Latin I Exam Review Day 1 - Nouns Noun Endings and What They Mean Cases Nominative: subject, predicate nominative (renames the subject) Accusative: direct object, after certain prepositions (ad, post) Dative: indirect object (“to/for the _______”) Ablative: after certain prepositions (in, cum, de, sine, pro, a/ab, e/ex) Declensions (First – a) (Second – us/um) Third (anything) Case First S First Pl Second S Second Pl Third S Third Pl Nominative -a -ae Us-r/um -i/-a -??? -es Genitive -ae -arum -i -orum -is -um Dative -ae -is -o -is -I -ibus Accusative -am -as -um -os/-a -em -es -a -is -o -is -e -ibus Ablative There was a noun with lots of endings It was first declension A, ae, ae, am, a (x3) Ae, arum, is, as, is -us, -I, -o, -um, -o, -I, -orum, -is, -os, is for masculine; Um, -I, -o, -um, -o A, -orum, is-, -a, -is for neuter nouns. Latin I Exam Review Verbs Everything you ever wanted to know about verbs Tense Present – I am verbing, I do verb, I verb Perfect – I have verbed, I did verb, I verbed (v, x, u, s…. Imperfect – I was verbing, I verbed, I used to verb, I kept verbing (BA) Person First – I, we Second – you, you Third – he/she/it, they Number – singular or plural Endings – all tenses but perfect (perfect tense in parentheses) M/o = I (i) S = you (isti) T = he/she/it/noun (it) Mus=we (imus) Tis = you (pl) (istis) Nt = they/noun (erunt) Sum – I am Es - you are Est – he/she/it/there is Sumus – we are Estis – you (pl) are Sunt – they/there are Eram – I was Eras – you were Erat – he/she/it/there was Eramus – we were Eratis – you were Erant - they/there were Putting It All Together How To Translate Sentence Patterns Verb Spectat. Nominative-verb Santa spectat. Ego sum. Nominative (form of sum) Ego sum in urbe. nominative/pred adj/prep Caecilius est argentarius. phrase. Syphax est in portu. Nom-verb-acc. Grumio pavonem coquit. Nom-verb-acc-dat. Grumio pavonem Metellae parat. Then add adverbs, prep Grumio pavonem Metellae parat, phrases, adjectives. Subdivide quod Metella Syphacem invitavit based on postquam and quod. ad cenam.