Issues affecting World Tourism

Issues affecting World Tourism
Sustainability - This means to continue along the present course and
the same rate with existing or replentished supplies or resources. "To
Keep on Keeping on" Well, very few things in this world are truly
infinitely sustainable. Economic conditions go in booms and crashes (like
modern music???).
Environmental Sustainability was investigated in Fragile Ecosystems.
Review your notes. True ES is not possible due to complex reactions
between so many human activities on this planet. We can only hope to
minimise it. With tourist operations, Management Plans are developed to
minimise E. damage and maximise ES. (This is a job for a GeographerEnvironmental management consultant). Some areas are sacrificed and
developed with care so that tourists may experience a feature. Other areas
are preserved and not used. Around these core areas lies a zone of
minimal use eg bush trails, coral viewing. Unfortunately, some areas also
involve environmental exploitation-hotels, road, power lines, port
facilities. These must be carefully planned to minimise E.damage. Many
pre-existing human facilities must be managed in such a way as to
balance economic return, use and E damage. Look at the G. Barrier Reef
Management site for details. Look at the US National Parks for examples
as well. Consider what is happening in the Himalayas around Mt.
Global Financial Crisis- The global financial crisis started with the
collapse of the US financial system due to limited regulation on lending
and financial transactions resulting in a cascade effect on the US and
global economy. When employment, retirement saving and bank
accounts are treated, people are less likely to travel. Staycations, local
travel, domestic travel are more common. Longer domestic trips and
international travel are postponed until more secure or more economically
enhanced times. Hence,
international air travel dropped Results?
Travel arrangements declined significantly Results?
Fewer Hotel Bookings-- Results?
Travel related consumption declined --Result?
In destination countries local hotels closed or had fewer bookings?Results
Some tour operators shut down, sought other sources
of income, provided amazing packages at discount prices
Foreign operations slowed down
Foreign investment stopped and projects closed or
Local Investment stopped, alternatives sought
Governments try to boost Tourism
Cultural Changes- The Cultural impact of tourism takes many forms. In
the initial stages, cultural substitution of objects, and rituals has minimum
impact. The ideas behind the culture are resistent to change. Repeated
incursions result in increasing demand for the stuff of modern life, a
change to the economy and hence culture of the area. New services offer
employment opportunities which engaged the active members of society
and brings about cultural change for some and conflicts with the others.
Ultimately cultures change, but elements within the culture change at
unequal rates. Cultural imperialism by colonial powers did a lot of
cultural damage but neo-colonialism by TNC's is far more invasive. It
separates the progressive from the traditional leaders of society. That is
when cultures breakdown
Cutlural changes
Examples BBC New 24 Aug,2010, A Tribal reservation (about 1
hectare in area) for the Gurauee Natives of Brazil, is engulfed by the
expansion of Sao Paulo, These people have made crafts for the
touristtrade and provide entertainment for tourists. Now their whole
village is surrounded by the 21 century.
Cargo Cults in the Solomon Islands and PNG as a result of WW II.
Culture shifts here primed these regions for the invasion of adventure
tourism and now tour groups.
Manchu Pichu in the Andes has seen growing impact of tour groups on
the local communities. Native villagers have abandoned their fields for
cash tourism.The aged are left behind and languages, ethnic practices and
environmental knowledge is lost.
The Lakes District of West Central Africa (Kenya and Uganda) has
suffered greatly from the impact of tourism on the economy and culture
of the region. The fishing industry has shifted to cash cropping and local
fish ecosystem have changed. Tourism has changed the service sector
massively. Local cultural practices are disappearing and some are
exploited (with significant modification).
Tribal areas of Nepal have significantly changed as a result of tourism.
The Sjerpas no longer practice nomadic herding, salt trading pilgrimages,
or traditional craft industries for local consumption. They have turned to
the cash economy of tourism and rising economic expectations have left
cultural practices, skills and knowledge by the wayside. There is cultural
conflict with the Maoist rebels and people from surrounding countries
seeking to cash in on the tourism boom--entrepenuers and workers.
Economic Development- As we have seen ED brings about paradigm
shifts in technology, productive enterprises, employment and business
opportunities, politics & government, society, and culture. The developed
world has slowly passed through these changes with less disruption and
Developing countries now face rapid socio economic changes in less than
a generation. Tourism is now the leading activity promoting economic
development. It rapidly introduces aspects of the modern world and the
finance to pay for them.
Some elements of society change leaving the traditional or less well
connected behind.
The Economic Crisis hits these developing countries hardest. When
tourism income and foreign investment is withdrawn or delayed, the local
economy collapses
Examples Tonga, PNG, Charleville QLD and the Outback Museum and
Cultural Centre (OK, so Queensland is not a country, it is a region),
Transylvania in Bulgaria,
Cairo, Egypt.
Technological Change- has a dynamic impact on local economies and
societies. A class of the technologically enhanced is created and a
revolution of rising expectations drives the changes into the local
economy. Technology introduced by Tourism is initially imposed by
foreign investors with local operators taking up opportunities (eg. Bus
Companies and Bus Drivers, or Tourist Bars and Bar workers).
This technology is imposed with little consideration of the environment
or socio-economic impact. Consider the impact of a jet airport on a small
tropical island like Cape Verde or the Canary Islands (off NW Africa).
Consider the impact of 4WD vehicles on fragile desert ecosystems in the
USA, in Sahara, in outback Australia, or Siberia (Russian 4WD
vehicles??? Portable environmental disaster!)
Environmental Damage- On a global scale, tourism has the potential to
expand environmental damage further than any other economic activity.
Jet aircraft have a significant impact on the fragile nature of the lower
stratosphere global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, high
altitude particulate matter and CO2.
The foot print of a tourist on any region is far times larger than local
people higher levels of consumption, more land required to support
them and feed them, incursions into fragile ecosystems,, water and energy
supplies and then the trecile down effect of higher consumption of
resources by cashed up workers in the tourist industry.
Land clearance for tourist operations
Land clearance for increased local population and food production
Water pollution-sedimentation, sewage, toxic waste and litter
Air pollution-increased energy consumption and vehicular traffic (temp
inversions in Mexico City, Lima Peru, Alpine Valleys and Eastern
Europe. Also related Acid Rain and death of lakes and forests
On a local scale this is far more devastating. Select any tourist destination
in a developing countries and consider the local impact
Political Tensions- Tourist activities seldom generate political issues.
Some political parties or groups maybe enhanced (bribed) by tourist
operators and TNC's. Some reactionary groups or conservative
communities may seek to use politics to block development or foreign
influence (Taliban in Kashmir, Native American Tribes)
Political tensions within a country or between countries discourage the
tourist trade and foreign investment (Middle East). The local tourist
operations must turn to other activities (Iran, Fiji)
Political Tensions between source countries and destination countries
(usually smaller and less powerful) may result in diplomatic pressure to
resolve situations (not always in the interests of the local people, eg
Australia and Fiji, USA and Cuba). This may involve the United Nations
and UN resolutions (these have more social impact than political pressure
to change or economic impact, North Korea, Iran, China). UN aid
agencies may be involved but it is far more important that NGO's may be
affected by political tensions between donor countries)
The collapse of Communism opened the countries of Eastern Europe to
tourism. Those with sophisticated economies linked into the global
networks (eg Czech Rep., Poland) and those with less sophicated
economies (eg Bulgaria, Romania, Moldavia) seek to use tourism to bring
in foreign investment and cash- they have far less control of TNC's and
travel operators and national and local politics can be a negative feature.
The growth of China's economy and easing of political tensions has made
China one of the largest growing tourist destinations. Interest in the
formerly banned Red China survives despite the global financial crisis.
Wars and Conflicts-- Obviously a war will stop Tourism. It does tend
to stuff up the economy and politics of a region. The potential for wars
and the existence of conflicts usually limits tourist activities. However,
internal conflicts don't necessarily stop adventure tourism or extreme
sports which usually seek unique areas. The drug trade in Latin America
has certainly limited tourism to that region. Conflicts in Burma, remote
areas of Thailand and Southeast Asian countries have limited tourism and
have caused a few incidents (eg. The bus tragedy in the Philippines this morning).
Wars and conflicts are geopolitics on a regional scale with international
connections. When these conflicts are resolved, tourism is one of the
pioneer industries used to open up these regions and promote
development (eg Vietnam)