Ho Chi Minh Trail Supply Route from coming from Communist North Vietnam, going through the countries of Laos & Cambodia, and then ending in South Vietnam to help supply the Communist Vietcong Rebels. Homestead Act 1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years Hooverville Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) (HUAC) committee formed in the House of Representatives in the 1930s to investigate radical groups in the United States; it later came to focus on the threat of communism in the United States during World War II and the Cold War Hurricane Katrina Considered to be the major crisis of the Bush administrations second term and is characterized by its inefficiency to deal with the crisis. It destroyed 80% of New Orleans and more than 1300 people died, while the damages were over $150 billion. Ida B.Wells African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white owned stores Imperialism A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically. In God we Trust A phrase that Congress made mandatory on all American currency in 1954, inspired by Eisenhower's patriotic crusade to bring Americans back to God. Initiative, Referendum, Recall Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific. Iran-Contra Affair This involved high officials in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran (in return for the release of Western hostages in the Middle East) and illegally using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua. 2nd Iraq War / Operation Iraqi Freedom An armed conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. an invasion force led by the United States and a phase of fighting, in which an insurgency emerged to oppose coallition forces Island Hopping A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others Isolationism A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) A labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905. Sometimes called Wobblies Jacob Riis Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives" exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC Jane Addams Founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes Japanese Expansion Japanese need of raw materials, show power to larger countries, so the attack other countries Jazz A style of dance music popular in the 1920s John Rockefeller Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Kamikaze Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships. Ku Klux Klan (KKK) A group that started right after the Civil War in 1866. Revived in the 1920s Klondike Gold Rush Frenzy of gold rush immigration to and for gold prospecting, along the Klondike River near Dawson City, Yukon, Canada after gold was discovered there in the late 19th century. Knights of Labor 1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed Korean War The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. Laissez-Faire Hands off. Very little to no government intervention in business. League of Nations A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946. League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) Fought to desegregae schools, public facilities, and housing in Southern California and the Southwest; fought for Hispanic rights Lend Lease Act Law passed after the fall of Britain during WWII; allowed the U.S. to loan munitions to Allies in WWII; kept U.S. boys at home Lester Maddox This racist restaurant owner closed his restaurant rather than integrate. He eventually became governor and hired more blacks to office than all prior governors combined. Limited War A war fought to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism Malcolm X Black Muslim leader who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites, but later changed his views. He was assassinated in 1965. Manhattan Project Code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II March on Washington Held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally Marcus Garvey African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa Marshall Plan A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929-1968. Pivotal leader of the American Civil Rights movement. Non-violent leader, became youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination. Led Montgomery Bus Boycott, helped found Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and led March on Washington in 1963 where he delivered "I have a Dream" speech. McCarthyism The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee. Mendez v. Westminster Federal court case that challenged racial segregation in California schools. In its ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional Mikhail Gorbachev The last General secretary of the Soviet Union. He brought about massive economic, social, and political changes and helped bring an end to both the Soviet Union and the Cold War. His reforms included giving citizens the ability to freely voice their opinions (glasnost) and entirely restructuring the Soviet Union's economy (Perestroika).