a student of Pythagoras, but they were wrong, for Numa ruled the
Romans many years before Pythagoras.
Pota Nas s facillim plurima facere posse dixit, nihil autem facilius quam scribere.
The poet Naso said that he could do most things very easily, but nothing more easily than writing.
I think that you (sg) have written as well as possible.
T quam optim scrpsisse put.
For I have decided that it is better that I die a good (man) than (that I) live a bad (one).
Constitui enim id esse melius m mor bonum quam m vvere malum.
He lives best who does not want to live for himself but for all.
Optim vvit qu nn sibi sed omnibus vvere vult. (Pr + abl. may also be used.)
In all bad matters, it is worse to see (them) than to hear (about them).
In omnibus rbus mals peius est vidre quam audre.
For a long time now we have seen him less in the city, for he has done many (things) in the fields.
Iam di eum minus in urbe vdimus, nam multa in agrs fcit.
I can do the same (things), but less well than she (that woman).
Eadem facere possum, sed minus bene quam illa.
These students can hear what the teacher says better than those.
H discipul audre possunt quae magister dcit melius quam ill.
We perceive that you (sg) love the state less than your life.
Cernimus t rem publicam amre minus quam tuam vtam.
(Those) who think that the spirit lives after death can die more happily.
Qu putant animum post mortem vvere flcius mor possunt.
Cicero seems to me to have done many things more wisely than Caesar.
Cicero multa sapientius quam Caesar fcisse mihi vidtur.
What you (sg) sent to me I have now received most keenly; now I write to you as friend (writes) to friend.
Quod ad m msist cerrim accp; nunc tibi scrb ut amcus amc.
The state itself will teach you that I suffer all (things) for it.
Rs publica ipsa vs docbit m omnia pr s pati.
58
Lesson XXIX
ADJECTIVES WITH GENITIVE IN -US AND DATIVE IN -
Several 1st / 2nd declension adjectives are regular except for the genitive singular ending in -us and dative singular
ending in -These may be remembered by using the mnemonic NUS NAUTA:

nus, -a, -um one
Neuter, neutra, neutrum neither
Nullus, -a, -um no, none, not any Alius, alia, aliud
another, other
Ullus, -a, -um any
Uter, utra, utrum
which (of two)
Slus, -a, -um alone, only
Ttus, -a, -um
whole, all
Alter, altera, alterum
the other
  

Nom. slus
sla
slum
sl
Gen. slus
slus
slus
slrum
Dat.
sl
sl
sl
sls
Acc. slam
slum
slum
sls
Abl.
sl
sl
sl
sls
Alius, -a, -um normally forms its genitive singular from alter: alterus.


slae
slrum
sls
sls
sls
sla
slrum
sls
sla
sls
Cardinal Numerals
Cardinal numerals are used to count.
Latin cardinal numerals from one to ten are:
nus, duo, trs, quattuor, quinque, sex, septem, oct, novem, decem.
Duo and trs are declined as follows.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.



duo
durum
dubus
dus, duo
dubus
duae
durum
dubus
dus
dubus
duo
durum
dubus
duo
dubus
 Masc. / Fem.
Neuter
trs
trium
tribus
trs, trs
tribus
tria
trium
tribus
tr
tribus
Quattuor, quinque, sex, septem, oct, novem, decem and centum (one hundred) are indeclinable adjectives.
Quattuor flis et quinque flis habe. I have four sons and five daughters.
Centum virs cognsc, sed sl decem sunt amc. I know one hundred men, but only ten are friends.
Ordinal Numerals
Ordinal numerals are used to indicate place in a sequence: first, second, third, etc.
They are 1st / 2nd declension adjectives and agree with the words they modify in case, number, and gender.
Hic est prmus liber, quem lg.
This is the first book which I have read.
Laudmus Numam, rgem secundum Romnum. We praise Numa, the second king of Rome.
59
Vocabulary XXIX
Irregular Adjectives
nus, -a, -um
one
nullus, -a, -um
no, none, not any
ullus, -a, -um
any
slus, -a, -um
only, sole, alone
neuter, neutra, neutrum neither
alter, altera, alterum
the other (of two)
uter, utra, utrum
which (of two)?
ttus, -a, -um
whole, entire
alius, alia, aliud
other, another
Indeclinable Adjectives
quattuor four
quinque five
sex
six
septem
seven
octo
eight
novem
nine
decem
ten
centum
one hundred
1st / 2nd Declension Adjectives
secundus, -a, -um second
tertius, -a, -um
third
duo, duae, duo
two
rd
3 Declension Adjective
trs, tria three
Exercise XXIX
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
num pr mults dabitur caput. (Vergil Aeneid 5.815)
One head (life) will be given for many.
Neutram in partem movr ml; in hc loc manb.
I prefer to be moved in(to) neither direction; I will stay in this place.
Ttum s re pblicae dedit.
He gave himself completely to the state.
Uter ex hs sapins tibi vidtur? (Seneca Letters 90.14)
Which of these (two) seems wise to you?
Sub rgibus Rmn neque ull bell neque ab hostibus ulls vict sunt.
Under the kings the Romans were conquered neither in any war nor by any enemies.
Cerberus m tribus ribus et tribus capitibus in umers dubus terret.
Cerberus frightens me with his three mouths and three heads on two shoulders.
Cum omnibus alis magis quam sl interfic volurunt.
They wanted to be killed with all the others rather than alone (by themselves).
Omns, qurum vīta in alterius man posita est, idem saepe sentiunt.
All, whose life has been placed in the hand of another, often feel the same.
Mlet m sapientem  vbs quam s pessimum putr.
He will prefer that I be thought wise by you rather than that he be thought very bad.
Ille, magis idneus urb quam bell, novem anns aberat.
That man, more suitable for the city than for war, was absent for nine years.
Nn null homins putant ftum suum  s cnstittum esse.
Some men think that their fate has been set by them(selves).
One (man) had three books, another had five, but they did not have any letters.
nus trs librs habuit, alius quinque, sed nulls (ulls) epistuls (nn) haburunt.
Which (one) is better for me? This book or that (one)?
ter est melior mihi? Hic liber aut ille?
One ship only can be seen in the whole sea today.
Ūna nvis sōla in tot mar hodi vidr potest.
(There) are not three or four friends for you in this city.
Nn sunt trs aut quattuor amc tibi in hc urbe.
Neither (of the) consul(s), frightened by the enemy, was preparing to depart from the city.
Neuter consul ab hostibus territus ex urbe excedere parbat.
In which army was the greater hope?
In qu (tr) exercit erat maior sps?
That wretched (man) kept on shouting that he was a Roman citizen.
Ille miser clambat s esse cvem Rmnum.
Which consul will be sent to which war? Neither!
ter consul ad trum bellum mitttur. Neuter!
I alone will defend the head, the reputation and fortunes of another.
Sōlus caput, fmam, fortunsque alius dfendam.
After the death of his third wife, he decided not to lead another (woman) into his house.
Post mortem (suae) coniugis tertiae, aliam in domum (suam) nn ducere constituit.
Only a few of those (men) who had strived very greatly came to the end.
Pauc sol illrum, qu maxim contenderant, ad fnem vnrunt.
60
Lesson XXX
REVIEW
Vocabulary XXV - XXIX
quondam
sdus
decem
quinque
alius
duo
e
nus
idoneus
tertius
octo
ttus
ipse
slus
trs
uter
pars
ullus
coniunx
sube
tempus
sex
neuter
septem
quattuor
secundus
nullus
magis
novem
quam + superlative
pauc
mors
centum
alter
the other
any
one
five
suitable
go
another
entire
more
death
undergo
third
alone
two
six
none
star
itself
once
eight
neither
time
spouse
four
nine
part
seven
few
myself
three
one hundred
which (of two)
as...as possible
second
ten
I. Translate the underlined words with the appropriate form of the reflexive pronoun or ipse, ipsa, ipsum; include
prepositions where necessary.
1. He is talking about himself.d s 6. You will save yourselves. vs
2. I saw the king himself. ipsum
7. I am talking to myself. mihi
3. I saw the king myself. ipse
8. They will hurt themselves. s
7. You wrote this yourself. ipse
8. The queen came in person. ipsa
9. I heard that very song. ipsum
II. Give the form of e in the same person, number, tense as the form of veni.
1. venimus
bimus
2. venibant
bant
3. vnist
vist
4. venis
bis
5. venit
t
6. vnimus
imus
7. vneritis
eritis
8. venibs
bmus
9. vneram
eram
10. vnrunt
vrunt
III. Complete the comparison of these adverbs with the other two degrees (positive, comparative or superlative).
1. acriter
3. celerrim
5. longius
7. male
crius, cerrim; celeriter, celerius; long, longissim; peius, pessim
2. ditius
4. magis
6. multum
8. sapienter
di, ditissim; pls, plurimum; pls, plrimum; sapientius, sapientissim
IV. Write these equations using numerals.
1. nus et novem sunt decem.
1 + 9 = 10
4. Quinque et duo sunt septem.
5+2=7
2. Quattuor et sex sunt decem.
4 + 6 = 10
5. nus d novem sunt octo.
9–1=8
3. Trs d octo sunt quinque.
8–3=5
6. Sex d novem sunt trs.
9–6=3
V. Put every participle or infinitive phrase in parentheses. Translate the entire sentence.
1.( Matrem suam vidre) voluit.
He wanted to see his mother.
3. Puer (quam celerrim currents) hodi venient.
The boys, running as fast as possible, will come today.
5. In castra mlits (tls vulnerts) dcmus.
We will lead the soldiers, wounded with weapons, into camp.
61
2. Puellae (librs legents) sunt flcs.
The girls reading books are happy.
4. Rx (ad Italiam iter facere) mvult.
The king prefers to make a journey to Italy.
6. Soci (bellum in hosts parre) incprunt.
The allies began to prepare war against the
enemies.
For Your Information
COMPOUNDS OF E
abe
depart; disappear; die
 vt ab
ade
approach; attack
Ad m adeunt.
exe
pass beyond; exceed; withdraw
Ex oppi exiit.
ine
enter; enter upon
Illus domum  voluist.
pere
perish; be ruined
Pr amcs perre nn timidus erat.
rede
go or come back; return
Sps vtae puer aegr rediit.
sube
enter; approach; undergo
Vbscum omnia subbimus.
trnse
pass over; cross
Terror ad hosts trnsit.
11. The Oracle Fulfilled
Perseus cum uxre ad urbem Acris rediit. Ille autem Perseum vidns, rrsus magn terrre
Perseus returned with his wife to the city of Acrisius. He, however, seeing Perseus, was filled
adfectus est. In Thessaliam igitur ad urbem Lrsam statim refgit, frstr tamen; neque enim
with great terror. Therefore he immediately fled to the city of Larisa, however, in vain; for he could
ftum suum vtre poterat. Post paucs anns nnti in omns parts dmiss dxrunt rgem
not avoid his fate. After a few years messengers, sent out in all directions, announced that the king of Larisa
Larsae luds magns factrum esse. Mult ex omnibus urbibus Graeciae ad luds convnrunt.
would make great games. Many came together from all the cities of Greece to the games. Perseus
Perseus ipse inter alis certmen discrum iniit. At Acrisius, dum inter specttrs eius certminis
himself entered the contest of the discus. But Acrisius, while he was standing among the spectators of that contest,
stat, disc abiect  Perse forte interfectus est.
was accidentally killed by Perseus.
rede = re + e (go back)
vt (1) avoid, escape
ldus, - m. game, sport
conveni = con + veni, come together
certmen, certminis n. struggle, contest
ine = in + e
discus, , m. discus
conici, -ere, conic, conictum throw
forte, adv. by chance, accidentall
62
Rules of Syntax for New Second Steps in Latin
AGREEMENT
First Rule of Concord. A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.
Ego voc. I call. T vocs. You call. Puer vocat. The boy calls.
1.
A verb with a compound subject (two or more subjects joined by et, -que, ac, or atque) is usually plural.
Puer et puella vocant. The boy and the girl call.
2.
A verb with compound subjects of different persons will generally agree with the lower person
(1st person takes precedence over 2nd and 3rd persons, and 2nd over 3rd ) and will always be plural.
Ego et t vocmus. You and I call. T et puella voctis. You and the girl call.
3.
A verb with singular subjects joined by aut or neque is singular.
Aut puer aut puella vocat. Either the boy or the girl calls.
4.
A verb that belongs to two or more subjects in separate clauses (gapping) will agree with one subject and will
be understood with the other subjects.
Puer vocat, nn puellae. The boy calls, the girls do not (call).
5.
The verb of a relative clause whose subject is the relative pronoun agrees in person and number with the
antecedent of the relative pronoun.
Vs, qu trists estis, ambitis. You, who are sad, will love.
Second Rule of Concord. An adjective (as well as an adjectival pronoun or participle) agrees with the noun it
modifies in case, number, and gender.
bonus nauta, good sailor; illa puella, that girl; capta arma, seized weapons
1.
An attributive adjective that modifies two or more nouns will generally agree with the nearest noun.
cerrima ra et studium the sharpest anger and zeal
2.
A predicate adjective that modifies two or more nouns will generally be plural in number.
It may agree with the nearest or most important noun in gender.
Masculine is the most important gender of nouns with life, neuter of nouns without life.
Puer et puella sunt bon. The boy and girl are good.
Murus et porta d cael tacta sunt. The wall and the gate are struck by lightning.
Third Rule of Concord. The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number and gender; its case is
determined by its use in the relative clause.
Puella, quam puer amat, est flix. The girl, whom the boy likes, is happy.
Apposition. An appositive is a noun describing another noun and agrees with it in case.
Hs librs, pulcherrimum dnum, heri accpi. Yesterday I received these books, a very beautiful gift.
Predicate Noun. With sum and other linking verbs, a noun in the predicate which describes the subject will agree
with it in case.
Agricola erat vir fortissimus. The farmer was a very brave man.
Discipulus bonus esse vidtur etiam pius flius. The good student seems a dutiful son also.
62
USES OF CASES
Nominative
1.
Subject. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case.
Puella vocat. The girl calls.
2.
Predicate. The predicate noun or adjective of a finite form of the verb sum, or of a verb of seeming or
becoming, or of a passive verb of making, choosing, showing, thinking, or calling, is in the nominative case.
Puer servus est. The boy is a slave. Puella vidtur sapins. The girl seems wise.
Ille cnsul factus est. That man was made consul.
Genitive
1.
The Genitive of Possession. A genitive is used to denote the person or thing to whom or which an object,
quality, feeling, or action belongs.
scelera rgis, the crimes of the king / the king’s crimes
Dative
1.
Indirect Object. A noun or pronoun indirectly affected by the action of the verb is in the dative case.
Dux mlit arma dat. The leader gives the arms to the soldier.
2.
Dative with Certain Adjectives. Adjectives expressing ideas like friendliness, fitness, nearness, likeness, and
their opposites may take a dative (e.g. amcus, crus, idneus, proximus, similis and dissimilis, tilis).
Cnsul amcus mihi est. The consul is friendly to me.
Accusative
1.
Direct Object. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative case.
Urbem capit. He captures the city.
2.
Accusative of Motion Towards or Place To Which. Motion to or towards is expressed by the accusative
case with the prepositions ad or in.
Ad Italiam vnit. He came to Italy.
3.
Accusative of Duration of Time. Duration of time (or time how long) is expressed by the accusative without
a preposition.
Rx decem anns fuit. He was king for ten years.
4.
Double Accusative. Verbs of asking and teaching (rog and doce) may take two accusatives, one of the
person and one of the thing.
T carmen docuit. He taught you a song.
5.
Predicate Accusative. Verbs of calling, choosing, making and thinking (factitive verbs) take two accusatives,
a direct object and its complement. The two accusatives refer to the same person or thing.
Urbem Rmam vocvrunt. They called the city Rome.
6.
Subject Accusative. The subject of an infinitive is regularly in the accusative.
Vult rgnam dcere. He wants the queen to speak.
Audit rgnam dcere. He hears that the queen is speaking.
7.
Accusative with Certain Prepositions. Many prepositions take the accusative (e.g. ad, ante, circum, in,
inter, ob, per, post, propter).
63
Ablative
1.
Ablative of Means or Instrument. The means or instrument by which something is done is expressed by the
ablative without a preposition (answers the question “by or with what?”).
Urbs saxs mnta est. The city was fortified with stones.
2.
Ablative of Personal Agent. The person by whom something is done is expressed by the ablative case with
the preposition  / ab (answers the question “by whom?”).
Urbs  Rmns mnta est. The city was fortified by the Romans.
3.
Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment or association is often expressed by the ablative with the
preposition cum (answers the question “with whom?”). Cum regularly becomes enclitic with m, t, s,
nbs, vbs, qu, qu, quibus.
Cum comitibus iter fcit. He made a journey with his comerades.
Puer mcum veniunt. The boys come with me.
4.
Ablative of Place Where or In Which. Place where or in which is expressed by the ablative with the
prepositions in, pro and sub (and rarely by the accusative with ad).
Fma in cael volvit. Rumor flew in the sky. (Ad flmen stetit. He stood at the river.)
5.
Ablative of Motion Away From or Place From Which. Motion away from or place from which is expressed
by the ablative with the prepositions  / ab, d, or  / ex.
Ex urbe vnit. He came from the city.
6.
Ablative of Time When. Time when is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.
E tempore urbem cpit. At that time he captured the city.
7.
Ablative of Comparison. In comparative constructions without quam, the second of the two things compared
is in the ablative case. The ablative of comparison is used only when the first of the two things compared is in
the nominative or accusative case.
Epistulae eius sunt longirs librs. His letters are longer than his books.
8.
Ablative of Degree of Difference. In comparative constructions, the degree or measure of difference between
the two things compared is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.
Mare est mult altius quam flumen. The sea is much deeper than the river.
9.
Ablative of Cause. The cause or reason for an action or condition may be expressed by the ablative without a
preposition (answers the question “why?”).
Facts laudtur. He is praised for his deeds
10. Ablative of Manner. The manner or way in which an action is done may be expressed by the ablative with the
preposition cum (answers the question “how?”). Cum may be omitted if an adjective modifies the ablative.
Epistula cum cr scripta est. The letter was written with care (carefully).
Epistula magn cr scripta est. The letter was written with great care (very carefully).
11. Ablative with Certain Prepositions. Many prepositions take the ablative (e.g. , ab, cum, d, , ex, pr,
sine, sub).
64
VERB TENSES
The Present Tense expresses a continuous or ongoing action in the present or states something that applies to all time.
Vocat. He is calling / calls / does call. Malum est mentr. It is bad to lie.
1.
When dum takes the present indicative it may express past action.
Dum ducem petit, mlits pugnvrunt. While he was seeking the leader, the soldiers fought.
The Imperfect Tense expresses continuous, repeated, or habitual action in the past.
Vocbat. He was calling / kept calling / used to call.
The Future Tense expresses continuous or indefinite action in the future.
Vocbit. He will call / is going to call.
The Perfect Tense expresses completed action. Although it has one form, it has two separate uses.
1.
The Perfect expresses a completed action with continuing effect in the present. It corresponds to the English
present perfect and is translated with the auxiliary verb “has / have”.
Vocvit. He has called.
2.
The Aorist expresses a simple completed action.
Vocvit. He called / did call.
The Pluperfect Tense expresses an action completed in the past and is used of an action completed before another
action was begun. It corresponds to the English past perfect and is translated with the auxiliary verb “had”.
Vocverat. He had called.
The Future Perfect Tense expresses an action completed in the future. It is translated with the auxiliary verbs “will /
shall have.”
Vocverit. He will have called.
VERB MOODS
The Indicative Mood is used to state a fact or ask a question.
Puella vocat. The girl is calling. Utra puella vocbat? Which girl was calling?
A Participle is a verbal adjective. As a verb, it may take an object; as an adjective, it agrees with the word it modifies in
case, number, and gender, and may be used substantively.
1.
The Present Active Participle expresses action taking place at the same time as the main verb.
Puellam sedentem in silv vd. I saw the girl sitting in the forest.
2.
The Perfect Passive Participle expresses action completed before the time of the main verb.
Puella, in silv vsa, puerum vocvit. The girl, seen in the forest, called the boy.
3.
The Future Active Participle expresses action that will be completed after the time of the main verb.
Puella, in silv moritra, caput txit. The girl, about to die in the forest, covered her head.
The Infinitive is a verbal noun. It is always neuter, always singular, and either nominative or accusative.
1.
Complementary Infinitive. The complementary infinitive completes the meaning of another verb. The following
verbs of wishing, trying, deciding, beginning, fearing, being able, etc. may take a complementary infinitive
cnor, cnstitu, contend, incipi, ml, nl, parpossum, tend, time, vereor, vol;
and in the passive: dc, put, vide.
Puella vidre potest. The girl is able to see.
65
2.
Infinitive of Indirect Statement. Verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, telling, perceiving, and showing
introduce the accusative and infinitive of indirect statement.
The Present Infinitive expresses action taking place at the same time as the main verb.
Dcit rgnam esse fortem. He says (that) the queen is brave.
Dixit rgnam esse fortem. He said (that) the queen was brave.
The Perfect Infinitive expresses action completed before the time of the main verb.
Dcit rgnam fuisse fortem. He says (that) the queen was brave.
Dixit rgnam fuisse fortem. He said (that) the queen had been brave.
The Future Infinitive expresses action that will be completed after the time of the main verb.
Dcit rgnam futram esse fortem. He says (that) the queen will be brave.
Dixit rgnam futram esse fortem. He said (that) the queen would be brave.
3.
The Infinitive as Subject or Object. The infinitive may be used as a neuter singular noun in the nominative
or accusative.
tile est bons amcs habre. It is useful to have good friends.
Am cantre. I like to sing.
66
REGULAR VERBS – INDICATIVE ACTIVE
Present
First
Second
Third
Third I-stem
Fourth
am
mone
dc
capi
audi
ams
mons
dcis
capis
auds
amat
monet

capit
audit
ammus
monmus



amtis
montis



amant
monent

capiunt
audiunt
ambam
ams
mon
mons

bs


audi

ba

bat


ammus
amtis
monmus
montis
bmus
btis





ba
bant


am


capi
audi
ambis
mons



ambit


capiet

ammus
monmus



amtis
montis



ambunt


capient

am
amvist
monu
mon




aud
aud

monuit

cpit
audvit
amvimus
amtis
monuimus
mon











am
am
mon
monuers


cperam

aud
audvers




audverat
am
am
monus
mon
m
tis


audvermus
audvertis




audverant
amver
mon

cper
aud
amveris
monueris


audveris
amverit



audverit
am
monus


audverimus
am
mon


audveritis
amverint



audverint
Imperfect
Future
Perfect
Pluperfect
Future Perfect
67
REGULAR VERBS – INDICATIVE PASSIVE
Present
First
Second
Third
Third I-stem
Fourth
am
mone
dc
capior
audi
amris
monris
dceris
caperis
audris



capitur
auditur
ammur
monmur



ammin
monmin



amantur
monentur

capiuntur
audiuntur
ambar
amris
mon
monris

bris
capibar
ris
audi

b




ammur
ammin
monmur
monmin
bmur
bmin





ba
bantur
bantur

am


capiar
audi
amberis
mon



ambitur




ammur
monmur



ammin
monmin
min


ambuntur




amtus, -a sum
amtus, -a es
monitus, -a sum
monitus, -a es
ductus, -a sum
ductus, -a es
captus, -a sum
captus, -a es
audtus, -a sum
audtus, -a es
amtus, -a, -um est
monitus, -a, -um est
ductus, -a, -um est
captus, -a, -um est
audtus, -a, -um est
amt, -ae sumus
amt, -ae estis
monit, -ae sumus
monit, -ae estis
duct, -ae sumus
duct, -ae estis
capt, -ae sumus
capt, -ae estis
audt, -ae sumus
audt, -ae estis
amt, -ae, -a sunt
monit, -ae, -a sunt
duct, -ae, -a sunt
capt, -ae, -a sunt
audt, -ae, -a sunt
amtus, -a eram
amtus, -a ers
monitus, -a eram
monitus, -a ers
ductus, -a eram
ductus, -a ers
captus, -a eram
captus, -a ers
audtus, -a eram
audtus, -a ers
amtus, -a, -um erat
monitus, -a, -um erat
ductus, -a, -um erat
captus, -a, -um erat
audtus, -a, -um erat
amt, -ae ermus
amt, -ae ertis
monit, -ae ermus
monit, -ae ertis
duct, -ae ermus
duct, -ae ertis
capt, -ae ermus
capt, -ae ertis
audt, -ae ermus
audt, -ae ertis
amt, -ae, -a erant
monit, -ae, -a erant
duct, -ae, -a erant
capt, -ae, -a erant
audt, -ae, -a erant
amtus, -a er
amtus, -a eris
monitus, -a er
monitus, -a eris
ductus, -a er
ductus, -a eris
captus, -a er
captus, -a eris
audtus, -a er
audtus, -a eris
amtus, -a, -um erit
monitus, -a, -um erit
ductus, -a, -um erit
captus, -a, -um erit
audtus, -a, -um erit
amt, -ae erimus
amt, -ae eritis
monit, -ae erimus
monit, -ae eritis
duct, -ae erimus
duct, -ae eritis
capt, -ae erimus
capt, -ae eritis
audt, -ae erimus
audt, -ae eritis
amt, -ae, -a erunt
monit, -ae, -a erunt
duct, -ae, -a erunt
capt, -ae, -a erunt
audt, -ae, -a erunt
Imperfect
Future
Perfect
Pluperfect
Future Perfect
68
REGULAR VERBS - PARTICIPLES, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
Active
First
pres. amns, -ntis
—
perf.
fut. amtrus, -a, -um
Passive
—
pres.
perf. amtus, -a, -um
—
fut.
Second
monns, -ntis
—
monitrus, -a, -um
Third
dcns, -ntis
—
ductrus, -a, -um
—
monitus, -a, -um
—
—
ductus, -a, -um
—
Third I-stem
Fourth
capins, -ntis
—
audins, -ntis
—
captrus, -a, -um
audtrus, -a, -um
—
captus, -a, -um
—
audtus, -a, -um
—
—
REGULAR VERBS - INFINITIVES, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
Active
First
pres. amre
perf. amvisse
fut. amtrus, -a, -um esse
Passive
pres. amr
perf. amtus, -a, -um esse
fut. amtum r
Second
Third
Third I-stem
Fourth
monre
monuisse
dcere
dxisse
capere
cp
audre
audvisse
monitrus, -a, -um esse
ductrus, -a, -um esse
captrus, -a, -um esse
audtrus, -a, -um esse
monr
monitus esse
dc
ductus, -a, -um esse
cap
captus, -a, -um esse
audr
audtus, -a, -um esse
monitum r
ductum r
captum r
audtum r
69
IRREGULAR VERBS
Present
Sum
Vol
Nl
Ml
E
Fer
sum
vol
nl
ml
e
fer
feror
es
vs
nn vs
mvs
s
fers
ferris
est
vult
nn vult
mvult
it
fert
fertur
sumus
volumus
nlumus
mlumus
mus
ferimus
ferimur
estis
vultis
nn vultis
mvultis
tis
fertis
ferimin
sunt
volunt
nlunt
mlunt
eunt
ferunt
feruntur
eram
volbam
nlbam
mlbam
bam
ferbam
ferbar
ers
volbs
nlbs
mlbs
bs
ferbs
ferbris
erat
volbat
nlbat
mlbat
bat
ferbat
ferbtur
ermus
volbmus
nlbmus
mlbmus
bmus
ferbmus
ferbmur
ertis
volbtis
nlbtis
mlbtis
btis
ferbtis
ferbmin
erant
volbant
nlbant
mlbant
bant
ferbant
ferbantur
er
volam
nlam
mlam
b
feram
ferar
eris
vols
nls
mls
bis
fers
ferris
erit
volet
nlet
mlet
bit
feret
fertur
erimus
volmus
nlmus
mlmus
bimus
fermus
fermur
eritis
voltis
nltis
mltis
bitis
fertis
fermin
erunt
volent
nolent
mlent
bunt
ferent
ferentur
fu
volu
nlu
mlu
i
tul
ltus, -a sum
fuist
voluist
nluist
mluist
st
tulist
ltus, -a es
fuit
voluit
nluit
mluit
iit
tulit
ltus, -a, -um est
fuimus
voluimus
nluimus
mluimus
iimus
tulimus
lt, -ae sumus
fuistis
voluistis
nluistis
mluistis
stis
tulistis
lt, -ae estis
furunt
volurunt
nlurunt
mlurunt
irunt
tulrunt
lt, -ae, -a sunt
fueram
volueram
nlueram
mlueram
ieram
tuleram
ltus, -a eram
fuers
voluers
nluers
mluers
iers
tulers
ltus, -a ers
fuerat
voluerat
nluerat
mluerat
ierat
tulerat
ltus, -a, -um erat
fuermus
voluermus
nluermus
mluermus
iermus
tulermus
lt, -ae ermus
fuertis
voluertis
nluertis
mluertis
iertis
tulertis
lt, -ae ertis
fuerant
voluerant
nluerant
mluerant
ierant
tulerant
lt, -ae, -a erant
fuer
voluer
nluer
mluer
ier
tuler
ltus, -a er
fueris
volueris
nlueris
mlueris
ieris
tuleris
ltus, -a eris
fuerit
voluerit
nluerit
mluerit
ierit
tulerit
ltus, -a, -um erit
fuerimus
voluerimus
nluerimus
maluerimus
ierimus
tulerimus
lt, -ae erimus
fueritis
volueritis
nlueritis
mlueritis
ieritis
tuleritis
lt, -ae eritis
fuerint
voluerint
nluerint
mluerint
ierint
tulerint
lt, -ae, -a erunt
Imperfect
Future
Perfect
Pluperfect
Future Perfect
70
PARTICIPLES – IRREGULAR VERBS
Active
Sum
Vol
Nl
Ml
pres.
—
volns, -ntis
perf.
—
—
—
—
—
fut.
futrus, -a, -um
—
—
—
itrus, -a, -um
pres.
—
—
—
—
—
perf.
—
—
—
—
—
fut.
—
—
—
—
—
—
nlns, -ntis
E
ins, euntis
Fer
ferns, -ntis
—
ltrus, -a, -um
Passive
—
ltus, -a, -um
—
INFINITIVES – IRREGULAR VERBS
Active
Sum
Vol
Nl
Ml
E
Fer
pres.
esse
velle
nlle
mlle
re
ferre
perf.
fuisse
voluisse
nluisse
mluisse
sse
tulisse
fut.
futrus, -a, -um esse
—
—
—
itrus, -a, -um esse
ltrus, -a, -um esse
r
ferr
Passive
pres.
—
—
—
—
perf.
—
—
—
—
fut.
—
—
—
—
71
—
itum r
ltus, -a, -um esse
ltum r
DEPONENT VERBS - INDICATIVE
Present
First
Second
Third
Third I-stem
Fourth
cnor
vereor
sequor
patior
mentior
cnris
verris
sequeris
pateris
mentris
cntur
vertur
sequitur
patitur
menttur
cnmur
vermur
sequimur
patimur
mentmur
cnmin
vermin
sequimin
patimin
mentmin
cnantur
verentur
sequuntur
patiuntur
mentiuntur
cnbar
verbar
sequbar
patibar
mentibar
cnbris
verbris
sequbris
patibris
mentibris
cnbtur
verbtur
sequbtur
patibtur
mentibtur
cnbmur
verbmur
sequbmur
patibmur
mentibmur
cnbmin
verbmin
sequbmin
patibmin
mentibmin
cnbantur
verbantur
sequbantur
patibantur
mentibantur
cnbor
verbor
sequar
patiar
mentiar
cnberis
verberis
sequris
patiris
mentiris
cnbitur
verbitur
sequtur
patitur
mentitur
cnbimur
verbimur
sequmur
patimur
mentimur
cnbimin
verbimin
sequmin
patimin
mentimin
cnbuntur
verbuntur
sequentur
patientur
mentientur
cntus, -a sum
veritus, -a sum
sectus, -a sum
passus, -a sum
menttus, -a sum
cntus, -a es
veritus, -a es
sectus, -a es
passus, -a es
menttus, -a es
cntus, -a, -um est
veritus, -a, -um est
sectus, -a, -um est
passus, -a, -um est
menttus, -a, -um est
cnt, -ae sumus
verit, -ae sumus
sect, -ae sumus
pass, -ae sumus
mentt, -ae sumus
cnt, -ae estis
verit, -ae estis
sect, -ae estis
pass, -ae estis
mentt, -ae estis
cnt, -ae, -a sunt
verit, -ae, -a sunt
sect, -ae, -a sunt
pass, -ae, -a sunt
mentt, -ae, -a sunt
cntus, -a eram
veritus, -a eram
sectus, -a eram
passus, -a eram
menttus, -a eram
cntus, -a ers
veritus, -a ers
sectus, -a ers
passus, -a ers
menttus, -a ers
cntus, -a, -um erat
veritus, -a, -um erat
sectus, -a, -um erat
passus, -a, -um erat
menttus, -a, -um erat
cnt, -ae ermus
verit, -ae ermus
sect, -a ermus
pass, -ae ermus
mentt, -ae ermus
cnt, -ae ertis
verit, -ae ertis
sect, -ae ertis
pass, -ae ertis
mentt, -ae ertis
cnt, -ae, -a erant
verit, -ae, -a erant
sect, -ae, -a erant
pass, -ae, -a erant
mentt, -ae, -a erant
cntus, -a er
veritus, -a er
sectus, -a er
passus, -a er
menttus, -a er
cntus, -a eris
veritus, -a eris
sectus, -a eris
passus, -a eris
menttus, -a eris
cntus, -a, -um erit
veritus, -a, -um erit
sectus, -a, -um erit
passus, -a, -um erit
menttus, -a, -um erit
cnt, -ae erimus
verit, -ae erimus
sect, -ae erimus
pass, -ae erimus
mentt, -ae erimus
cnt, -ae eritis
verit, -ae eritis
sect, -ae eritis
pass, -ae eritis
mentt, -ae eritis
cnt, -e, -a erunt
verit, -ae, -a erunt
sect, -ae, -a erunt
pass, -ae, -a erunt
mentt, -ae, -a erunt
Imperfect
Future
Perfect
Pluperfect
Future Perfect
DEPONENT VERBS - PARTICIPLES
72
First
Second
Third
Third I-stem
Fourth
pres.
cnns, -ntis
verns, -ntis
sequns, -ntis
patins, -ntis
mentins, -ntis
perf.
cntus, -a, -um
veritus, -a, -um
sectus, -a, -um
passus, -a, -um
menttus, -a, -um
cntrus, -a, -um
veritrus, -a, -um
sectrus, -a, -um
passrus, -a, -um
menttrus, -a, -um
fut.
DEPONENT VERBS - INFINITIVES
First
Second
Third
Third I-stem
Fourth
pres.
cnr
verr
sequ
pat
mentr
perf.
cntus, -a, -um esse
veritus, -a, -um esse
sectus, -a, -um esse
passus, -a, -um esse
menttus, -a, -um esse
cntrus, -a, -um esse
veritrus, -a, -um esse
sectrus, -a, -um esse
passrus, -a, -um esse
menttrus, -a, -um esse
fut.
73
FIVE NOUN DECLENSIONS
Singular
First
Second
Third
Third I-stem
Fourth
Fifth
(F / M)
(M / N)
(M / F / N)
(M / F / N)
(M / N)
(M / F)
F
M
N
M
N
F
N
M
N
F
Nom.
puella
dominus
verbum

opus
nvis
mare
gradus
corn
s
Gen.
puellae
domin
verb

operis
nvis
maris
grads

re
Dat.
puellae
domin
verb

oper
nv
mar
grad
corn
re
Acc.
puellam
dominum
verbum

opus
nvem
mare
grad
corn
rm
Abl.
puell
domin
verb

opere
nve
mar
grad
corn
r
Nom.
puellae
domin
verba

opera
nvs
maria
grads
corn
rs
Gen.
puellrum
dominrum
verbrum

operum
nvium
marium
grad
corn

Dat.
puells
domins
verbs

operibus
nvibus
maribus
grad
corn
rbus
Acc.
puells
domins
verba

opera
nvs
maria
grads
corn
rs
Abl.
puells
domins
verbs

operibus
nvibus
maribus
grad
corn
rbus
Plural
ADJECTIVE DECLENSIONS
First and Second Declension
Singular
Plural
M
F
N
F
N
bonus
bona
bonum
bon
bonae
bona
Gen.
bon
bonae
bon
bonrum
bonrum
bonrum
Dat.
bon
bonae
bon
bons
bons
bons
Acc.
bonum
bonam
bonum
bons

bona
Abl.
bon
bon
bon
bons
bons
bons
Nom.
M
Singular
M
Plural
F
N
F
N
Nom.
sacer
sacra
sacrum
sacr
M
sacrae
sacra
Gen.
sacr
sacrae
sacr
sacrrum
sacrrum
sacrrum
Dat.
sacr
sacrae
sacr
sacrs
sacr
sacrs
Acc.
sacrum
sacram
sacrum
sacrs
sacrs
sacr
Abl.


sacr
s
sacrs
sacrs
Singular
Plural
M
F
Nom.
miser
misera
miserum
N
miser
miserae
misera
Gen.
miser
miserae
miser
miserrum
miserrum
miserrum
Dat.
miser
miserae
miser
misers
misers
misers
Acc.
miserum
miseram
miserum
s
s
misera
Abl.
miser
miser
miser
misers
misers
misers
74
M
F
N
Third Declension
Three Terminations
Singular
M
F
Plural
N
M
F
N
Nom.
cer
cris
cre
crs
crs
cria
Gen.
cris
cris
cris
crium
crium
crium
Dat.
cr
cr
cr
cr
cr
cr
Acc.
crem
crem
cre
crs, -s
crs, -s
cria
cr
cr
cr
cr
cr
Abl.
cr
Two Terminations
One Termination
Singular
M/F
Plural
N
Singular
M/F
N
M/F
Nom.
Plural
N
M/F
N
Nom.
omnis
omne
omns
omnia
flx
flx
flcs
flcia
Gen.
omnis
omnis
omnium
omnium
Gen.
flcis
flcis
flcium
flcium
Dat.
omn
omn
omnibus
omnibus
Dat.
flc
flc
flc
flc
Acc.
omnem
omne
omns, -s
omnia
Acc.
lcem
flx
flcs, -s
flcia
Abl.
omn
omn
omnibus
omnibus
Abl.
flc
lc
flc
flc
Participle Declensions
First Conjugation
Singular
M/F
Second Conjugation
Plural
N
M/F
Singular
N
M/F
Plural
N
M/F
N
Nom.
amns
amns
amants
amantia
monns
monns
monents
monentia
Gen.
amantis
amantis
amantium
amantium
monentis
monentis
monentium
monentium
Dat.
amant
amant
amantibus
amantibus
monent
monent
monentibus
monentibus
Acc.
amantem
amns
amants, -s
amantia
monentem
monns
monents, -s
monentia
Abl.
amant
amant
amantibus
amantibus
monent
monent
monentibus
monentibus
Third Conjugation
Singular
M/F
Third Conjugation I-stem
Plural
N
M/F
Singular
N
M/F
Plural
N
M/F
N
Nom.
dcns
dcns
dcents
dcentia
capins
capins
capients
capientia
Gen.
dcentis
dcentis
dcentium
dcentium
capientis
capientis
capientium
capientium
Dat.
dcent
dcent
dcentibus
dcentibus
capient
capient
capientibus
capientibus
Acc.
dcentem
dcens
dcents, -s
dcentia
capients
capins
capients, -s
capientia
Abl.
dcent
dcent
dcentibus
dcentibus
capient
capient
capientibus
capientibus
Fourth Conjugation
Singular
M/F
Plural
N
M/F
N
Nom.
audins
audins
audients
audientia
Gen.
audientis
audientis
audientium
audientium
Dat.
audient
audient
audientibus
audientibus
Acc.
audients
audins
audients, -s
audientia
Abl.
audient
audient
audientibus
audientibus
75
Comparative Adjective
Singular
M/F
Plural
N
M/F
N
longior
longius
longirs
longira
Gen.
longiris
longiris
longirum
longirum
Dat.
longir
longir
longiribus
longiribus
Acc.
longirem
longius
longirs
longira
Abl.
longire
longire
longiribus
longiribus
Nom.
Irregular Comparison of Adjectives
Positive
Comparative
bonus, -a, -um good
malus, -a, -um bad
magnus, -a, -um great
parvus, -a, -um small
multus, -a, -um much, many
melior, melius better
peior, peius worse
maior, maius greater
minor, minus smaller
sg. pls (neuter noun only) more
pl. plrs, plra several, more
Superlative
optimus, -a, -um
pessimus, -a, -um
maximus, -a, -um
minimus, -a, -um
plrimus, -a, -um
best
worst
greatest
smallest
most, very many
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
Regular Comparison of Adverbs
Positive Adverb
criter keenly
alt deeply
facile easily
miser unhappily
sapienter wisely
Comparative Adverb
crius more keenly
altius more deeply
facilius more easily
miserius more unhappily
sapientius more wisely
Superlative Adverb
cerrim very keenly
altissim very deeply
facillim very easily
miserrim very unhappily
sapientissim very wisely
Irregular Comparison of Adverbs
Positive Adverb
bene well
male badly
magnopere greatly
parum too little
multum much
di for a long time
Comparative Adverb
melius better
peius worse
magis more (quality)
minus less
pls more (quantity)
ditius for a longer time
76
Superlative Adverb
optim best
pessim worst
maxim most, especially
minim least
plrimum most , very much
ditissim for the longest time
PRONOUN DECLENSIONS
Personal Pronouns
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
Singular Nom.
ego
t
is
ea
id
Gen.
me
tu
eius
eius
eius
Dat.
mihi
tibi
e
e
e
Acc.
m
t
eum
eam
id
Abl.
m
t
e
e
e
Nom.
ns
vs
e
eae
ea
Gen.
nostrum, nostr
vestrum, vestr
erum
erum
erum
Plural
Dat.
nbs
vbs
es
es
es
Acc.
ns
vs
es
es
ea
Abl.
nbs
vbs
es
es
es
Reflexive Pronouns
1st person
Singular
Plural
2nd person
3rd person
Nom.
—
—
—
Gen.
me
tu
su
Dat.
mihi
tibi
sibi
Acc.
m
t
s (ss)
Abl.
m
t
s (ss)
Nom.
—
—
—
Gen.
nostr
vestr
su
Dat.
nbs
vbs
sibi
Acc.
ns
vs
s (ss)
Abl.
nbs
vbs
s (ss)
Relative Pronoun
Singular
M
Nom.
Plural
F
N
M
F
N
qu
quae
quod
qu
quae
quae
Gen.
cuius
cuius
cuius
qurum
qurum
qurum
Dat.
cu
cu
cu
quibus
quibus
quibus
Acc.
quem
quam
quod
qus
qus
quae
Abl.
qu
qu
qu
quibus
quibus
quibus
DEMONSTRATIVES
Hic, Haec, Hoc
M
Nom.
Singular
F
N
Plural
F
M
N
hic
haec
hoc
h
hae
haec
Gen.
huius
huius
huius
hrum
hrum
hrum
Dat.
huic
huic
huic
hs
hs
hs
Acc.
hunc
hanc
hoc
hs
hs
haec
Abl.
hc
hc
hc
hs
hs
hs
77
Ille, Illa, Illud
Singular
M
Nom.
Plural
F
N
M
F
N
ille
illa
illud
ill
illae
illa
Gen.
illus
illus
illus
illrum
illrum
illrum
Dat.
ill
ill
ill
ills
ills
ills
Acc.
illum
illam
illud
ills
ills
illa
Abl.
ill
ill
ill
ills
ills
ills
Is, Ea, Id
Singular
M
Nom.
Plural
F
N
M
F
N
is
ea
id
e
eae
ea
Gen.
eius
eius
eius
erum
erum
erum
Dat.
e
e
e
es
es
es
Acc.
eum
eam
id
es
es
ea
Abl.
e
e
e
es
es
es
dem, Eadem, Idem
Singular
M
F
Plural
N
M
F
N
dem
eadem
idem
edem
eaedem
eadem
Gen.
eiusdem
eiusdem
eiusdem
erundem
erundem
erundem
Dat.
edem
edem
edem
esdem
esdem
esdem
Acc.
eundem
eandem
idem
esdem
esdem
eadem
Abl.
edem
edem
edem
esdem
esdem
esdem
Nom.
Iste, Ista, Istud
Singular
M
Nom.
Plural
F
N
M
F
N
iste
ista
istud
ist
istae
ista
Gen.
istus
istus
istus
istrum
istrum
istrum
Da.t.
ist
ist
ist
ists
ists
ists
Acc.
istum
istam
istud
ists
ists
ista
Abl.
ist
ist
ist
ists
ists
ists
Intensive
Ipse, Ipsa, Ipsum
Singular
M
Nom.
Plural
F
N
M
F
N
ipse
ipsa
ipsum
ips
ipsae
ipsa
Gen.
ipsus
ipsus
ipsus
ipsrum
ipsrum
ipsrum
Dat.
ips
ips
ips
ipss
ipss
ipss
Acc.
ipsum
ipsam
ipsum
ipss
ipss
ipsa
Abl.
ips
ips
ips
ipss
ipss
ipss
78
NUMERALS
Arabic
Roman Numeral
Cardinal
Ordinal
1
I
nus, -a, -um
prmus, -a, -um
2
II
duo, duae, duo
secundus, -a, -um
3
III
trs, tria
tertius, -a, -um
4
IV
quattuor
qurtus, -a, -um
5
V
quinque
quntus, -a, -um
6
VI
sex
sextus, -a, -um
7
VII
septem
septimus, -a, -um
8
VIII
octo
octvus, -a, -um
9
IX
novem
nnus, -a, -um
10
X
decem
decimus, -a, -um
100
C
centum
centsimus, -a, -um
79
CLASSIFIED VOCABULARY
incd, incdere, incess, incessum, go in
lbor, lb, lapsus sum, collapse, slip
leg, legere, lg, lectum, choose, pick out, read
mitt, mittere, ms, missum, send
pet, petere, petiv, pettum, seek, ask for
pn, pnere, posu, positum, place, put, set up
reg, regere, rx, rctum, rule
relinqu, relinquere, relqu, relictum, leave behind, leave
scrb, scrbere, scrps, scrptum, write
sequor, sequ, secutus sum, follow
surg, surgere, surrx, surrctum, rise, stretch upward,
swell
teg, tegere, tx, tectum, cover, conceal, shelter
tend, tendere, tetend, tentum, extend, proceed, stretch out
trah, trahere, trx, trctum, drag
vinc, vincere, vc, victum, conquer, defeat
vv, vvere, vx, vctum, live
volv, volvere, volv, voltum, roll
VERBS
1st Conjugation
am, amre, amv, amtum, like, love
cnor, cnr, cntus sum, try, attempt
cant, cantre, cantv, canttum, sing
clm, clmre, clmv, clmtum, shout
err, errre, errv, errtum, make a mistake, wander
laud, laudre, laudv, laudtum, praise
monstr, monstrre, monstrv, monstrtum, show
nunti, nuntire, nuntiv, nuntitum, announce, report
par, parre, parv, partum, prepare
port, portre, portv, porttum, carry
pugn, pugnre, pugnv, pugntum, fight
put, putre, putv, puttum, think, consider
rog, rogre, rogv, rogtum, ask
serv, servre, servv, servtum, save, guard,
watch over
st, stre, stet, statum, stand
vet, vetre, vetu, vetitum, forbid, order . . . not
voc, vocre, vocv, voctum, call
vulner, vulnerre, vulnerv, vulnertum, wound, hurt
3rd Conjugation I-stem
accipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum, receive
capi, capere, cp, captum, take, capture, seize,
faci, facere, fc, factum, do, make
fugi, fugere, fg, fugitrus, flee, avoid, run away
incipi, incipere, incp, inceptum, begin
inspici, inspicere, inspex, inspectum, look into or
upon
interficio, -ficere, -fc, -fectum, kill
morior, mor, mortuus sum, die
patior, pat, passus sum, endure, experience, suffer
2nd Conjugation
arde, ardre, ars, arsrus, burn, be inflamed, blaze
dle, dlre, dlv, dltum, destroy
doce, docre, docu, doctum, teach
habe, habre, habu, habitum, have, hold; consider
iube, iubre, iuss, iussum, order, command, bid
mane, manre, mns, mnsum, remain, stay
mone, monre, monu, monitum, advise, warn
move, movre, mv, mtum, move
sede, sedre, sd, sessum, sit
tene, tenre, tenu, tentum, hold, contain
terre, terrre, terru, territum, frighten
time, timre, timu, —, be afraid of, fear
vereor, verr, veritus sum, fear, respect
vide, vidre, vd, vsum, see; (pass.) seem, appear, be
seen
4th Conjugation
audi, audre, audv, audtum, hear, listen to
mentior, mentr, menttus sum, tell a lie
mni, munre, munv, muntum, fortify
pni, pnre, pnv, pnitum, punish
senti, sentre, sns, snsum, feel, perceive
veni, venre, vn, ventum, come
Irregular
absum, abesse, fu, futrus, be away
adsum, adesse, adfu, adfutrus, be present
do, dare, ded, datum, give
e, re, i(v), itum, go
fer, ferre, tul, ltum, bear, bring, carry, endure
ml, mlle, mlu, —, prefer
nl, nlle, nlu, —, be unwilling, not to want,
not to wish
possum, posse, potu, —, be able, can
refer, referre, rettul, relatum, bring back, refer
sube, subre, subi (subv), subitum, undergo
sum, esse, fu, futrus, be
vol, velle, volu, —, want, wish
rd
3 Conjugation
ag, agere, g, actum, drive, do, treat, deal with
cern, cernere, crv, crtum, decide, discern, perceive
cnsist, -ere, cnstit, cnstitum, stop
cnstitu, -ere, cnstitu, cnstittum, decide,
determine, establish
contend, contendere, contend, contentum, compete,
hurry, make effort, march, strive
curr, -ere, cucurr, cursum, run, hasten
dc, dcere, dx, dictum, say, speak, tell
dc, dcere, dx, ductum, lead
excd, excdere, excess, excessum, depart, go out
ger, gerere, gess, gestum, carry on, conduct
80
somnus, - m., sleep
umerus, - m., shoulder
ventus, - m., wind
vir, vir m., man
NOUNS
st
1 Declension: Feminine
aqua, -ae f., water
cra, -ae f., care, concern, worry
dea, -ae f., goddess
epistula, -ae f., letter
fma, -ae f., rumor, reputation, glory
flia, -ae f., daughter
flamma, -ae f., flame
fortna, -ae f., fortune, luck
fuga, -ae f., escape, flight
gratia, -ae f., favor; (pl.) thanks
hra, -ae f., hour
invidia, -ae f., envy, hatred
ra, -ae f., anger, wrath
lacrima, -ae f., tear
ra, -ae f., shore, edge, rim
patria, -ae, native land
poena, -ae f., punishment
porta, -ae f., gate
puella, -ae f., girl
rgna, -ae f., queen
silva, -ae f., forest, woods
terra, -ae f., country, earth, land
umbra, -ae f., shadow, ghost
via, -ae f., road, way, life
2nd Declension: Neuter
aurum, - n., gold
bellum, - n., war
caelum, - n., heaven, sky
donum, - n., gift
factum, - n., deed
ftum, - n., fate
ferrum, - n., iron, sword
imperium, - n., power, rule
rgnum, - n., kingdom
saxum, - n., rock, stone
tlum, - n., javelin, weapon
verbum, - n., word
2nd Declension: Neuter Plurals
arma, -rum n. pl., arms
castra, -rum n. pl., camp
3rd Declension: Masculine
cnsul, cnsulis m., consul
dux, ducis m., leader
fnis, -is (-ium) m., end; (pl.) territory
frter, frtris m., brother
furor, -ris m., rage, fury
hom, hominis m., human, man
hostis, hostis (-ium) m., enemy
ignis, -is (-ium) m., fire
labor, labris m., work, hardship, labor
mles, mlitis m., soldier
mns, montis (-ium) m., mountain
nm, nminis m., no one, nobody
pater, patris m., father
ps, pedis m., foot
pns, pontis (-ium) m., bridge
rx, rgis m., king
1st Declension: Masculine
agricola, -ae m., farmer
incola, -ae m., inhabitant
nauta, -ae m., sailor
prta, -ae m., pirate
pota, -ae m., poet
scrba, -ae m., secretary, writer
2nd Declension: Masculine
ager, agr m., field
animus, - m., spirit, mind, (pl.) bravery
annus, - m., year
campus, - m., field, plain, playing field
deus, - m., god
discipulus, - m., student
dominus, - m., master
equus,  m., horse
flius, - m., son
liber, libr m, book
locus, - m (loca, -rum n. pl.), place
magister, magistr m., teacher
mrus, - m., wall
nuntius, - m., messenger
oculus, - m., eye
puer, puer m., boy
servus, - m., slave
socius, - m., ally
3rd Declension: Feminine
gns, gentis (-ium) f., nation, tribe
lx, lgis f., law
lx, lcis f., light
mter, mtris f., mother
mns, mentis (-ium) f., mind, intention
mors, mortis f. (-ium), death
nvis, nvis (-ium) f., ship
nox, noctis (-ium) f., night
pars, partis f., (-ium), part, direction
soror, sorris f., sister
urbs, urbis (-ium) f., city
virg, virginis f., maiden
vx, vcis f., voice
81
Proper Nouns
Asia, -ae f., Asia Minor (modern Turkey)
Augustus, - m., Augustus Caesar
Caesar, Caesaris m., Gaius Julius Casear
Cicer, Ciceronis m., Marcus Tullius Cicero
Gaius, - m., Gaius Caesar
Italia, -ae f., Italy
Iuppiter, Iovis m., Jupiter
Livius, Livi m., Titus Livius
Ns, Nsnis m., Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid)
Numa, -ae m., Numa Pompilius
Olympus, - m., Mount Olympus
Pompeius, Pompei m., Pompey
Pythagoras, -ae m., Pythagoras
Rma, -ae f., Rome
Vergilius, Vergili m., Publius Vergilius Maro (Vergil)
3rd Declension: Masculine and Feminine
cvis, cvis (-ium) m. / f., citizen
comes, comitis m. / f., companion
coniunx, coniugis m. / f., spouse
3rd Declension: Neuter
agmen, agminis n., column (of men)
caput, capitis n., head
carmen, carminis n, song
corpus, corporis n., body
genus, -eris n., kind, sort
iter, itineris n., journey, road, way
is, iris n., law, right
ltus, ltoris n., shore, beach, coast
lmen, lminis n., light
mare, maris (-ium) n., sea
moenia, -ium n. pl., walls
nmen, nminis n., name
onus, oneris n., burden
opus, operis n., task, work
s, oris n., mouth
pectus, pectoris n., breast, chest, heart
scelus, sceleris n., crime
sdus, sderis n., star
tempus, tempris n., time
ADJECTIVES
4th Declension: Masculine
csus, -s m., chance, fall, misfortune
exercitus, -s m., army
flctus, -s m., wave, flood, sea
fructus, -s m., benefit, enjoyment, fruit
gradus, -s m., step
ictus, -s m., blow, strike
sentus, -s m., senate
sus, -s m., application, practice, use, skill
st
1 and 2nd Declension
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick
alius, -a, -um, another, other
alter, altera, alterum, the other ( of two)
altus, -a, -um, deep, high, tall
amicus, -a, -um, friendly
antquus, -a, -um, ancient
ter, tra, trum, black, dark
bonus, -a, -um, good
crus, -a, -um, dear
fessus, -a, -um, exhausted, tired
idneus, -a, -um, suitable
rtus, -a, -um, angry
laetus, -a, -um, happy, joyful
lber, lbera, lberum, free
longus, -a, -um, long
magnus, -a, -um, large
malus, -a, -um, bad, evil
maximus, -a, -um, most
meus, -a, -um, mine, my
minimus, -a, -um, smallest, least
miser, misera, miserum, unhappy, wretched
multus, -a, -um, much, many
neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither
noster, nostra, nostrum, our
novus, -a, -um, new
4th Declension: Feminine
domus, -s, f., home, household
manus, -s f., hand
4th Declension: Neuter
corn, -s n., horn
5th Declension
dis, - m., day
fids, -e f., loyalty, faith
rs, re f., thing, affair, matter
rs pblica, re pblicae f., state, republic
specis, - f., appearance, sight
sps, spe f., hope
Indeclinable
nihil n., nothing
82
nullus, -a, -um, no, not any
optimus, -a, -um, best, excellent
parvus, -a, -um, little, small
pauc, -ae, -a, few
pessimus, -a, -um, worst
pius, -a, -um, devoted, dutiful, loyal
plurimus, -a, -um , most, very many
prmus, -a, -um, first
proximus, -a, -um, next, nearest
pblicus, -a, -um, public
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful
sacer, sacra, sacrum, holy
secundus, -a, -um, second
slus, -a, -um, alone, only, sole
suus, -a, -um, his, her, its, their (own)
tertius, -a, -um, third
ttus, -a, -um, entire, whole
tuus, -a, -um, your, yours
ullus, -a, -um, any
nus, -a, -um, one
uter, utra, utrum, which (of two)
vacuus, -a, -um, empty
vester, vestra, vestrum, your, yours
Proper Adjectives
Gallus, -a, -um, Gaul, Gallic
Rmnus, -a, -um, Roman
PRONOUNS
Personal and Reflexive
ego, me I
is, ea, id, he, she, it
ns, nostrum / nostr we
su (gen.), himself, herself, itself, themselves
t, tu you (sg.)
vs, vestrum / vestr you (pl.)
Relative
qu, quae, quod, who, which, that
Demonstrative
hic, haec, hoc, this, these
dem, eadem, idem, same
ille, illa, illud, that, those
is, ea, id, that, this
iste, ista, istud, that (of yours)
Intensive
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, himself, herself, itself, themselves,
myself, yourself, ourselves, yourselves; in
person; very
3rd Declension: 3 Terminations
cer, cris, cre, fierce, keen, sharp
celer, celeris, celere, quick, swift
ADVERBS
3rd Declension: 2 Terminations
brevis, -e, brief, short
difficilis, -e, difficult
dissimilis, -e, dissimilar, unlike
dulcis, -e, sweet
facilis, -e, easy
fortis, -e, strong, brave
gracilis, -e, graceful, slender
gravis, -e, heavy, serious
humilis, -e, humble, low
maior, maius, greater
melior, melius, better
minor, minus, smaller, less
omnis, -e, all, every
peior, peius, worse
similis, -e, like, similar
trstis, -e, sad
tilis, -e, useful
aegr, painfully, with difficulty
bene, well
crs, tomorrow
di, for a long time
heri, yesterday
hc, here
hodi, today
ib, there
long, far
magis (compar. of magnopere), more
magnopere, greatly
maxim, very greatly
modo, just, only
nn, not
numquam, never
nunc, now
parum, too little
prm, at first
quam, than, (+ superlative), as…as possible
quondam, at one time, formerly, once
saepe, often
semper, always
statim, at once, immediately
subit, suddenly
3rd Declension: 1 Termination
audx, audcis, bold
flx, flcis, happy
ingns, ingentis, huge, vast
sapins, sapientis, wise
83
tamen, nevertheless, yet
tandem, at length, finally
tum, at that time, then
tunc, at that time, then
vix, hardly, scarcely
tamen, nevertheless, yet
ubi, when, where
ut (+ ind.), as
PREPOSITIONS
With the Ablative
, away from, by, from
ab, away from, by, from
cum, with, along with
d, down from, about, concerning
, from, out of
ex, from, out of
in, in, on
pr, in front of, on behalf of
sine, without
sub, under
NUMERALS
Cardinals
nus, -a, -um, one
duo, duae, duo, two
trs, tria, three
quattuor, four
quinque, five
sex, six
septem, seven
octo, eight
novem, nine
decem, ten
centum, hundred
With the Accusative
ad, at, to, towards
ante, before
circum, around
in, against, into, onto
inter, among, between
ob, because of, on account of
per, through
post, behind, after
propter, on account of, because of
Ordinals
prmus,-a,-um, first
secundus, -a, -um, second
IDIOMS
CONJUNCTIONS
bellum gerere, wage war
d (+ abl.) agere, talk about
gratis agere (+ dat.), thank, give thanks
vtam agere, lead a life
iter facere, make a journey, march
poens dare, pay the penalty
ac, and
antequam, before
atque, and
aut, or
aut…aut, either…or
autem, but, however, moreover
dum, while
enim, for
et, and
etiam, also, even
igitur, therefore
iam, already, now
nam, for
nec, and…not, nor
neque, and…not, nor
neque…neque, neither…nor
nn modo … sed etiam, not only … but also
postquam, after
-que, and
quod, because
sed, but
84
VOCABULARY
Nouns: The nominative singular of each noun is given followed by the genitive singular. For regular nouns of
the first, second, fourth and fifth declension, only the genitive singular ending is given (e.g. mrus, -). Where the stem
cannot be determined from the nominative singular form, as in some second declension nouns and in the third
declension, the full form of the genitive singular is given. Third I-stem nouns are indicated in the lists by (-ium).
Adjectives: Adjectives whose stems can be determined from the nominative singular masculine form appear as
the nominative masculine singular with the endings for the other genders (e.g., bonus, -a, -um; trstis, -e). Adjectives
whose stems cannot be determined from the nominative singular masculine are written out fully: all three genders in the
case of the adjectives of three or two terminations (e.g., ter, tris, tre; melior, melius); the nominative and genitive
singulars in the case of adjectives of one termination (e.g.,flx, flcis).
Verbs: The first person singular present indicative active of each verb is listed. If the verb is regular (i.e. forms
its stems like am, mone, or audi), a numeral follows to indicate its conjugation (laud (1), I praise). If the verb is
irregular, its principal parts are given.
Words introduced in New First Steps In Latin are followed by an asterisk (*). Words introduced in New
Second Steps in Latin chapters are marked with the lesson number in Roman numerals in square brackets [I]. Words
used in the reading lessons are shown as “P” and the paragraph number in which they occur [P1].
LATIN – ENGLISH VOCABULARY
agmen, agminis n., column (of men) [XVI]
A
ag, agere, g, actum, drive, do, treat, deal with [III]
 (+ abl.), away from, by, from *
d (+abl.) agere, talk about, debate about [III]
ab (+ abl.), away, by, from *
gratis agere (+ dat.), thank [III]
abscd, -ere, -cd, -csum, cut away, cut off [P5]
vtam agere, lead a life [III]
absum, abesse, fu, futrus, be away [XXIV]
agricola, -ae m., farmer *
ac, conj., and [XVII]
alius, -a, -um, another, other [XXIX]
accd, -ere, access, accessum, approach, come up to
alter, altera, alterum, the other (of two) [XXIX]
[P7]
altus, -a, -um, deep, high, tall *
accipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum, receive *
amcus, -a, -um, friendly *
accurr, accurrere, accurs, accursum, run to [P7]
amcus, -I, m., friend *
cer, cris, cre, fierce, keen, sharp *
am (1), like, love *
Acrisius, - m., Acrisius, king of Argos
Andromeda, -ae f., Andromeda, daughter of Cepheus and
ad (+ acc.), to, towards, at *
Cassiope, saved by Perseus
addc, -ere, addx, adductum, lead to [P2]
anguis, -is m., -f., serpent, snake [P4]
ade, adre, adi (-v), aditum, go to, go toward [P9]
animus, - m., mind, spirit; (pl.) bravery [XIII]
adfici, -ere, -fc, -fectum, affect, do to, move [P9]
annus, - m., year *
adhc, adv., still, to this point, yet [P1]
ante (+ acc.), before [VIII]
adlig (1), bind, tie [P7]
antequam, adv., before [VII]
adsum, adesse, adfu, adfutrus, be present [XXIV]
antquus, -a, -um, ancient [XXIV]
adulscns, adulscentis m./f., youth [P3]
Apollo, Apollinis m., Apollo, the god of prophecy
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick *
aqua, -ae f., water *
aegr, adv., painfully, with difficulty [VI]
arca, -ae f., box, chest [P1]
aes, aeris n., bronze, copper [P4]
arde, ardre, ars, arsrus, burn, be inflamed, blaze [I]
Aethiops, -pis m., Ethiopian, people of inland Africa
arma, -rum n. pl., arms [IV]
ager, agr m., field *
ascend, -ere, ascend, ascnsum, ascend,
85
Asia, -ae f., Asia Minor, (modern Turkey)
cter, -ae, -a, the remaining, the rest [P4]
at, but [XVII]
Cicer, Cicernis m., Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman
ter, tra, trum, black, dark *
statesman and orator (106-43 B.C.)
atque, conj., and [XVII]
circum (+ acc.), around [VIII]
audx, audcis, bold *
cvis, cvis (-ium) m. / f., citizen *
audi (4), hear, listen to *
clm (1), shout [XXII]
Augustus, - m., Augustus Caesar, Roman emperor (63
cog, cogere, cog, coactum, compel, drive together,
B.C. - A.D. 14)
force, gather [V]
aurum, - n., gold [XXIII]
collum, - n., neck [P8]
aut, conj., or [II]
comes, comitis m., / f., companion [VI]
aut…aut, conj., either…or [II]
comprehend, -ere, -hend, -hensum, grasp, seize [P1]
autem, conj., however, but, moreover [I]
confer, conferre, contul, colltum, bring together;
(with s) take onesself , go [P10]
avus, - m., grandfather [P1]
conici, conicere, conic, coniectum, cast, hurl, throw,
B
throw together [P1]
betus, -a, -um, blessed, happy [P3]
coniunx, coniugis m. / f., spouse, husbadn, wife [XXVII]
bellum,  n., war *
cnor, cnr, cntus sum, try, attempt [XVIII]
bellum gerere, wage war *
cnsilium, - n., plan [P3]
bene, adv., well [VI]
cnsist, -ere, cnstit, cnstitum, stop [XI]
beneficium, - n., kindness, service, benefit [P2]
cnspectus, -s m., sight [P5]
bonus, -a, -um, good *
cnstitu, -ere, cnstitu, cnstittum, decide, determine,
brevis, -e, brief, short *
establish [IV]
cnsul, cnsulis m., consul [XIX]
C
cnsul, -ere, cnsulu, cnsultum, consult, resolve [P3]
caelum, - n., sky, heaven [XXIII]
contend, contendere, contend, contentum, compete,
Caesar, Caesaris m., Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman
hasten, hurry, make effort, march, strive [XVI]
statesman and general (102-44 B.C.)
continns, continentis f., mainland [P4]
campus, - m., field, plain, playing field *
conveni, -re, convn, conventum, come together,
cant (1), sing *
convene [P11]
capi, capere, cp, captum, capture, seize, take *
corn, -s n., horn *
caput, capitis n., head *
corpus, corporis n., body *
carmen, carminis n., song *
cottdi, adv., daily [P6]
crus, -a, -um, dear *
crs, adv., tomorrow [III]
castra, -rum, n. pl., camp [IV]
cum (+ abl.), with, along with *
csus, -s m., chance, fall, misfortune *
cra, -ae f., care, concern, worry [XIX]
causa, -ae f., cause, reason [P5]
curr, -ere, cucurr, cursum, run, hasten [XXII]
celer, celeris, celere, quick, swift *
centum, hundred [XXIX]
D
Cepheus, - m., Cepheus, king of Cephenes in Ethiopia
Dana, Danas f., Danaë, mother of Perseus, daughter of
Cerberus, -, m., Cerberus, 3-headed dog, guardian of the
Acrisius
Underworld [XXIX]
d (+ abl.), down from, about, concerning *
cern, cernere, crv, crtum, decide, discern, perceive *
dea, -ae f., (dat. / abl. pl. debus), goddess *
certmen, certminis n., contest, struggle [P11]
decem, ten [XXIX]
certus, -a, -um, certain [P7]
ddc, -ere, ddx, dductum, lead away, remove [P7]
86
dfend, dfendere, dfend, dfensum, defend [XVI]
enim, conj., for [I]
dle, dlre, dlv, dltum, destroy *
e, adv., to that place [P10]
dplr (1), lament, mourn [P7]
e, re, i / v, itum, go [XXVI]
dpn, -ere, dposu, dpositum, put down [P9]
epistula, -ae f., letter *
dscend, -ere, dscend, dscnsum, descend
equus,  m., horse [I]
dsertus, -a, -um, deserted [P10]
err (1), make a mistake, wander *
dsuper, adv., above, from above [P7]
et, conj., and *
deus, - m., god *
etiam, conj., also, even [I]
dvor (1), devour, swallow [P6]
nn modo … sed etiam, conj., not only … but also [II]
Diana, -ae f., Diana, goddess of the moon and the hunt
ex,  (+ abl.) from, out of *
dc, dcere, dx, dictum, say, speak, tell *
exanim (1), exhaust [P9]
dis, - m., day *
excd, excdere, excess, excessum, go out, depart [XI]
difficilis, -e, difficult *
excit (1), awaken, rouse [P5]
dmitt, -ere,dms, dmissum, send away, dismiss [P3]
exercitus, -s m., army *
discd, -ere, discess, discessum, depart, withdraw,
exg, exgere, exg, exactum, drive out [V]
leave [P4]
exspect (1), look out [P7]
discipulus, - m., student [XIII]
extrah, extrahere, extrx, extrctum, drag out [P6]
discus,  m., discus [P11]
exu, exuere, exu, extum, put off, take off [P9]
dissimilis, -e, dissimilar, unlike [IX]
F
di, adv., for a long time [XII]
ditius, adv. (compar. of di), for a longer time [XXVIII]
facilis, -e, easy *
ditissim, adv., (superl. of di), for the longest time,
faci, facere, fc, factum, do, make *
iter facere, make a journey, march *
for a very long time [XXVIII]
factum, - n., deed *
do, dare, ded, datum, give *
falx, falcis, f., sickle, sword (curved) [P4]
poens dare, pay the penalty [XIX]
doce, docre, docu, doctum, teach *
fma, -ae f., rumor, reputation, glory [III]
dolor, dolris m., grief, pain [P6]
ftum, - n., fate [XXIII]
dominus, - m., master *
flx, flcis, happy *
domus, -s, f, home, household *
fer, ferre, tul, ltum, bear, bring, carry, endure [XIX]
dnum, - n., gift *
ferrum, - n., iron, sword [XXIII]
dormi, - re, dormi / dormv, dormtum, sleep [P1]
fessus, -a, -um, exhausted, tired *
dc, dcere, dx, ductum, lead *
fids, -e f., loyalty, faith *
flia, -ae f., (dat. / abl. pl. flibus) daughter *
in mtrimnium dcere, marry [P3]
dulcis, -e, sweet *
flius, - m., son *
dum, while [II]
fnis, -is (-ium) m., end, (pl.) territory [II]
duo, duae, duo, two [XXIX]
flamma, -ae f., flame [III]
dux, ducis m., leader *
flctus, -s m., wave, flood, sea*
forte, adv., accidentally, by chance [P11]
E
fortis, -e, strong, brave *
, ex (+ abl.), from, out of *
fortna, -ae f., fortune, luck [III]
d, dere, did, ditum, give out [P8]
frter, frtris m., brother *
dc, dcere, dx, ductum, lead out,
fremitus, -s m., groan, roar, rumble [P7]
unsheath [P8]
fructus, -s m., benefit, enjoyment, fruit [XXI]
ego, me, I [II]
frustr, adv., in vain [P4]
87
I
fuga, -ae f., flight, escape [III]
fugi, fugere, fg, fugitrus, flee, run away, avoid *
iam, adv., already, now [XXII]
furor, -ris m., rage, fury [XIX]
ibi, adv., there [XII]
ictus, -s m., blow, strike [XXI]
G
dem, eadem, idem, same [I]
Gaius, Gai m., common Roman name; Gaius Caesar,
idneus, -a, -um, suitable [XXVIII]
Roman emperor (A.D.12 - 41)
igitur, conj., therefore [VII]
galea, -ae f., helmet [P4]
ignvus, -a, -um, idle, lazy [P3]
gaudium,  n., joy, gladness [P9]
ignis, -is (-ium) m., fire [II]
gns, gentis (-ium) f., nation, tribe *
ignr (1), have no knowledge of [P4]
genus, -eris n., kind, sort [VIII]
ille, illa, illud, that, those [XI]
ger, gerere, gess, gestum, carry on, conduct *
imperium, - n., power, rule [XXIII]
bellum gerere, wage war *
impetus, -s m., attack [P8]
gladius, - m., sword [P8]
in (+ abl.), in, on *
Gorgo(n), Gorgonis f., Gorgon, three monstrous
in (+ acc.), into, onto, against *
daughters of Phorcys and Ceto with hair of
incd, incdere, incess, incessum, go in [XI]
snakes
incipi, incipere, incp, inceptum, begin [IV]
gracilis, -e, graceful, slender [IX]
incld, includere, incls, inclsum, enclose, imprison,
gradus, -s m., step *
shut up [P1]
Graeae, -arum f., Graeae, three sisters of the Gorgons
incola, -ae m., inhabitant *
gratia, -ae f., favor; in plural, thanks [III]
indu, induere, indu, indtum, clothe, put on [P4]
gratis agere (+ dat.), thank, give thanks [III]
ine, inre, ini (inv), initum, go in [P11]
grtus, -a, -um, pleasing [P3]
infans, infantis (-ium) m. / f., infant [P1]
gravis, -e, heavy, serious *
infici, inficere, infc, infectum, dye, stain [P8]
graviter, seriously
ingns, ingentis, huge, vast *
inrump, inrumpere, inrp, inruptum, burst in [P10]
H
inspici, inspicere, inspex, inspectum, look into or upon
habe (2), have, hold; consider [I]
[XVII]
habit (1), dwell, live [P3]
insula, -ae f., island [P2]
Hammon, Hammonis, m., Hammon, Egyptian god
inter (+ acc.), among, between [VIII]
harna, -ae f., sand [P2]
interficio, -ficere, -fc, -fectum, kill *
heri, adv., yesterday [III]
inveni, invenre, invn, invntum, come upon, find [P2]
hc, adv., here [XII]
invidia, -ae f., envy, hatred, jealousy [III]
hic, haec, hoc, this, these [VI]
Iove, (abl. of Iuppiter)
hodi, adv., today [III]
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
hom, hominis m., human, man [XVII]
ourselves, yourselves, themselves; in person; very
honor, honris m., honor, office
[XXVI]
hra, -ae f., hour *
ra, -ae f., anger, wrath *
horribilis, -e, horrible [P4]
rtus, -a, -um, angry *
hostis, hostis (-ium) m., enemy [II]
is, ea, id, he, she, it, that, this, them, those, these [I]
hc, adv., hither, to this place [P10]
iste, ista, istud, that (of yours), those ( of yours) [XI]
humilis, -e, humble, low [IX]
Italia, -ae f., Italy
iter, itineris n., journey, road, way *
iter facere, make a journey, march *
88
iterum, adv., again [P8]
iube, iubre, iuss, iussum, order, command, bid [XIII]
Iuppiter, Iovis m., Jupiter [P1]
maximus, -a, -um, (superl. of magnus) most, greatest [XXVIII]
is, iris n., law, right *
melior, melius (compar. of bonus), better [VIII]
iuvenis, -is m., youth [P3]
mns, mentis (-ium) f., mind, intention [II]
Medsa, -ae f., Medusa, one of the Gorgons, whose gaze
turned people to stone
mentior, mentr, menttus sum, lie, tell a lie [XVIII]
L
merg, mergere, mers, mersum, plunge, sink [P8]
labor, labris m., work, labor, hardship [XIX]
meritus, -a, -um, deserved, due [P9]
lbor, lb, lapsus sum, collapse, slip [XVIII]
meus, -a, -um, my, mine *
lacrima, -ae f., tear [XIX]
mles, mlitis m., soldier *
laetus, -a, -um, happy, joyful [XXIV]
Minerva, -ae f., Minerva, goddess of wisdom, war and
Larisa, -ae f., Larisa, city in Thessaly
weaving
laud (1), praise *
minimus, -a, -um (superl. of parvus), smallest, least [IX]
leg, legere, lg, lectum, choose, pick out, read [XXIII]
minor, minus (compar. of parvus), smaller, less [VIII]
lx, lgis f., law *
miser, misera, miserum, unhappy, wretched *
libenter, adv., freely, willingly [P2]
mitt, mittere, ms, missum, send *
lber, lbera, lberum, free *
modo, adv., only, just [II]
liber, libr m., book *
nn modo … sed etiam, conj., not only … but also [II]
ligneus, -a, -um, wooden [P1]
modus, - m., manner, way [P5]
ltus, ltoris n., shore, coast, beach *
moenia, -ium n. pl., walls [IV]
Livius, -, m., Titus Livius (Livy), Roman historian (59
mone (2), advise, warn *
B.C.- A.D. 17)
mns, montis (-ium) m., mountain *
locus, - m. (loca, -rum n. pl.), place [IV]
mnstr (1), show *
long, adv., far [VI]
mnstrum, - n., monster [P6]
longus, -a, -um, long *
mora, -ae f., delay [P8]
ldus, - m., game, sport [P11]
morior, mor, mortuus sum, die [XVIII]
lmen, lminis n., light [XVI]
mors, mortis (-ium) f., death [XXVIII]
lx, lcis f., light *
move, movre, mv, mtum, move *
mox, adv., soon [P8]
M
multum, adv., much [VI]
magicus, -a, -um, magical [P4]
multus, -a, -um, much, many *
magis, adv., (compar. of magnopere), more; rather
mni (4), fortify *
[XXVIII]
mrus, - m., wall *
magister, magistr m., teacher *
mt (1), change, transform [P5]
magnopere, adv., greatly [VI]
magnus, -a, -um, large, great *
N
maior, maius (compar. of magnus), greater [VIII]
nam, conj., for [I]
ml, mlle, mlu, —, prefer [XXI]
nrr (1), tell [P1]
malus, -a, -um, bad, evil, wicked *
Ns, Nsnis m., Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid), Roman
mane, manre, mns, mnsum, remain, stay *
poet (43 B.C. – A.D. 17)
manus, -s f., hand *
ntra, -ae f., nature [P4]
mare, maris (-ium) n., sea *
nauta, -ae m., sailor *
mter, mtris f., mother *
nvis, nvis (-ium) f., ship *
maxim, adv. (superl. of magnopere) very greatly [XXVIII]
nec, conj., and…not, nor [XXII]
89
nm, nminis m., no one, nobody [XIV]
ostend, ostendere, ostend, ostentum, show, stretch out
Neptnus, - m., Neptune, god of the sea
before [P10]
neque, conj., and…not, nor [XXII]
P
neque…neque, conj., neither…nor [XXII]
neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither [XXIX]
paene, adv., almost, practically [P9]
numquam, adv., never [XIV]
par (1), prepare *
nihil (indecl.) n., nothing [XIV]
pars, partis (-ium) f., part, direction [XXVIII]
nl, nlle, nlu, —, be unwilling, not want, not wish
parum, adv., too little [VI]
parvus, -a, -um, little, small *
[XXI]
nmen, nminis n., name *
pater, patris m., father *
nn, adv., not *
patior, pat, passus sum, endure, experience, suffer [XVIII]
nn modo … sed etiam, conj., not only … but
patria, -ae, native land *
also [II]
pauc, -ae, -a, few [XXVII]
ns, nostrum / nostr, we, [II]
pavor, pavris m., panic, terror [P6]
noster, nostra, nostrum, our *
pectus, pectoris n., breast, chest, heart *
novem, nine [XXIX]
peior, peius (compar. of malus), worse, rather bad [IX]
novus, -a, -um, new [XXIV]
per (+ acc.), through [VIII]
nox, noctis (-ium) f., night *
perdc, perdcere, perdx, perductum, lead through [P2]
nullus, -a, -um, no, not any, none [XXIX]
perculum, - n., danger, peril [P6]
Numa, -ae m., Numa Pompilius, legendary second king
Perseus, - m., Perseus, son of Zeus and Danaë
perveni, pervenre, pervn, perventum, arrive [P4]
of Rome (8th-7th century B.C.)
numquam, adv., never [XIV]
ps, pedis m., foot [IX]
nunc, adv., now [VII]
pessimus, -a, -um (superl. of malus), worst, very bad [IX]
nunti (1), announce, report *
pet, petere, petiv, pettum, seek, ask for [III]
nuntius, - m., messenger *
prta, -ae m., pirate *
pisctor, pisctoris m., fisherman [P2]
O
pius, -a, -um, devoted, dutiful, loyal *
ob (+ acc.), because of, on account of [VII]
plurimus, -a, -um (superl. of multus), most, very many
occup (1), seize [P6]
[IX]
octo, eight [XXIX]
poena, -ae f., punishment [XIX]
oculus, - m., eye [IX]
poens dare, pay the penalty
offend, offendere, offend, offnsum, offend [P6]
pota, -ae m., poet *
Olympus, - m., Mount Olympus, mountain on the
Polydects, -is, m., Polydectes, king of Seriphos
border of Thessaly and Macedonia, home of
Pompeius, - m., Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Roman general
the gods and goddesses
and statesman (106 B.C.-48 B.C.)
omnn, entirely [P10]
pn, pnere, posu, positum, place, put, set up *
omnis, -e, all, every *
pns, pontis (-ium) m., bridge *
onus, oneris n., burden *
porta, -ae f., gate *
optimus, -a, -um (superl. of bonus), best, excellent [IX]
port (1), carry *
opt (1), desire [P6]
possum, posse, potu, —, be able, can [XIII]
opus, operis n., task, work *
post (+ acc.), after, behind [VIII]
ra, -ae f., shore, edge, rim *
poste, adv., afterwards [P8]
rculum, - n., oracle [P1]
postquam, conj., after [VII]
s, oris n., mouth [VIII]
praest, praestre, praestit, praesttum, exhibit, show [P3]
90
prm, adv., at first [VI]
Rmnus, -a, -um, Roman
prmus, -a, -um, first *
rrsus, adv., again [P8]
pr (+ abl.), in front of, on behalf of *
S
prgredior, prgred, prgressus sum, advance, go
sacer, sacra, sacrum, holy *
forward, march forward [P7]
propter (+ acc.), on account of, because of [VII]
saepe, adv., often [XIV]
proximus, -a, -um, next, nearest *
sals, saltis f., safety [P9]
pblicus, -a, -um, public [XXIV]
sanguis, sanguinis m., blood [P8]
puella, -ae f., girl *
sapins, sapientis, wise *
puer, puer m, boy *
saxum, - n., rock, stone [XVII]
pugn (1), fight *
scelus, sceleris n., crime [VIII]
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful *
scrba, -ae m., secretary, writer *
puni (4), punish *
scrb, scrbere, scrps, scrptum, write *
put (1), think, consider [IV]
s (acc. / abl. of su), himself, herself, itself, themselves
[XIV]
Pythagoras, -ae m., Pythagoras, Greek
secundus, -a, -um, second [XXIX]
Q
sed, conj., but *
quam, conj., than, rather than [VIII]
nn modo … sed etiam, conj., not only … but
quam (+ superlative), adv., as…as possible [XXVIII]
also [II]
quattuor, four [XXIX]
sede, sedre, sd, sessum, sit *
-que, adv., and *
sds, sdis f., abode, seat [P2]
qu, quae, quod, who, which, that, what [XVI]
semper, adv., always [XIV]
quis, quitis f., quiet, rest, sleep [P2]
sentus, -s m., senate [XXI]
quinque, five [XXIX]
Seneca, -ae m., Lucius Annaeus Seneca (ca. 2 B.C.-A.D.
quod, conj., because *
65) philosopher and advisor to Nero
quondam, adv., at one time, formerly, once [XXVII]
senti, sentre, sns, snsum, feel, perceive [XXII]
septem, seven [XXIX]
R
sequor, sequ, sectus sum, follow [XVIII]
redd, reddere, reddid, redditum, give back [P9]
Serphs, - f., Seriphos, island in the Cyclades
rede, redre, redi / redv, reditum, go back [P11]
serv (1), save, guard, watch over *
redg, redgere, redg, redactum, drive back [V]
servus, - m., slave *
reditus, -s m., return [P8]
sex, six [XXIX]
refer, referre, rettul, reltum, bring back, refer [XIX]
sibi (dat. of reflexive su), himself, herself, itself,
rgia, -ae f., palace [P3]
themselves [XIV]
rgna, -ae f., queen *
sdus, sderis n., star [XXVI]
rgnum, - n., kingdom *
silva, -ae f., forest, woods *
reg, regere, rx, rctum, rule *
similis, -e, like, similar *
relinqu, relinquere, relqu, relictum, leave behind,
sine (+ abl.), without *
leave [XI]
sinus, -s m., bosom, embrace [P1]
rs, re f., thing, affair, matter *
socius, - m., ally [I]
rs pblica, re pblicae, f. state, republic [XXIV]
slus, -a, -um, alone, only, sole [XXIX]
rx, rgis m., king *
solv, solvere, solv, soltum, loosen, release,
rog (1), ask *
unbind [P9]
Rma, -ae f., Rome
somnus, - m., sleep *
91
soror, sorris f., sister *
tunc, adv.,at that time, then [VII]
specis, - f., appearance, sight *
turb (1), disturb, stir up [P1]
speculum, - n., mirror, looking glass [P4]
turpis, -e, disgraceful [P3]
sps, spe f., hope *
ttus, -a, -um, safe [P2]
statim, adv., at once, immediately [XVII]
tuus, -a, -um, your, yours *
st, stre, stet, statum, stand *
U
sub (+ abl.), under *
sube, subre, subi / subv, subitum, undergo [XXVI]
ubi, adv., when, where [XII]
subit, adv., suddenly [XXII]
ullus, -a, -um, any [XXIX]
su (gen.), himself, herself, itself, themselves [XIV]
umbra, -ae f., shadow, ghost *
sum, esse, fu, futrus, be *
umerus, - m., shoulder [XIII]
surg, surgere, surrx, surrctum, rise, stretch upward,
unda, -ae f., wave [P8]
undique, adv., on all sides [P8]
swell *
nus, -a, -um, one [XXIX]
suus, -a, -um, his, her, its, their (own) [XIV]
urbs, urbis (-ium) f., city *
sus, -s m., use, application, practice, skill [XXI]
T
tlria, -ium n. pl., winged sandals [P4]
ut (+ ind.), conj., as [XIX]
tamen, conj., nevertheless, yet [VII]
uter, utra, utrum, which (of two) [XXIX]
tandem, adv., at length, finally [XII]
tilis, -e, useful *
teg, tegere, tx, tectum, cover, conceal, shelter *
uxor, uxris f., wife [P9]
tlum, - n., javelin, weapon *
V
tempests, tempesttis f., storm, tempest, weather [P1]
tempus, temporis n., time [XXVI]
vacuus, -a, -um, empty [P9]
tend, tendere, tetend, tentum, extend, proceed, stretch
vts, vtis m., seer, prophet [P6]
veni, venre, vn, ventum, come *
out *
tene, tenre, tenu, tentum, hold, contain *
ventus, - m., wind *
tergum, - n., back [P5]
verbum, - n., word *
terra, -ae f., land, earth, country *
vereor, verr, veritus sum, fear, respect [XVIII]
terre (2), frighten *
Vergilius, - m., Publius Vergilius Maro (Vergil), Roman
poet (70-19 B.C.)
terror, terrris m., fear, terror [P9]
tertius, -a, -um, third [XXIX]
vert, vertere, vert, versum, turn [P5]
time, timre, timu, —, be afraid of, fear *
vester, vestra, vestrum, your, yours *
toll, tollere, sustul, subltum, lift, raise [P8]
vet, vetre, vetu, vetitum, forbid, order . . . not [XIII]
ttus, -a, -um, entire, whole [XXIX]
via, -ae f., road, way [XII]
trd, trdere, trdid, trditum, hand across, hand
vide, vidre, vd, vsum, see, (pass.) seem, appear, be
seen
down [P6]
trah, trahere, trx, trctum, drag [XI]
vinc, vincere, vc, victum, conquer, defeat [XVI]
tranquillus, -a, -um, calm, tranquil [P2]
vinculum, - n., bond [P9]
trnsg, trnsgere, trnsg, trnsactum, accomplish,
vir, vir m., man *
virg, virginis f., maiden [XVII]
finish, pierce, run through [V]
trs, tria, three [XXIX]
virts, virttis f., courage [P3]
trstis, -e, sad *
vta, -ae f., life [III]
vtam agere , lead a life [III]
t, you (sg.) [II]
vt (1), avoid, escape [P11]
tum, adv., at that time, then [VII]
92
vv, vvere, vx, vctum, live [XI]
vix, adv., hardly, scarcely [XIX]
voc (1), call *
vol (1), fly [P4]
vol, velle, volu, —, want, wish [XXI]
volv, volvere, volv, voltum, roll *
vs, vestrum / vestr, you (pl.) [II]
vx, vcis f., voice *
vulner (1), wound, hurt *
93
ENGLISH – LATIN VOCABULARY
away from, , ab (+ abl.) *
A
about, d (+ abl.) *
B
accomplish, trnsg, trnsgere, trnsg, trnsactum [V]
bad, malus, -a, -um *
advise, mone (2) *
be, sum, esse, fu, futrus *
affair, rs, re f. *
be able, possum, posse, potu, — [XIII]
after, post (+ acc.) [VII]; (adv.), postquam [VII]
be afraid of, time, timre, timu, — *
against, in (+ acc.) *
be away, absum, abesse, fu, futrus [XXIV]
all, omnis, -e *
be inflamed, arde, ardre, ars, arsrus [I]
ally, socius, - m. [I]
be present, adsum, adesse, adfu, adfutrus [XXIV]
alone, slus, -a, -um [XXIX]
be seen, vide, vidre, vd, vsum, (pass.) *
along with, cum (+ abl.) *
be unwilling, nl, nlle, nlu, — [XXI]
already, iam, conj. [XXII]
beach, ltus, ltoris n. *
also, etiam, conj. [I]
bear, fer, ferre, tul, ltum [XIX]
always, semper [XIV]
beautiful, pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum *
among, inter (+ acc.) [VIII]
because, quod, conj. *
ancient, antquus, -a, -um [XXIV]
because of, ob (+ acc.), propter (+ acc.) [VII]
and, ac, atque [XVII], et, -que *
before, ante (+ acc.) [VIII]
and…not, nec, neque [XXII]
before, antequam, adv. [VII]
anger, ra, -ae f. *
begin, incipi, incipere, incp, inceptum [IV]
angry, rtus, -a, -um *
behind, post (+ acc.) [VIII]
announce, nunti (1) *
benefit, fructus, -s m. [XXI]
another, alius, -a, -um [XXIX]
best, optimus, -a, -um (superl. of bonus) [IX]
any, ullus, -a, -um [XXIX]
better, melior, melius (compar. of bonus) [VIII]
appear, vide, vidre, vd, vsum (pass.) *
between, inter (+ acc.) [VIII]
appearance, specis, - f. *
bid, iube, iubre, iuss, iussum [XIII]
application, sus, -s m. [XXI]
black, ter, tra, trum *
arms, arma, -rum n. pl. [IV]
blaze, arde, ardre, ars, arsrus [I]
army, exercitus, -s m. *
blow, ictus, -s m. [XXI]
around, circum (+ acc.) [VIII]
body, corpus, corporis n. *
as, ut (+ind.) [XIX]
bold, audx, audcis *
as…as possible, quam (+ superlative), adv. [XXVIII]
book, liber, libr m. *
ascend, ascend, -ere, ascend, ascnsum
boy, puer, puer m.*
ask, rog (1) *
brave, fortis, -e *
ask for, pet, petere, petv, pettum [III]
bravery, animus, - m. (pl.) [XIII]
at, ad (+ acc.) *
breast, pectus, pectoris n. *
at first, prm, adv. [VI]
bridge, pns, pontis (-ium) m. *
at length, tandem, adv. [XII]
brief, brevis, -e *
at once, statim, adv. [XVII]
bring, fer, ferre, tul, ltum [XIX]
at one time, quondam, adv. [XXVII]
bring back, refer, referre, rettul, reltum [XIX]
at that time, tum, tunc, adv. [VII]
brother, frter, frtris m. *
attempt, cnor, cnr, cntus sum [XVIII]
burden, onus, oneris n. *
avoid, fugi, fugere, fg, fugitrus *
burn, arde, ardre, ars, arsrus [I]
away, , ab (+ abl.) *
but, at, [XVII], autem, conj. [I], sed, conj. *
94
not only … but also, nn modo … sed etiam, conj. [II]
decide, cern, cernere, crv, crtum *; cnstitu, -ere,
by, , ab (+ abl.) *
cnstitu, cnstittum [IV]
deed, factum, - n. *
C
deep, altus, -a, -um *
Caesar, Caesar, Caesaris m.
defeat, vinc, vincere, vc, victum [XVI]
call, voc (1) *
depart, excd, excdere, excess, excessum [XI]
camp, castra, -rum n. pl. [IV]
descend, dscend, -ere, dscend, dscnsum,
can, possum, posse, potu, — [XIII]
destroy, dle, dlre, dlv, dltum *
capture, capi, capere, cp, captum *
determine, cnstitu, -ere, cnstitu, cnstittum [IV]
care, cra, -ae f. [XIX]
devoted, pius, -a, -um *
carry, fer, ferre, tul, ltum [XIX], port (1) *
die, morior, mor, mortuus sum [XVIII]
carry on, ger, gerere, gess, gestum *
difficult, difficilis, -e *
chance, csus, -s m. *
direction, pars, partis f. (-ium) [XXVIII]
chest, pectus, pectoris n. *.
discern, cern, cernere, crv, crtum *
choose, leg, legere, lg, lectum [XXIII]
dissimilar, dissimilis, -e [IX]
citizen, cvis, cvis (-ium) m. / f. *
divine, dvus, -a, -um [XXIV]
city, urbs, urbis (-ium) f. *
do, ag, agere, g, actum [III]; faci, facere, fc,
coast, ltus, ltoris n. *
factum *
collapse, lbor, lb, lapsus sum [XVIII]
down from, d (+ abl.) *
column (of men), agmen, agminis n. [XVI]
drag, trah, trahere, trx, trctum [XI]
come, veni, venre, vn, ventum *
drive, ag, agere, g, actum [III]
command, iube, iubre, iuss, iussum [XIII]
dutiful, pius, -a, -um *
companion, comes, comitis m. / f. [VI]
E
compel, cog, cogere, cog, coactum [V]
compete, contend, contendere, contend, contentum
earth, terra, -ae f. *
[XVI]
easy, facilis, -e *
conceal, teg, tegere, tx, tectum *
edge, ra, -ae f. *
concern, cra, -ae f. [XIX]
eight, octo [XXIX]
concerning, d (+ abl.) *
either…or, aut…aut, conj. [II]
conduct, gero, gerere, gess, gestum *
end, fnis, -is (-ium) m. [IV]
conquer, vinc, vincere, vc, victum [XVI]
endure, fer, ferre, tul, ltum [XIX]
consider, habe (2) [I], put (1) [IV]
endure, patior, pat, passus sum [XVIII]
consul, cnsul, cnsulis m. [XIX]
enemy, hostis, hostis (-ium) m. (usually pl. in Latin) [II]
contain, tene, tenre, tenu, tentum *
enjoyment, fructus, -s m. [XXI]
country, terra, -ae f. *
entire, ttus, -a, -um [XXIX]
cover, teg, tegere, tx, tectum *
envy, invidia, -ae f. [III]
crime, scelus, sceleris n. [VIII]
escape, fuga, -ae f. [III]
establish, cnstitu, -ere, cnstitu, cnstittum [IV]
D
even, etiam, conj. [I]
dark, ter, tra, trum *
every, omnis, -e *
daughter, flia, -ae f. (dat. / abl. pl. flibus) *
evil, malus, -a, -um *
day, dis, - m *
excellent, optimus, -a, -um (superl. of bonus) [IX]
deal with, ag, agere, g, actum [III]
exhausted, fessus, -a, -um *
dear, crus, -a, -um *
experience, patior, pat, passus sum [XVIII]
death, mors, mortis f. (-ium) [XXVIII]
extend, tend, tendere, tetend, tentum *
debate about, d (+ abl.) agere [III]
eye, oculus, - m. [IX]
95
F
G
faith, fids, -e f. *
gate, porta, -ae f. *
fall, csus, -s m. *
gather, cog, cogere, cog, coactum [V]
far, long, adv. [VI]
ghost, umbra, -ae f. *
farmer, agricola, -ae m. *
gift, dnum, - n. *
fate, ftum, - n. [XXIII]
girl, puella, -ae f. *
father, pater, patris m. *
give, d, dare, ded, datum *
favor, gratia, -ae f. [III]
give thanks, gratis agere (+ dat.) [III]
fear (verb), time, timre, timu, —*; vereor, verr,
go, e, re, i / v, itum [XXVI]
veritus sum [XVIII]
go in, incd, incdere, incess, incessum [XI]
feel, senti, sentre, sns, snsum [XXII]
go out, excd, excdere, excess, excessum [XI]
few, pauc, -ae, -a [XXVII]
god, deus, - m. *
field, ager, agr m. *
goddess, dea, -ae f. (dat. / abl. pl. debus) *
field, campus, - m. *
gold, aurum, - n. [XXIII]
fierce, cer, cris, cre *
good, bonus, -a, -um *
fight, pugn (1) *
graceful, gracilis, -e [IX]
finally, tandem, adv. [XII]
great, magnus, -a, -um *
fire, ignis, -is (-ium) m. [II]
greater, maior, maius (compar. of magnus) [VIII]
first, prmus, -a, -um *
greatly, magnopere, adv. [VI]
five, quinque [XXIX]
guard, serv (1) *
flame, flamma, -ae f. [III]
H
flee, fugi, fugere, fg, fugitrus *
flight, fuga, -ae f. [III]
hand, manus, -s f. *
flood, flctus, -s m. *
happy, flx, flcis *
follow, sequor, sequ, sectus sum [XVIII]
happy, laetus, -a, -um [XXIV]
foot, ps, pedis m. [IX]
hardly, vix, adv. [XIX]
for, enim (postpositive), conj., [I], nam, conj. [I]
hardship, labor, labris m. [XIX]
for a long time, di, adv. [XII]
hasten, contend, -ere, contend, contentum [XVI]
for a longer time, ditius (compar. of di), adv. [XXVIII]
hatred, invidia, -ae f. [III]
for the longest / a very long time, ditissim (superl. of
have, habe (2) [I]
he, she, it, is, ea, id [I]
di), adv. [XXVIII]
forbid, vet, vetre, vetu, vetitum [XIII]
head, caput, capitis n. *
force, cog, cogere, cog, coactum [V]
hear, audi (4) *
forest, silva, -ae f. *
heart, pectus, pectoris n. *
formerly, quondam, adv. [XXVII]
heaven, caelum, - n. [XXIII]
fortify, mni (4) *
heavy, gravis, -e *
fortune, fortna, -ae f. [III]
here, hc, adv. [XII]
four, quattuor [XXIX]
herself (intensive) ipse, ipsa, ipsum [XXVI]
free, lber, lbera, lberum *
herself (reflexive) su, sibi, s, s [XIV]
friend, amcus, -, m. *
high, altus, -a, -um *
friendly, amcus, -a, -um *
himself (intensive), ipse, ipsa, ipsum [XXVI]
frighten, terre (2) *
himself (reflexive), su, sibi, s, s [XIV]
from, , ab (+ abl.) *; , ex (+ abl.) *
his, her, its(own), suus, -a, -um [XIV]
fruit, fructus, -s m. [XXI]
hold, habe (2) [I]
fury, furor, -ris m. [XIX]
hold, tene, tenre, tenu, tentum *
holy, sacer, sacra, sacrum *
96
home, domus, -s, f *
law, lx, lgis f. *
honor, honor, honris m.
lead, dc, dcere, dx, ductum *
hope, sps, spe f. *
lead a life, vtam agere [III]
horn, corn, -s n *
leader, dux, ducis m. *
horse, equus,  m. [I]
least, minimus, -a, -um [IX]
hour, hra, -ae f. *
leave, relinqu, relinquere, relqu, relictum [XI]
house, household, domus, -s f *
leave behind, excd, excedere, excess, excessum [XI]
however, autem, conj. [I]
less, minor, minus [IX]
huge, ingns, ingentis *
letter, epistula, -ae f. *
human, hom, hominis m. [XVII]
lie, mentior, mentr, menttus sum [XVIII]
humble, humilis, -e [IX]
life, vta, -ae f. [III]
hundred, centum [XXIX]
light, lmen, lminis n. [XVI]; lx, lcis f. *
hurry, contend, contendere, contend, contentum [XVI]
like (adj.), similis, -e *
hurt, vulner (1) *
like (verb), am (1) *
listen to, audi (4) *
I
little, parvus, -a, -um *
I, ego, me [II]
live, vv, vvere, vx, vctum [XI]
immediately, statim, adv. [XVII]
long, longus, -a, -um *
in, in (+ abl.) *
look into or upon, inspici, inspicere, inspex,
in front of, pr (+ abl.) *
inspectum [XVII]
inhabitant, incola, -ae m. *
love, am (1) *
intention, mns, mentis (-ium) f. [II]
low, humilis, -e [IX]
into, in (+ acc.) *
loyal, pius, -a, -um *
iron, ferrum, - n. [XXIII]
loyalty, fids, -e f. *
Italy, Italia, -ae f.
luck, fortna, -ae f. [III]
itself (intensive), ipse, ipsa, ipsum [XXVI]
M
itself (reflexive), su, sibi, s, s [XIV]
maiden, virg, virginis f. [XVII]
J
make, faci, facere, fc, factum *
javelin, tlum, - n. *
make a journey, iter facere *
jealousy, invidia, -ae, f. [III]
make a mistake, err (1) *
journey, iter, itineris n. *
make an effort, contend, contendere, contend,
joyful, laetus, -a, -um [XXIV]
contentum [XVI]
just, modo, adv. [II]
man, hom, hominis m [XVII], vir, vir m. *
many, multus, -a, -um *
K
march, contend, contendere, contend, contentum [XVI]
keen, cer, cris, cre *
march, iter facere *
kill, interficio, -ficere, -fc, -fectum *
master, dominus, - m. *
kind, genus, -eris n. [VIII]
matter, rs, re f. *
king, rx, rgis m. *
messenger, nuntius, - m. *
kingdom, rgnum, - n. *
mind, animus, - m. [XIII]; mns, mentis (-ium) f. [II]
mine, meus, -a, -um *
L
labor, labor, labris m. [XIX]
misfortune, csus, -s m. *
land, terra, -ae f. *
more, magis (compar. of magnopere) [XXVIII]
large, magnus, -a, -um *
moreover, autem [I]
law, is, iris n. *
most(adv.), maxim [XXVIII]
97
most(adj.), plrimus, -a, -um (superl. of multus) [IX]
or, aut, conj. [II]
mother, mter, mtris f. *
order, iube, iubre, iuss, iussum [XIII]
mountain, mns, montis (-ium) m. *
order . . . not, vet, vetre, vetu, vetitum [XIII]
mouth, s, oris n. [VIII]
other, alius, -a, -um [XXIX]
move, move, movre, mv, mtum *
our, noster, nostra, nostrum *
much, multum, adv. [VI]
ourselves (intensive) ips, ipsae, ipsa [XXVI]
much, multus, -a, -um *
ourselves (reflexive) nostr, nbs, ns, nbis [XIV]
my, meus, -a, -um *
out of, , ex (+ abl.) *
myself (intensive) ipse, ipsa, ipsum [XXVI]
P
myself (reflexive) me, mihi, m, m [XIV]
painfully, aegr, adv. [VI]
N
part, pars, partis (-ium) f. [XXVIII]
name, nmen, nminis n. *
pay the penalty, poens dare
nation, gns, gentis (-ium) f. *
perceive, cern, cernere, crv, crtum *; senti,
native land, patria, -ae *
sentre, sns, snsum [XXII]
nearest, proximus, -a, -um *
pick out, leg, legere, lg, lectum [XXIII]
neither, neuter, neutra, neutrum [XXIX]
pirate, prta, -ae m. *
neither…nor, neque…neque, conj. [XXII]
place (noun), locus, - m. (loca, -rum n. pl.) [IV]
never, numquam, conj. [XIV]
place (verb), pn, pnere, posu, positum *
nevertheless, tamen, conj. [VII]
plain, campus, - m. *
new, novus, -a, -um [XXIV]
playing field, campus, - m. *
next, proximus, -a, -um *
poet, pota, -ae m. *
night, nox, noctis (-ium) f. *
power, imperium, - n. [XXIII]
nine, novem [XXIX]
practice, sus, -s m. [XXI]
no, nullus, -a, -um [XXIX]
praise, laud (1) *
none, nullus, -a, -um [XXIX]
prefer, ml, mlle, mlu, — [XXI]
no one, nm, nminis m. / f. [XIV]
prepare, par (1) *
nobody, nm, nminis m. / f. [XIV]
proceed, tend, tendere, tetend, tentum *
nor, nec, neque, conj. [XXII]
public, pblicus, -a, -um [XXIV]
not, nn, adv. *
punish, puni (4) *
not any, nullus, -a, -um [XXIX]
punishment, poena, -ae f. [XIX]
not only … but also, nn modo … sed etiam, conj. [II]
put, pn, pnere, posu, positum *
not want, nl, nlle, nlu, — [XXI]
Q
not wish, nl, nlle, nlu, — [XXI]
nothing, nihil (indecl.) n. [XIV]
queen, rgna, -ae f. *
now, iam, conj. [XXII]; nunc, adv. [VII]
quick, celer, celeris, celere *
R
O
often, saepe, adv. [XIV]
rage, furor, -ris m. [XIX]
on, in (+ abl.) *
rather, magis, adv. [XXVIII]
on account of, ob (+ acc.); propter (+ acc.) [VII]
rather than, quam, conj. [VIII]
on behalf of, pr (+ abl.) *
read, leg, legere, lg, lectum [XXIII]
once, quondam, adv. [XXVII]
receive, accipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptum *
one, nus, -a, -um [XXIX]
refer, refero, referre, rettul, reltum [XIX]
only, modo, adv. [II], slus, -a, -um [XXIX]
remain, mane, manre, mns, mnsum *
onto, in (+ acc.) *
report, nnti (1) *
98
republic, rs pblica, re pblicae f. [XXIV]
show, monstr (1) *
reputation, fma, -ae f. [III]
sick, aeger, aegra, aegrum *
respect, vereor, verr, veritus sum [XVIII]
sight, specis, - f. *
right, is, iris n. *
similar, similis, -e *
rim, ra, -ae f. *
sing, cant (1) *
rise, surg, surgere, surrx, surrctum *
sister, soror, sorris f. *
road, iter, itineris n. *; via, -ae f. [XII]
sit, sede, sedre, sd, sessum *
rock, saxum, - n. [XVII]
situation, rs, re, f.*
roll, volv, volvere, volv, voltum *
six, sex [XXIX]
Roman, Rmnus, -a, -um
skill, sus, -s m. [XXI]
Rome, Rma, -ae f.
sky, caelum, - n. [XXIII]
rule (noun), imperium, - n. [XXIII]
slave, servus, - m. *
rule (verb), reg, regere, rx, rctum *
sleep, somnus, - m. *
rumor, fma, -ae f. [III]
slender, gracilis, -e [IX]
run, curr, -ere, cucurr, cursum [XXII]
slip, lbor, lb, lapsus sum [XVIII]
run away, fugi, fugere, fg, fugitrus *
small, parvus, -a, -um *
run through, trnsg, trnsgere, trnsg, trnsactum [V]
smaller, minor, minus (compar. of parvus) [VIII]
smallest, minimus, -a, -um (superl. of parvus) [IX]
S
soldier, mles, mlitis m. *
sad, trstis, -e *
sole, slus, -a, -um [XXIX]
sailor, nauta, -ae m. *
son, flius, - m. *
same, dem, eadem, idem [I]
song, carmen, carminis n. *
save, serv (1) *
sort, genus, -eris n. [VIII]
say, dc, dcere, dx, dictum *
speak, dc, dcere, dx, dictum *
scarcely, vix, adv. [XIX]
spirit, animus, - m. [XIII]
sea, flctus, -s m. *, mare, maris (-ium) n. *
spouse, coniunx, coniugis m. / f. [XXVII]
second, secundus, -a, -um [XXIX]
stand, st, stre, stet, statum *
secretary, scrba, -ae m. *
star, sdus, sderis n. [XXVI]
see, vide, vidre, vd, vsum *
state, rs pblica, re pblicae f. [XXIV]
seek, pet, petere, petv, pettum [III]
stay, mane, manre, mns, mnsum *
seem, vide, vidre, vd, vsum, (pass.) *
step, gradus, -s m. *
seize, capi, capere, cp, captum *
stone, saxum, - n. [XVII]
senate, sentus, -s m. [XXI]
stop, cnsist, -ere, cnstit, — [XI]
send, mitt, mittere, ms, missum *
stretch out, tend, tendere, tetend, tentum *
serious, gravis, -e *
stretch upward, surg, surgere, surrx, surrctum *
seriously, graviter, adv.
strike, ictus, -s m. [XXI]
set up, pn, pnere, posu, positum *
strive, contend, contendere, contend, contentum [XVI]
seven, septem [XXIX]
strong, fortis, -e *
shadow, umbra, -ae f. *
student, discipulus, - m. [XIII]
sharp, cer, cris, cre *
suddenly, subit, adv. [XXII]
shelter, teg, tegere, tx, tectum *
suffer, patior, pat, passus sum [XVIII]
ship, nvis, nvis (-ium) f. *
suitable, idneus, -a, -um [XXVIII]
shore, ltus, ltoris n. *; ra, -ae f. *
sweet, dulcis, -e *
short, brevis, -e *
swell, surg, surgere, surrx, surrctum *
shoulder, umerus, - m. [XIII]
swift, celer, celeris, celere *
shout, clm (1) [XXII]
sword, ferrum, - n. [XXIII]
99
T
U
take, capi, capere, cp, captum *
under, sub (+ abl.) *
talk about, d (+ dat.) agere [III]
undergo, sube, subre, subi (subv), subitum [XXVI]
tall, altus, -a, -um *
unhappy, miser, misera, miserum *
task, opus, operis n. *
unlike, dissimilis, -e [IX]
teach, doce, docre, docu, doctum *
use, sus, -s m. [XXI]
teacher, magister, magistr m. *
useful, tilis, -e *
tear, lacrima, -ae f. [XIX]
V
tell, dc, dcere, dx, dictum *
tell a lie, mentior, mentr, menttus sum [XVIII]
vast, ingns, ingentis *
ten, decem [XXIX]
very bad, pessimus, -a, -um (superl. of malus) [IX]
territory (pl.), fns, fnium, m. [IV]
very badly, pessim (superl. of male), adv. [XXVIII]
than, quam [VIII]
very good, optimus, -a, -um (superl. of bonus) [IX]
thank, gratis agere (+ dat.) [III]
very greatly, maxim (superl. of magnopere), adv.
[XXVIII]
thanks (pl.), gratiae, -rum f. [III]
that, ille, illa, illud [XI]; is, ea, id [I]
very many, plurimus, -a, -um (superl. of multus) [IX]
that, qu, quae, quod [XVI]
very well, optim (superl. of bene), adv. [XXVIII]
that (of yours), iste, ista, istud [XI]
voice, vx, vcis f. *
the other( of two), alter, altera, alterum [XXIX]
W
their (own), suus, -a, -um [XIV]
wage war, bellum gerere *
themselves (intensive) ips, ipsae, ipsum [XXVI]
wall, mrus, - m. *
themselves (reflexive) su, sibi, s, s [XIV]
walls, moenia, -ium n. pl. [IV]
then, tum, tunc, adv. [VII]
wander, err (1) *
there, ibi, adv. [XII]
want, vol, velle, volu, — [XXI]
therefore, igitur, conj. [VII]
war, bellum,  n. *
these (pl.), hic, haec, hoc [VI]
warn, mone (2) *
thing, rs, re f. *
watch over, serv (1) *
think, put (1) [IV]
water, aqua, -ae f. *
third, tertius, -a, -um [XXIX]
way, iter, itineris n. *; via, -ae f. [XII]
this, hic, haec, hoc [VI], is, ea, id [I]
we, ns [II]
those (pl.), ille, illa, illud [XI]
weapon, tlum, - n. *
three, trs, tria [XXIX]
well, bene, adv. [VI]
through, per (+ acc.) [VIII]
what, qu, quae, quod [XVI]
time, tempus, tempris n. [XXVI]
when, ubi, adv. [XII]
tired, fessus, -a, -um *
where, ubi, adv. [XII]
to, ad (+ acc.) *
which, qu, quae, quod [XVI]
today, hodi, adv. [III]
which (of two), uter, utra, utrum [XXIX]
tomorrow, crs, adv. [III]
while, dum, conj. (with present indicative) [II]
too little, parum, adv. [VI]
who, which, that (rel. pron.), qu, quae, quod [XVI]
towards, ad (+ acc.) *
whole, ttus, -a, -um [XXIX]
treat, ag, agere, g, actum [III]
wicked, malus, -a, -um *
tribe, gns, gentis (-ium) f. *
wife, coniunx, coniugis, f. [XXVII]
try, cnor, cnr, cntus sum [XVIII]
wind, ventus, - m. *
two, duo, duae, duo [XXIX]
wise, sapins, sapientis *
wish, vol, velle, volu, — [XXI]
100
with, cum (+ abl.) *
with difficulty, aegr [VI]
without, sine (+ abl.) *
woods, silva, -ae f. *
word, verbum, - n. *
work, labor, labris m. [XIX], opus, operis n. *
worry, cra, -ae f. [XIX]
worse, peior, peius (compar. of malus) [IX]
worst, pessimus, -a, -um (superl. of malus) [IX]
wound, vulner (1) *
wrath, ra, -ae f. *
wretched, miser, misera, miserum *
write, scrb, scrbere, scrps, scrptum *
writer, scrba, -ae m. *
Y
year, annus, - m. *
yesterday, heri, adv. [III]
yet, tamen, conj. [VII]
you (pl.), vs, vestrum / vestr [II]
you (sg.), t, tu [II]
your(sg.), tuus, -a, -um *
your(pl.), vester, vestra, vestrum *
yours(sg.), tuus, -a, -um *
yours(pl.), vester, vestra, vestrum *
yourself (intensive) ipse, ipsa, ipsum [XXVI]
yourself (reflexive) tu, tibi, t, t, (pl.) vestr, vbs,
vs, vbis
101
INDEX
Ablative:
Accompaniment, 1
Cause, 22
Comparison, 16
Degree of Difference, 18
Manner, 38
Means or Instrument, 1
Motion away from or Place to Which, 1
Personal Agent, 1
Place Where, 1
Time When, 1
with prepositions, 1
Accusative and Infinitive with iube and vet, 26
Accusative and Infinitive of Indirect Statement: 44, 46
Adjectives:
Regular Comparison, 14
Irregular Comparison, 16
Adverbs:
Formation, 12
Comparison, 56
Antecedent: 32
Cause: 22
Clauses: definition, main, subordinate: 44
Comparison:
Adjectives: 14, 16
Adverbs: 56
Complementary Infinitive: 8, 26, 42
Compounds:
Ag: 11
Dis-, ante-, post-: 21
E: 61
Fer: 41
Ml: 51
Nl: 51
Possum: 31
Sequor: 41
Sum: 51
Compound Subjects: 4
Con junctions: subordinate and coordinate: 44
Connected Prose: 14
Cum as Enclitic: 4, 28, 32
Dative in -: 2, 22, 32, 52, 58
Demonstratives: 2, 12, 22
Deponent Verbs: 36
Eius, erum, erum: 2, 28
Enclitic cum: 4, 28, 32
E: 52, 61
Fer: 38, 41
Finite Verb: 8
Genitive in -ius: 2, 14, 22, 32, 52, 58
Hic, haec, hoc: 12
dem, eadem, idem: 2
Indirect Statement: 46, 48
Infinitives:
Complementary: 8, 26, 42
Object, Subject: 8
Infinitive Phrase: 54
Intensive: 52
Ipse, ipsa, ipsum: 52
Is, ea, id: 2
Iste, ista, istud: 22
Magis: 56
Maxim: 56
Ml: 42, 51
Nol: 42, 51
Numbers, Cardinal and Ordinal 58
Ob, cause: 22
Participles: 6
Participle Phrases: 54
Perseus 1 and 2: 15
Perseus 3 and 4: 25
Perseus 5 and 6: 35
Perseus 7 and 8: 45
Perseus 9 and 10: 55
Perseus 11: 61
Phrase: 44
Possum: 26, 30
Prepositional Phrase: 54
Pronouns:
Demonstrative, 2, 12, 22
Intensive, 52
Reflexive, 28
Relative, 32
Propter, cause: 22
Quam:
with Comparison: 16
with Superlative: 56
Qu, quae, quod: 32
Reading: 14, 24, 34, 44, 54
Reflexive: Adjective, Pronoun: 28
Relative Pronoun: 32
Review Lessons: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60
Third Rule of Concord: 32
Vol: 42, 51
102
103
62
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