Higher Education in Arunachal Pradesh: Issues and Prospects

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COMMONWEALTH ASSOCATION FOR EDUCATION,
ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
ISSN NO 2322-0147
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 9
September
2014
Status of Higher Education in Arunachal
Pradesh: An Analysis
(EDITOR-IN-CHIEF)
DR MUJIBUL HASAN SIDDIQUI
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,
ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY,
ALIGARH-202002,
UTTAR PRADESH,
INDIA
website: www.ocwjournalonline.com
Excellence International Journal of Education and
Research (Multi- subject journal)
Excellence International Journal Of Education And Research VOLUME 2 ISSUE 9
ISSN 2322-0147
Status of Higher Education in Arunachal Pradesh: An Analysis
By
Dr (Mrs) Kesang Degi
Associate Professor
Dept of Education,
RGU, Rono Hills,
Doimukh, Itanagar, 791112,
Arunachal Pradesh, India
Email Id: [email protected]
Abstract
The development of a modern society depends to a large extent on its educational institutions
and education system. Education System in India currently represents a great paradox. On
the one hand we have IIMs & IITs that rank among the best institutes in the world and on the
other hand there are number of schools and colleges in the country that don't even have the
basic infrastructure facilities. This paper analyses some of the existing lacunae of higher
education in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. There are numbers of issues like: quality of
education, infrastructure, faculty development, examination system, curriculum, unplanned
expansion etc which needs immediate attention.
Keywords:
Education system, higher education, expansion.
Introduction
Education is a basic need of every society. A better education system can enhance the
social, scientific, and technological improvement of a country. It is only through education
that people become aware of their rights, duties and obligation. Education helps man to grow
in all dimensions, mastering and controlling emotions and will. The development of a modern
society depends to a large extent on the nature and standard of higher education. Therefore,
the role of higher education is to prepare competent, knowledgeable and far-sighted people
for assuming various higher responsibilities. Higher education ensures better employment,
higher salaries and greater ability to consume and save. Higher Education today is recognised
as capital investment. Investment in education is considered investment in human capital and
this increase productivity. In this era, advanced technological growth and economic
development is difficult to accelerate without the participation of highly qualified manpower.
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India has made quantitative progress in the field of higher education post
independence. The number of universities and enrolment has increased rapidly. The
educational structure in India is generally referred to the 10+2+3 pattern. The first ten years
provide undifferentiated general education for all students. The +2 stage, also known as the
higher secondary or senior secondary, provides for differentiation into academic and
vocational streams and marks the end of school education. In +3 stage, which involves
college education, the student goes for higher studies in his chosen field of subject. There is a
massive growth in the enrolment at +3 stage, it is almost double than PG and Research level.
Education System in India currently represents a great paradox. On the one hand it
has institutes like IIMs & IITs that rank among the best institutes in the world and on the
other hand there are number of schools and colleges that don't even have the basic
infrastructure facilities. Such is the case with the state of Arunachal Pradesh. The state of
Arunachal Pradesh is located in the easternmost part of India bordering China, Bhutan and
Myanmar. The literacy rate of the state according to census 2001 is 54.74%.
In Arunachal Pradesh formal education started only after independence. Till 1947
there was no higher educational institution in the state. The literacy rate of the state was
below 1 percent. However with the attainment of independence the new era of educational
progress and development started. The development of higher education started after it was
made Union Territory in 1972. Col. K.A.A. Raja laid the foundation of higher education in
the state. At present there is 1 Central University, 15 Degree Colleges, 1 Horticulture
College, 1 Homeopathy College, 1 Law College, 1 Institute of Science and Technology, 1
NIT and 5 College for Teacher Education in the state.
There has been a rapid increase in the enrolment of students at higher level in
Arunachal Pradesh but, the quality and relevance of education is serious concern. Higher
education in Arunachal Pradesh is facing severe problems like, infrastructure, unplanned
expansion, examination system etc. There is an urgent need to address these problems and
introduce new vision in higher education. Higher education is faced with very severe
challenges in the shape of various economic, social, political, and moral changes, and its
future depends on the response made by its people to these challenges (Rao, 2003).
Through the following few points, an attempt has been made to analyse the issues of
higher education in Arunachal Pradesh:
1.
Infrastructure Facilities
The increase demand for higher education requires infrastructural facilities, which is the
biggest problem in Arunachal Pradesh today. As mentioned earlier there are 15 degree
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colleges 12 government colleges and 3 privately run colleges. Most of the government
colleges don’t even have permanent site to construct college buildings. Temporary
arrangements are made for running classes in either rented building or in some unused
government buildings. No question of library, laboratory and other facilities. The enrolment
at undergraduate level is increasing every year, but the number of teachers in the colleges is
very less. There are 3-4 teachers in every subject which is too less for running honours
courses. Many colleges are unable to start honours courses in many subjects due to shortage
of teachers and classroom facility.
2.
Unplanned Expansion
There is impressive growth in the number of higher education institutions in the state
after independence. Before independence there was no higher educational institution in the
state of Arunachal Pradesh. But, today we have good number of higher educational institution
in the state. There has been an impressive quantitative expansion in the general colleges but
the rate of increase in science and technology sector in not significant and the striking reality
is that out of these 15 degree colleges, in 3 colleges the enrolment of students is less than 300,
where as in some colleges the number is so high that, in one class there are two- three
sections and one section consists of more than 100 students. The situation is alarming
shocking. There is a great need for planning before opening a new college. No doubt, there is
high demand of higher institution in the state, but government has to first identify the
locations, accessibility and population of the area/district before establishing colleges.
3.
Students Unrest
Most students with backgrounds in arts, humanities, and law get actively involve
in political activities. Students are more in system of linking political parties with their
student wing. They are one of the most powerful and influential group in the state, they
have free access with the highest political leaders. There is free flow of money in student
politics.
4.
Examination System
There are number of literature in India which indicates that the present system of
evaluation is not appropriate. In Arunachal Pradesh at degree level, there is annual system of
examination. The one time evaluation and absence of internal assessment has series of
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drawbacks. It lacks objectivity. Therefore, this issue needs to be immediately addressee to
provide quality education.
5.
Unemployment
The college of the state today is producing thousands of unemployed graduates every
year. (Mohanthy, 2000) found that “There is a marked mismatch in terms of the field and
specialization of graduates and the absorptive capacity of the labour market.”
In Arunachal Pradesh most of the students are first generation learners generally from
rural area. Therefore, the biggest challenge for the faculty would be to prepare Teaching –
Learning materials. But unfortunately, due to time constraints teachers are running after
completion of their courses which results our students misfit in industrial world.
Question is how to make higher education relevant? At present students have very little
choice in combinations to choose subjects. Providing a variety of subjects to choose will
make learning more interesting and meaningful. Apart from that, different courses should be
introduced so that students coming out of the institution will become more employable or self
employable. Courses like Computer Science and Business Management in which
employment opportunities are abundant should introduce in degree colleges.
6. Faculty
Teachers play a major role in educational service of a college. Quality of education
depends upto many extend on the aptitude, efficiency and interest of teaching faculty.
Teachers need constant latest knowledge in their discipline and other related areas. Reading
of books articles, paper presentation and publication is necessary for the teachers.
Opportunities must be provided to the teaching faculty to attend seminars and conferences.
But in Arunachal Pradesh, teachers are overburdened. The number of present faculty is very
small when compared to other states of the country. The quality of education is another issue
as many present faculty members are teaching courses which are not their own specialization.
Also the teachers have very limited opportunity because of reasons like: first, there is no
environment in the college for research activities, second because of lack of financing as state
government is not in a position to bear expenses for attending seminar of all college teacher,
finally time constraint, teachers are busy finishing their courses as banned calls and other
students activities are very common in the state which often suspend classes.
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Conclusion
Higher education plays important role for national development. It provides
opportunity to reflect on social, economic, cultural and moral issues facing humanity. There
are many issue of higher education in Arunachal Pradesh like- infrastructure, examination,
unemployment etc. which needs to be addressed immediately. Bayli (1987) studied that “The
condition of higher education in universities and colleges is not satisfactory in the eyes of
students. Lack of physical and educational facilities is bringing much hindrance in the way of
development”. A change is needed in examination system and the courses offered in the
colleges. More job oriented subjects needs to be included in the curriculum and proper
planning is important to impart quality education. Finally, it is suggested that teachers must
be motivated to involve in more research activities to update their knowledge.
References
Bayli, J. (1987), Problems of higher education in the Third World. New Delhi, India:
Best, J. W. (1994), Research in education. New Delhi, India: Prentice-Hall
Government of Arunachal Pradesh, educational Statistical Survey 2009 & 2010
Haider, S. Z. (2008), Challenges in Higher Education: Special reference to Pakistan and South Asian
Developing Countries: Non Partisan Education Review Vol. 4, No.2, Pakistan Retrieved on
10.10.2012
Jeyraj, N. (1998). Higher Education, Vision and Mission for Twenty- First Century. Lady Doak
College, Madurai.
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Mobasser, M, (2007), Higher Education in Bangladesh: Status, Issues and Prospects (A paper
presented in the international conference on “Knowledge for Development: Assessing the Capacity,
Quality and Relevance of Universities in Asia” held in Colombo, Sri Lanka- 25th of January’2007)
Retrieved on 10.10.2012
Mohanty, J. (2000), Current trends in Higher Education, Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi
Rao, V. K. (2003), Higher education. New Delhi, India: A. P. H. Public Corporation.
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