Chapter 14 Water Core Case Study: Water Conflicts 1. Egypt being at the mouth of the Nile river is at a disadvantage if cities upstream use more water, what are 6 outcomes that could result in this water shortage? 2. Which country controls Israel’s water source? 3. Which country control’s Iraq’s water source? 4. Of the world’s 263 water basins, _____ of them are shared by 2 or more countries. 5. Along with water shortages, what are the other 2 serious environmental problems the world faces this century? 14-1 WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL 6. Why water is one of our most poorly managed resources? 7. Why is the lack of water a global health issue? 8. List the 5 water “issues”. 9. Only about _____ % of the world’s water is available to us a liquid freshwater in accessible groundwater deposits and in lakes, rivers, and streams. 10. List 3 ways the natural capital of water systems is degraded. 11. Canada has _____ % of the world’s population and _____ % of the world’s liquid freshwater. China has _____ % of the world’s population and _____ % of the world’s liquid freshwater. 12. Where is there more water stored than the world’s rivers and lakes? 13. How long does it take nonrenewable aquifers to recharge? 14. Of all the annual surface runoff, only _____ is reliable runoff available for human use. 15. By 2025, we could be using _____ % of reliable runoff. 16. The key problem in many areas is not a lack of water, but…. 17. What do we use 70% of our water on? 18. It takes __________ metric tons of water to produce _____ metric ton of grain. 19. You can save more water by reducing your annual consumption of __________ by 1 kilogram than by not taking a _______________ for almost 2 years. 20. The U.S. has more than enough renewable freshwater, so what is the problem? 14-2 TOO LITTLE FRESHWATER 21. What are the 4 main factors causing water scarcity? 22. How might the scarcity of water in the Middle East affect the U.S. which is dependent on oil from that region? 23. Who bears the brunt of the water shortages of the world? 24. If you could only live on 1 gallon of water per day, what would you use the water for? 25. According to the UN, between _____ billion and _____ billion people will face water shortages by 2050. 26. Should governments or private companies manage the water supplies in a country? Use Bolivia’s example to assist you in forming your opinion. 27. Name 2 potential problems in a fully privatized water system. 28. Should farmers or cities have greater access to water in water-short areas? 29. What affect does biofuels have on the global competition for water? 30. What are 6 ways to increase the supply of freshwater in an area? 14-3 WITHDRAWING GROUNDWATER TO INCREASE SUPPLIES 31. Why are water tables falling? 32. List the 3 largest grain producers in the world. 33. Should governments put caps on aquifer withdrawal rates? 34. How many wells are added per year in India? 35. China saw a drop of _____ % in overall grain production due to which factor? 36. As water tables drop, what steps do farmers take to cope with the shortage? 37. What is the cause of a subsidence or a sinkhole? 38. What are 2 major concerns that come with tapping water from deep aquifers? 14-4 USING DAMS AND RESERVOIRS TO SUPPLY MORE WATER 39. Name 2 benefits and 2 drawbacks that are associated with constructing a dam. 40. What happens with sediment builds up in reservoirs behind dams? 41. Do the advantages of large dams outweigh the disadvantages? 42. What would happen to Las Vegas, San Diego, and Imperial Valley without the Colorado River? 43. List the 4 problems associated with the use of the Colorado River. 44. What is the benefit of silt along the river? 45. Name the good and bad aspects of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. 46. Should river we “let the rivers run free”? 14-5 TRANSFERRING WATER FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER 47. Do you side with the North or South in regards to California’s water project? 48. List the environmental consequences of shrinking the Aral Sea in the former Soviet Union. 49. Why would you not want to build a vacation home on an island in the Aral Sea? 14-6 DESALTING SEAWATER, SEEDING CLOUDS, AND TOWING ICEBERGS AND GIANT BAGGIES 50. Describe the process of distillation. 51. What are 2 problems associated with desalination? 52. What are 2 Australian companies proposing to use to power experimental desalination plant? 53. List the 4 problems associated with cloud seeding. 14-7 INCREASING WATER SUPPLIES BY WASTING LESS WATER 54. _____ %-_____% of the water people use throughout the world is lost through _______________, __________, and other losses. 55. Should we charge more for water? What support do you have for your opinion? 56. About _____ % of the irrigation water applied throughout the world does not reach the targeted crops. Why? 57. Name 3 more efficient irrigation systems. 58. What would it take for drip irrigation to be more widely used? 59. Describe a soil moisture detector. 60. Why are poor farmers more efficient with their irrigation and water use? 61. What are ways you can reduce water in your home? 62. Researchers have found that each _____% increase in water prices cuts domestic water use by ______ %. 63. Describe a tiered water pricing system. 64. How can sewage-treatment plants be better at mimicking nature and nutrient cycles? 14-8 TOO MUCH WATER 65. What are the advantages of people settling on floodplains? 66. Why do the measures we take to reduce the threat of flooding along a river, actually result in more severe flooding? 67. Are floods natural or unnatural disasters? Explain. 68. What causes mudslides to occur? 69. Which state has lost more of its protective and biologically important coastal wetlands and barrier islands than any other? 70. Name a way to prevent future devastation along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 71. Why do the people of Bangladesh live on floodplains? 72. What ecosystem is being removed by the poor of Bangladesh? 73. What are 2 ways to reduce flooding other than the 3 listed in figure 14-24? 74. What chain of events led to $30 billion in economic lass and 15 million deaths after a flood along the Yangtze River? 75. “Sooner or later the __________ always wins”. 76. Do you live along the Thornapple River or Grand River? Do you know someone who does? 77. A house in Texas worth $115,000 was flooded 16 times, and owners collected $806,600 in payments over the years. What is your opinion on this example? 14-9 SOLUTIONS: USING WATER MORE SUSTAINABLY 78. The frog does not _____ _____ the pond in which it lives. 79. Describe the blue revolution. CRITICAL THINKING 80. What role does population growth play in water supply problems? 81. List 3 ways in which human activities are affecting the water cycle. 82. How do human activities increase the harmful effects of prolonged drought? 83. Explain why you are for or against raising the price of water with lifeline rates for the poor and lower middle class.