Road to Civil War Two agricultural systems o North – Small self-sustaining farms o South – Cash crops dependent on large labor forces. (Cotton and Tobacco) Fugitive Slave Act 1793 Missouri Compromise 1820 o Illinois 21st state (11th free state) o Missouri & Alabama slave states o Maine free state o 12 free states, 12 slave states Tariffs help Northern Industry Tariffs hurt Southern Agriculture Great Compromise of 1833 o Gradual reduction in Tariffs to appease southern states, namely South Carolina Manifest Destiny o United states to expand to Pacific Mexico encourages immigration from US to Texas. Slavery outlawed in Texas by Mexico Texas fights for independence Mexican War expands US territories to California o US troops later to become famous in civil war US GRANT JEFFERSON DAVIS ROBERT E. LEE GEORGE MCCLELLAN THOMAS JONATHAN JACKSON Pierre Gustave Beauregard JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN GEORGE PICKETT LEWIS ARMISTEAD JAMES LONGSTREET DH HILL BENARD BEE NATHAN BEDFORD FORREST AS JOHNSTON GEORGE MEADE BRAXTON BRAGG JOSEPH HOOKER WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK Gold discovered in 1848. People rush west 1849 Northern Industry o Factories o Railroads o Manufactured goods o Immigrant work force – strong opposition to slavery Southern Agriculture o Cotton production o South only produces 10% of nations manufactured goods o Slower to act on advancements o Population slower to grow o Fewer immigrants Territorial disputes Wilmot Proviso – All territories won by the US in Mexican War would be closed to slavery. (California, Utah and New Mexico) California constitution forbids slavery going against the line of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Slaves are property and protected by the Constitution Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay proposes compromise to Senate o California is admitted as free state o Utah and New Mexico decide o Slave trade banned in DC, but slavery is not o Stricter enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act Compromise is rejected Stephen Douglas of Illinois takes up the fight. o Break up compromise and vote separately on each issue. o Popular Sovereignty Kansas-Nebraska Act Divide territory into two, repeal Missouri Compromise and allow each territory to decide for itself the slavery issue. Strongly supported in South, strongly opposed in North Bleeding Kansas – Fighting between anti-slavery and pro-slavery forces erupts all over the territory. Debates on Senate floor get heated. o Northern Senator Charles Sumner gives aggressive speech against slavery in Senate and denounces the South and makes fun of South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler. o Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks beats Sumner with his cane until it breaks.