Chapter 13 Review: European Middle Ages 500

Chapter 13 Review: European Middle Ages 500-1200
Define the following:
A. chivalry- code/behavior knights were expected to follow-stressing ideals
such as courage, loyalty, and devotion
B. Charlemagne- Carolingian leader who reunited Western Europe and was
crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III-powerful Frankish ruler who built a huge
C. fief- a grant of land from a lord to a vassal during the Middle Ages
D. manor-a lord’s estate
E. canon law- (Law of the Church)the body of rules and regulations
governing religious practices (ex: marriage)
F . monastery-religious community of Christian men who gave up all private
possessions to serve God- devote lives to worship and prayer
G. tournament-a mock (fake) battle that served as a training exercise for
young knights- staged battles for entertaining audiences and training knights
H. feudalism-system of gov’t based on the exchange of land for protection and
I . excommunication- the act of taking away a person’s right to membership in
the Church- banished from the Church
J. Charles Martel-leader halted/stopped the Muslim invasion of Western
Europe at the Battle of Tours- made him a Christian hero
Review Questions:
1. The achievement for which Charlemagne is most remembered was
Building an empire larger than any since Rome
2. What is true about Germanic tribes?
They lived in small, closely knit communities, had strong tradition of songs
and legends, and each tribe’s chief had a group of warriors loyal only to him
3. According to the code of chivalry, a knight fought for what?
His lady, feudal lord, and his heavenly lord
4. Viking raids eventually ceased because of several factors, including the fact
Farming conditions in the Viking homeland improved
5. The Treaty of Verdun resulted in
The division of Charlemagne’s empire into three parts
6. The bargain made between a lord and a vassal was
The lord would defend the vassal in battle
7. Eleanor of Aquitane achieved her fame in part because she
Was the queen of England
8. The interdict was an effective weapon for a pope to use against a king
It cost the king the loyalty of his subjects, who feared for their own souls
9. Pope Gregory VII and the German emperor Henry IV fought over the issue
Secular appointment of bishops
10.The main difference between the original Roman Empire and the Holy
Roman Empire of Frederick I was that
Frederick’s empire had no strong central gov’t
11.What did the development of various languages in Western Europe
It mirrored the continued breakup of the Roman Empire
12.Why did learning decline during the last years of Roman Empire?
Invaders could neither read nor write and did not understand Latin
13.Why did Henry IV stand barefoot in the snow for three days begging
forgiveness of Pope Gregory VII?
The bishops whom Henry had appointed switched allegiance to the pope
14.The Concordat of Worms resolved a power struggle between which two
The Church and the Holy Roman emperor
15.What was the significance of Pope Leo III crowning Charlemagne emperor?
It joined Germanic power with the Church and the heritage of Rome
16.What were the forces holding feudal society together?
A set of mutual social obligations and the teachings of the Church
17.What led to the development of the code of chivalry?
The constant, brutal fighting among nobles
Answer the following questions in essay form.
18. Recognizing Effects: How did Germanic invasions lead to feudalism in
The repeated invasions disrupted trade, which meant that European cities
no longer functioned as economic centers. The invasions destroyed the
Roman Empire, eliminating the need for cities as administrative centers.
People threatened by invaders moved to rural areas where they could grow
their own food. The need for protection from invaders and from each other
made peasants willing to give up certain freedoms for the protection offered
by a lord. The need for land to grow crops for survival led peasants to
accept the conditions of life on a manor. It was traditional among Germanic
peoples to be loyal to known leaders but not to unknown public
administrators or governors. It was traditional among Germanic peoples to
live in small communities.
19.Synthesizing : How was medieval European society organized socially,
economically, militarily, and religiously? How did the various systems support
and reinforce each other?
Feudalism developed in response to foreign invasions during the early
Middle Ages. People needed protection from invading tribes that plundered
communities. As part of achieving peace, rulers and warriors made pacts of
loyalty to each other. A king or lord gave his warriors or nobles (vassals) a
plot of land (fief) in exchange for protection. This bond evolved into a
complicated system of mutual obligations. Supporting feudalism was the
manor system, an economic arrangement. A manor was a lord's estate.
Peasants (serfs) worked the land in exchange for protection and a place to
live. Their life was hard and limited. While feudalism divided people into
social classes, the Church became a unifying force. Because feudal
Europe had a weak central government, the Church filled the gap. Each
manor had clergy, and the Pope ruled from Rome, using the power to
excommunicate, for example, to control rulers. The Church became so
powerful, kings and lords had to negotiate their relationships with high
church officials. During this time, monasteries became the center of
learning and education. They, too, added strength to the Church's power.
Finally, the Church taught people to accept the hardship of life in the hopes
of heavenly reward. This helped prevent serfs from questioning their status.