Study Guide – Test 3 (Depth Approaches) Personality Psych (255) Fall, 2009 Material: Lecture notes (including the second lecture on personality change) Readings: Funder – Chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 Topics Finishing the previous section on personality change…. Change in “rank order” or individual differences How to examine this question? – study (design, results) In general, do people individual differences seem to change or remain stable? What does this imply about the degree to which each person changes in a dramatically unique way? Why might people change differently? Study of life events - design, results, implications? Childhood to adulthood What do psychologists mean by “temperament”? Link between childhood temperament and adult personality traits.- study (design, results, implications) Some key issues in this rest of this section Motivation & Needs (what drives human behavior and what “needs” must be fulfilled to live a meaningful, healthy life?) Conscious vs unconscious processes Free will vs determinism Identity & self-concept Psychological well being & distress Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) Key ideas Psychic determinism Internal structure Psychic conflict Mental energy Libido, thantos Topographical Model of the Mind (levels of awareness) What is in the unconscious? Why is it there and not in the conscious? Primary process thinking and secondary process thinking Structure of Personality (id, ego, superego) What is each? Rational/irrational, Conscious/unconscious, etc How are they related to each other? Personality Development Stages of development (names, ages) Three “aspects” of each stage Fixation & regression Oedipal crisis, Identification The line between conscious and unconscious Anxiety o And conflict… between???? o Impulses, impulse control, and energy o Realistic anxiety Defense Mechanisms o Defense of what, from what, by what? o Purposes of Def Mechs? o Types of Def Mechs (what is each, how does it work, make up your own example to illustrate) Denial, Repression, Reaction formation, Rationalization, Projection, Intellectualization, Discplacement, Sublimation o Defense mechanisms and homophobia Theory (which DM and why?) Evidence? Parapraxes (what are they? Why would they happen?) Humor Dreams o Manifest vs latent content o Who is most likely to remember his/her dreams, and how do we know this? Implications of Psychoanalytic theory for Psychotherapy Controversy/criticisms of Freudian Theory and Contemporary Psychoanalytic theory Criticisms etc 5 postulates of contemporary psychoanalytic theory (see end of chapter 12) o Implicit and Explicit knowledge/attitudes/beleifs o PDP Be familiar with some of Freud’s biographical info, because he was such a pivotal individual in the evolution of the field. Some familiarity with Freud and his associations with others can provide a deeper understanding of the field as a whole. Neoanalytic approaches What are basic differences between pure Freudian theory and neoanalytic theories? Jung Adler Levels of consciousness o What are they? o How is this perspective similar/different from Freud’s Archetypes o what are they? o How are they expressed? o Examples Individuation – as a personal process and as an archetype – how is this related to mandalas? Persona Introversion/Extroversion and the MBTI Organ inferiority and masculine protest Inferiority & compensation Karen Horney Penis envy Basic anxiety o What is it, why do some people have more of it than others? o What are its effects? Neurotic needs Neurotic coping strategies (trends) Self-perpetuation of basic anxiety – how does it happen? Erikson Psychosocial Theory of Identity Development o Most important differences between this theory and Freud’s theory of development? o Stages (names/ages) Some contemporary research on identity achievement o 4 types of identity status o Who seems to develop identity achievement? Object Relations Theorists Basic ideas 4 themes What produces neurotic defenses in relationships? “Transitional object” and “False self” Attachment Theory What are “attachments” and how do they affect relationships? Three types of childhood attachment Implications of adult attachments Humanistic/Existential Theory Phenomenology What is it? Early roots (introspection) Existentialism Parts of Experience Angst, Living in “bad faith”, and living an “authentic existence” Fromm 5 Existential Needs Why do we want to escape from freedom? Evidence regarding Fromm’s predictions Rogers Self-actualization Psychotherapy Maslow Hierarchy of needs What are the needs? What is “hierarchical” about them? Self-actualization & “the fully functioning person” Humanistic therapy Goal of therapy and strategy to obtain this goal? What is the therapist’s job? Self and “ideal self” Kelly & “Personal Constructs” What is a “personal construct”? Where do they come from? How do they affect us? Constructive alternativism “Flow” Link to phenomenology Positive Psychology What is “positive psychology” and oin what way is it an extension of humanistic psychology? What is it’s “most distinctive feature”? Virtues o Core virtues – what are they and where is there cross-cultural convergence? o Evolutionary explanation Which “needs” are most strongly related to satisfaction and happiness? Cultural differences?