Polar and Nonpolar Molecules Lone pair of electrons Hydrogen atom Negative pole Negative pole + + + Positive pole WATER H20 Polar Charges shared equally + + Positive pole AMMONIA NH3 Polar METHANE CH4 Nonpolar Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions Approximate size of solute particles Solute particles settle no 0.01 - 1.0 nm no colloids 1.0 - 1000 nm no 1000 nm with time V solutions suspensions Can be separated by filtering no yes, only with special if transparent equipment yes, yes if transparent Mayonnaise Colloid The Tyndall effect helps you tell the difference between solutions and colloids. Particles scatter light water sample Suspension You can remove the particles in a suspension by filtering. When a Solute Dissolves in a Solvent Water added Na Cl H H Water O molecule Water molecules surround atoms in sodium chloride crystal. Atoms separate into ions. + H + H O – – Cl Na Water surrounds ions. Cl Na Solubility (g salt/100 mL) Temperature - Solubility Graph Temperature-Solubility Graph for Salts 200 O aN 3 N 150 O3 N K 100 NaCl 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 Temperature (degrees Celsius) 100 Temperature-solubility graphs show how much substance dissolves at a given temperature. Concentration of H30+ 100 H30+ increasing 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 pH Scale Common Substances 0 1 2 3 4 Battery acid Lemon juice Vinegar pH range for acid rain 5 6 7 8 Distilled water 9 Baking soda 10 11 12 13 14 Normal pH range of rain & snow More acidic Neutral Normal pH range of streams Milk of magnesia Ammonia Lye More basic The Water Cycle CONDENSATION VAPOR TRANSPORT SUN H 2O PRECIPITATION EVAPORATION TRANSPIRATION EVAPORATION PERCOLATION RIVER LAKE LAND AND TREES GROUNDWATER FLOW OCEAN Acid Rain WIND NITROGEN & SULFUR OXIDES MIX WITH WATER VAPOR. SULFURIC ACID (H 2 SO 4 ) NITRIC ACID (HNO 3 ) COMBINE TO FORM ACID PRECIPITATION. CONDENSATION NITROGEN OXIDES (NO, NO 2 ) SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO 2 ) ACID PRECIPITATION CITY INDUSTRY City structures, Pond statues and trees are affected. Aquatic life is affected. People are affected.