Ch. 3 Psychodynamic Theories (Freud) Psychoanalytic Theories 1. 2. 3. 4. determinism conflict unconscious psychoanalytic interpretation Freud=s approach to understanding personality: $ case study $ relied on psychoanalysis $ used free association $ idea of energy systems Process of personality was very important 1. Energy system - dynamic forces which form the basis of personality. 2. Instincts (=drives) $ sexual instincts $ aggressive instincts $ death instinct $ life instinct Libido a. express without modification b. block from expression c. expressed in a modified way 3. anxiety - an unpleasant emotion in which a person perceives a threat. 4. defense mechanisms E.g. denial repression catharsis Structure of Personality as theorized by Freud 1. topographical model of human functioning a. conscious b. preconscious c. unconscious primary process thinking secondary process thinking - 2. Id, ego, superego a. Id pleasure principle b. Ego reality principle c. Superego Growth and Development according to Freud fixation Five stages & psychopathology 1) Oral stage 2) Anal stage 3 ) Phallic stage 4) Latency phase 5 ) Genital phase Assessment: Use of projective techniques 2) ambiguous 3) test taker never told purpose 4) scoring on subjective clinical judgment 5) e.g. AI [email protected] ATell a story about the following [email protected] Aink [email protected] Rorschach Ink Blot Test $ $ Exner scoring system poor psychometrics Behavior change 1) free association 2) dream analysis 3) insight 4) transference 5) usually takes years of work 6) effectiveness: mixed results. Thought Question: It has been said that psychoanalytic theory suffers from a number of cultural biases due to the limitation in kinds of patients seen and the Victorian era from which the concepts were originally derived. Which concepts or parts of the theory would become a particular target for arguments of cultural bias?