GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Synthetic languages
Analytical languages
Analytical verb-forms:
- function words only express grammatical categories of P, N, T, A, V, M
- full /content /notional word (infinitive or participle) has lexical meaning
he has come; I am reading
Analytical verb-forms:
- continuous forms
- perfect forms
- forms of the future
- interrogative forms
- negative forms
- forms of the passive voice
Synthetic verb-forms:
- inflectional morphemes
- inner flexions
PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH TO GRAMMAR
= prescribes grammatical norms, tells how to use the language in order to speak correctly,
brands all non-standard structures as deviations from supposedly correct usage
DESCRIPTIVE APPROACH TO GRAMMAR
= describes how language is used in practice, what people actually say, gives especially
differences between formal and informal English (sentences used in dialects)
GRAMMAR:
MORPHOLOGY (Greek: morphé = form/structure + logos = word)
= branch of linguistics that studies word structure
SYNTAX (Greek: syn = together + assein = arrange; later Latin: syntaxis)
= deals with the structure of sentences
MORPHOLOGY
= the study of how words are formed out of smaller units called morphemes
= study of morphemes and the way they are joined together to make words
The definition (1933) by the American linguist Leonard Bloomfield:
A MORPHEME is the smallest meaningful unit in a given language.
A morpheme may have different realisations (morphs) in different context, e.g. the verb
morpheme “do“ has 3 quite distinct pronunciations in words: do, does, don´t
Such alternating morphs of a morpheme are called allomorphs.
Allomorphs are variants of a single morpheme: pl. marker –s: /-z/, /-s/, /iz/
FREE MORPHEMES: lexical and functional
BOUND MORPHEMES: derivational and inflectional
unbelievable; tourists
CLASSIFICATION OF WORD CLASSES (PARTS OF SPEECH)
2 major types:
Full words : N, Adj, V, Adv = open classes (can form new words)
Function words: Pron, AuxV, Det, Prep, Conj = closed classes
play; hard
NOUNS / SUBSTANTIVES (NOUN - from Latin NOMEN meaning “name“)
A noun is any word which names:
a person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality, activity, state, event, substance,
Distinctive features of nouns:
- noun-forming derivational affixes
- the threefold inflection [s], [z], [iz]
- marking by determiners
- fixed position in the sentence
- substitutable by pronouns
Some nouns have the same form as verbs:
CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS
COMMON NOUNS vs PROPER NOUNS: names of individuals + of a group of individuals
CONCRETE NOUNS (definite objects) vs. ABSTRACT NOUNS (quality, action, state,...
COLLECTIVE NOUNS – refer to groups of people or things.
MASS / MATERIAL NOUNS
– do not require limiting modifiers (a, two, several, many)
– they usually have no plural forms
MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF NOUNS
1)
2)
-
SIMPLE NOUNS: no affixes
DERIVATIVE NOUNS:
prefixes: un-, mis-, pre-, for-; anti-, ex-, il-, -in-, non-, sub-, super-, vice-;
suffixes:
Ns from Vs: -al, -ance, -ence, -ant, -ar, -er, -or, -ion, -iour, -ledge, -ment, -y, -ee;
Ns from Adj: -age, -ce, -cy, -ry, -ty, -ity, -ness,
Ns from other Ns: -ation, -dom, -eer, -ess, -hood, -ian, -ism, -ist, -ship
-ing forms used as nouns
- diminutives: -let, -ing, -ie, -ock, -ette
Nouns with 2 suffixes: -ishness
Typical endings making Ns for people who come from places:-ian, -er, -ese, -an, -ish, -ite
3) COMPOUND NOUNS:
= two words joined together referring to a single object (the meaning of a CN often differs
from the meaning of its elements): pickpocket, chairman
N stem + N stem:
Adj stem + N stem:
Verb stem + N stem:
Adv stem + N stem:
CN with –ing forms:
CN with a linking element:
- a vowel/consonant:
- a preposition:
- a conjunction:
Lexicalized phrases:
DERIVATIONAL COMPOUNDS: housekeeper, mill-owner, narrowmindedness
CONVERSION = lexemes change their word class without adding affixes:
V > N, Adj > N, N > V, Adj > V, Adv > V, N > Adj, Adv > Adj, Adv > N,
THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF NUMBER
Countable Ns = sg + pl [-s, -z, -iz]
NOUNS ended in –y: valley – valleys;
country – countries;
BUT: the Kennedys;
NOUNS ended in –o: photo - photos;
BUT: hero - heroes;
cargo - cargos, cargoes;
VOICING PLURAL
= change of the voiceless consonant –f- into the voiced –v-: wife - wives;
BUT: roof - roofs;
dwarf - dwarfs, dwarves;
MUTATED PLURAL
= change of the root vowel: 7 nouns; man - men;
Englishmen;
BUT: Germans;
-en PLURAL: child; ox;
brother – brothers, brethren;
UNINFLECTED PLURAL
= sheep; fish; animals that are hunted: deer; reindeer;
BUT: oysters, lobsters;
FOREIGN PLURAL
phenomenon; analysis; bacterium;
BUT: focus - foci, focuses; larva;
antenna = antennae, antennas;
index = indexes, indices;
PLURAL IN COMPOUNDS
bedrooms; postmen; brothers-in-law; passers-by; forget-me-nots;
NOUNS with only plural form followed by a verb in plural:
belongings, clothes, glasses, goods, pyjamas, scissors, trousers,
NOUNS with –s followed by singular:
billiards; mumps; Brussels; news; statistics;
NOUNS - the same form of sg and pl = V is in sg. or pl.: series; means; species;
COLLECTIVE NOUNS
NOUNS in sg. followed by Vs in sg.: foliage, machinery;
NOUNS in sg. followed by Vs in pl.: people; cattle; poultry; vermin;
Police are after him. BUT: Police is a department of government.
NOUNS used with Vs in sg. or pl.: committee, government, jury, board;
Family is ...; Families are...;
PLURAL OF NAMES OF NATIONS
Switzerland: a Swiss, many Swiss, nation: the Swiss
The Netherlands / Holland = Dutchman, Dutchmen, nation: the Dutch
Britain;
Sweden;
Denmark;
Norway;
England;
Finland;
Germany;
Slovakia;
Czech Republic;
Austria;
Poland
Hungary;
Ukraine;
COUNTABILITY
= closely connected with the grammatical category of number.
COUNTABLE NOUNS:
- names of living beings or things with a definite form student, girl, flower, book, house,
- describe separate and separable objects
- sg. and pl. form
- definite and indefinite article, numerals; few, a few, many
- in exclamation. What a nice hat!
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS:
stand for sth -can be measured but not counted, for things without shape or precise limits;
- describe:
- material, liquids, substances: snow, iron, water, gold, paper
- abstract qualities and ideas: courage, success, peace, literature
Some of them may be countable: idea, hour, mistake, word, day
- a unique thing: the moon, the earth (= this world)
- a proper name: Shakespeare, London, the Atlantic
- have only one form
- generally without any article or numerals; only with “the“
- little, a little, much, plenty of
- in exclamations: What nice weather!
Non-counts in English but counts in Slovak:
gossip, information, hair, homework, news, luggage, soap, thunder
Non-counts in their plural form indicate various kinds, extension or intensity:
fruits, wines, waters, sands, heats, colds
Some Ns = non-counts in one meaning and counts in a different meaning
U = coal, glass, hair, ice, iron, paper, room, stone, wood
C= a coal, a glass, a hair, an ice, a paper, a room, a stone, a wood
Partitives: a loaf of bread; slice, packet, piece, bit, tin, drop, item, bar, pinch, cup,
THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF GENDER
In Old English = grammatical gender
In Modern English = natural gender:
- male beings = masculine
- female beings = feminine
- inanimate things = neuter
Gender-forming suffix –ess: tiger - tigress, duke - duchess,
Gender expressed lexically:
- by different words: boy – girl, husband - wife, ram – ewe,
- by pronouns: wolf – she-wolf, goat – she-goat (Billy g.– nanny g.)
- by words indicating the gender: male reader – female reader,
Nouns with a generic term + a pair: horse = stallion + mare;
Common gender: friend, singer, journalist,
= pronouns tell us whether the reference is to male or female:
When the reference is affectionate (to a pet) = he / she (not: it)
female: cat, parrot, fish,....... car, ship, aircraft,
male: dog, horse, canary,
Masculine gender in poetry:
- nouns denoting strength, inflexibility, resistance, necessity
- names of winds, rivers, mountains
- summer, autumn, winter, the sun, anger, love, murder, war, death
Feminine gender in poetry:
- nouns denoting tenderness, loveliness
- names of countries (ref. to the nation), towns, universities,
- the moon, the earth, the Church, nature, mercy, humility, charity,
faith, hope, modesty, justice, liberty, victory, music, wisdom,
THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF CASE
In OE = 4 cases: N, G, D, Ac.
In ModE:
- the common case = uninflected form
- the possessive / genitive case = inflected by:
-´s in sg:a girl´s book; my mother-in-law´s book; Peter and Paul´s quarrel
-´ in pl.: girls´ school; BUT: children´s toys; Dickens´/Dickens´s novels
DEPENDENT GENITIVE
- personal names: Paul´s car;
- personal nouns: My sister´s school;
- personal indefinite pronouns: someone´s passport;
- names of animals: a dog´s life;
- collective nouns: the government´s decision;
- geographical names: Slovakia´s export; BUT: the longest river of SK, Europe´s future –
European future;
- institutional names: the school´s history;
- expressions of time, space, weight, distance: the river´s edge;
journey´s end; two week´s work; BUT: the two-week plan
- name of seasons/months/days: Sunday´s newspaper. BUT a Sunday newspaper
- with words: sun, moon, earth, world: the earth´s surface;
- with words: ship, boat, vessel: ship´s cargo; the vessel´s engine;
- with personification (in poetry): wind´s whistle; the sea´s roar;
- fixed expressions: to be at death´s door; by a hair´s breadth; for heaven´s sake; the
The OF-GENITIVE/OF-construction refers to:
- things when we cannot form a compound: the shade of a tree;
- parts of things: the roof of the house;
- abstract nouns: the cost of living;
- partitives: a slice of bread;
- geographical notions: the city of Dublin;
- also: the month of November; the title of professor;
THE ABSOLUTE / ELYPTICAL GENITIVE
= without a following noun:
- when it is clear what / who we are talking about: My car is next to Peter´s.
- when referring to work-places, shops, banks, houses:
at a butcher´s (shop); my mother´s (house); Barclay´s (bank);
THE DOUBLE GENITIVE
= when a noun is determined by:
- articles: a friend of my father´s;
- numerals: two sons of my uncle´s;
- some: She is having lunch with some colleagues of hers. = some of her colleagues
- demonstrative pronouns: This small flat of ours.
DETERMINERS
= words used in front of common nouns, they determine (affect) the meaning of the noun
CENTRAL DETERMINERS = mutually exclusive
1) articles:
2) possessive:
3) demonstrative:.
4) assertive; nonassertive:
5) negative:
6) universal:
7) dual:
8) Wh-determiners:
PREDETERMINERS
= precede the required central determiners in a N phrase:
- the quantifying:
- the fractional:
- intensifying:
- multiplying:
POSTDETERMINERS
= follow the required central determiner in a N phrase:
- cardinal numerals:
- ordinal numerals:
- many, much + its relatives:
- the forms of other:
- the phrasal quantifiers:
PRONOUNS point out objects / qualities without naming them
SPECIFIC PRONOUNS
1) PERSONAL PRONOUNS: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
= refer to the person speaking, spoken to, spoken about
Gram. categories of P, N, C, G – 3rd sg.
Common case is replaced by:
- subjective case:
- objective case:
2) POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs
my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their
= refer to parts of the body and personal belongings
Gram. categories: P, N, G
- the dependent / attribute form = the possessive determiners
- the independent / the nominal form
3) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: this, these, that, those, such, same
= express the number contrast:
= point at what is nearer or farther in time and space:
Such = of this/that kind:
Such as:
Same - always with the:
4) REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: myself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
= indicate that the action expressed by the V passes back to the S
Gram. categories: P, N, G – 3rd sg.
In the sentence they are usually used:
- as direct O:
- as indirect O:
- after a preposition:
- as part of the predicative of the V to be:
- in fixed phrases:
- after “by“ meaning alone, without help:
- to emphasize sth.:
= used with reflexive Vs:
5) INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: who, whom, whose, what, which
= form questions; always precede the V; if the pronoun is the subject, no “do/did“ is used
WHO = 3 case-forms, used only for persons:
Subjective: Who
Objective: Who(m)
Genitive/Possessive: Whose
WHAT = no case-forms; used:
- for things:
- for an activity:
- to ask for a person´s profession, character, etc.:
- in idiomatic expressions:
WHICH - used for things and persons; sg. or pl; subject or object;
- implies choice among a certain number of things:
- often followed by an of-phrase:
Compound interrogatives - used for emphasis:
6) RELATIVE PRONOUNS: that, who, whom, whose, which, what; as
= point out back to a N or Pron. mentioned before;
= conjunctive power: introduce a subordinate clause (= relative clause)
The word they refer to is called antecedent. When the antecedent is a whole sentence = which
Forms:
- personal: subject; object; possessive;
- non-personal: subject; object; possessive;
THAT:
- used for persons or things in restrictive relative clauses:
- can sometimes be left out of a sentence:
- cannot be preceded by a preposition:
- is used: - after the superlative:
- after most indefinite pronouns:
- after the opening It is..., It was..., Is it.... Was it ...:
- when the antecedent is both a person and a thing:
WHAT
- is used when an antecedent is not expressed:
Compound relative pronouns: whichever, whatever, whoever
The relative pronoun AS is used:
- always after such:
- after same:
BUT also that can be used after same :
7) RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: each other, one another
= express mutual action or relation; the S in pl.
EACH OTHER:
- implies only two persons:
ONE ANOTHER:
- implies two or more persons:
The common case:
The genitive case:
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
1) UNIVERSAL PRONOUNS: all, every, each, both, everybody, everyone, everything
ALL:
- refers to persons / things; in sg. / pl.; expresses unity;
- meaning: everything:
- in expressions:
EACH:
- refers to 2 or more than 2 persons/things separately:
- expresses a limited number:
- is used after of and at the end:
- as a pronoun and as a determiner:
EVERY:
- refers to more than 2 persons/things meaning: altogether
- expresses unlimited number:
- is used after: nearly, not:
- only as a determiner:
- in idiomatic expressions:
BOTH: is used with pl N and pl V:
2) PARTITIVE PRONOUNS: some, any, no, none, other, another, either, neither
SOME: = determiner or nominal function; used with C and U;
- expresses:
- an indefinite quantity or number:
- a contrast:
- a particular but unidentified person/thing:
- used: - in affirmative sentences:
- in interrogative expecting a positive reply:
- before a numeral:
Compounds: somebody, someone, something
ANY: = meaning: “it doesn´t matter who, which or what“; C and U;
- used: - in interrogative:
- in negative:
- in indirect questions:
- in conditional clauses:
Compounds: anybody, anyone, anything
NO = determiner function; meaning: “not any, not a“; C and U:
nobody, no one, nothing = nominal function; with sg V.; can be replaced by any-:
NONE = nominal function; used with sg. + pl.; of-construction:
THE OTHER, THE OTHER + sg.N = the second of two:
ANOTHER = an additional one; a different one;
THE OTHERS, THE OTHER + pl.N = “the remaining ones“:
OTHERS, OTHER + pl.N = different, additional, remaining ones:
EITHER has 2 meanings: - one or the other of two;
NEITHER = “not this and not the other“:
- both:
3) QUANTIFYING PRONOUNS: many, much, few, little, several, enough, one
MANY, FEW = used with C:
MUCH, LITTLE = used with U:
In affirmative sentences: a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a good deal of, a great number of
MANY, MUCH used:
- in interrogative:
- in negative:
MUCH – also used adverbially:
FEW, LITTLE = negative meaning:
a few, a little = a positive meaning:
SEVERAL = used only in pl.:
- determiner and nominal function with of-construction:
ENOUGH = used with C and U; a determiner and nominal function:
ONE is used as:
- numerical as a determiner; nominal function with of-construction:
- replacive (= a word-substitute):
but not used in place of an uncount:
- indefinite (= people in general, often replaced by informal YOU):
- used when referring to people or thing after WHICH?
ADJECTIVES / MODIFIERS
-
limit, qualify, or make more exact other words by describing them
do not change in gender, number or in case (they don´t have inflections)
According to their morphologic characteristics:
1) GRADABLE
- the positive / absolute degree = the simple form of the adjective
- the comparative degree = denotes a higher degree of a quality
One thing is compared or contrasted with another by using than.
- the superlative degree = the highest degree;
It implies limitation = the definite article is used.
2 types of comparison:
- synthetic comparison: ...-er; the ...-est;
- monosyllabic adjectives:
- disyllabic adjectives: -y, -ow, -er, -le;
- analytical comparison: more ...; the most ....;
2) NON-GRADABLE
= cannot be graded; no degrees of comparison;
SPELLING RULES: double consonant; change of final -y; dropping -e;
CONSTRUCTIONS WITH COMPARISON
as …. as = indicates the same degree in affirmative sentences:
not as …. as; not so …. as = indicate lower degree in negative sentences:
than = offers the comparative:
According to their meaning and grammatical characteristics:
1) QUALITATIVE / descriptive: describe qualities of a substance directly, as:
size, shape, colour, physical and mental qualities
- most of them have degrees of comparison
- from most of them adverbs can be formed by adding -ly
2) RELATIVE adjectives: denote qualities of a substance through their relation to:
- materials:
- place:
- time:
- some action:
They do not have degrees of comparison, do not form adverbs.
They have certain typical suffixes such as: -en, -an, -ist, -ic, -al.
SUBSTANTIVIZED ADJECTIVES:
- wholly substantivized: have all the characteristics of nouns: pl., G, articles
- partially substantivized: only some of the characteristics of nouns: definite article:
- a whole class:
- abstract notions:
- nationalities:
MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF ADJECTIVES
1) Primary / simple: neither prefixes nor suffixes
2) a) Secondary derived /derivatives: derived from other word classes by suffixes:
-less, -ish, -ly, -ful, -able, -ible, -ive, -ant, -ent, -ous, -en, -an,
Some prefixes added to adjectives have negative effect:
iminilirundisb) Secondary converted: nouns functioning as adjectives
3) Compound adjectives:
N + Adj:
N + pres. participle:
N + past participle:
Adj + Adj:
Adj + N + -ed:
N + N + -ed:
Num + N + -ed:
Adv + N +-ed:
Compounds with numbers (a fifty-year-old man) = preferred to phrases with of-construction
(a man of fifty years). These compounds refer to:
age
volume
price
weight
time
duration
IRREGULAR FORMS OF ADJECTIVES:
good/well
bad
old
far
Adjectives before nouns = pre-modifiers:
Adjectives after nouns = post-modifiers:
Adjectives = some present participles:
Adjectives = some past participles:
ADVERBS
= a word class which expresses some circumstances that attend an action, state, or points out
some characteristic features of an action or a quality;
- answer questions such as: HOW? WHEN? WHERE? HOW OFTEN?
TO WHAT EXTENT? IN WHAT ORDER?
- can modify:
- verbs:
- adjectives:
- indefinite pronouns:
- other adverbs:
- nouns:
- whole sentences:
The modifying adverb is usually an intensifier:
MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS
According to their structure:
1) SIMPLE:
2) DERIVATIVE – by adding:
- a suffix -ly:
- a prefix a-:
- other suffixes:
3) COMPOUND:
4) COMPOSITE:
GRADABILITY OF ADVERBS
1) GRADABLE
- synthetic = one/two syllabic adverbs: -er; -est;
- analytical = adverbs of manner in -ly, adverbs of frequency: more/less; most/least;
Irregular forms of comparison:
2) NON-GRADABLE
According to their meaning:
a) adverbs of MANNER
b) adverbs of PLACE and DIRECTION
c) adverbs of TIME
d) adverbs of FREQUENCY
e) adverbs of DEGREE, MEASURE and QUANTITY
Some adverbs have 2 forms: without -ly + with -ly:
The same forms of adjectives and adverbs without -ly:
POSITION OF ADVERBS:
- of manner:
Look at this photo carefully.
It snowed heavily last January.
Mary angrily slammed the door.
Quietly, he moved forwards to her.
- of degree, measure, quantity:
I quite like it.
It was quite good.
It went fairly well.
- of place and direction:
She read quietly in the library all the afternoon.
I went to London by train.
She lives in a small house in a village outside Norwich in Norfolk, England.
Outside it was cold but indoors it was warm.
- of time:
We went to the theatre yesterday. / Yesterday we went to the theatre.
I have just finished.
He is still working.
He still studies.
Have you finished yet? No, I haven´t finished yet.
- of frequency:
I was always very good at maths.
He seldom smiles at her.
I get paid on Fridays usually/regularly/normally/generally
Do you come here often? I don´t come here often.
Do you usually have cream in your coffee?
Sometimes we go to the cinema.
Have you ever been to England? Does anyone ever visit them?
If you ever need any help, you know where to find me.
Hardly/scarcely/barely ever did they manage to meet unobserved.
I never go to bed before midnight.
I never smoke. (= I don´t smoke.)
VERBS
-
clause element
word class
A sentence:
- a single verb = the finite verb phrase (VP) is simple:
- a cluster of Vs = the VP is complex:
Within a complex VP = up to 4 auxiliaries in front of the main V:
4 basic types of the complex finite VP:
1. modal
2. perfective
3. progressive
4. passive
Vs according to the function within a VP = 3 classes of Vs:
1. Primary auxiliary Vs:
2. Modal auxiliary Vs:
3. Lexical (main, full) Vs:
Verb forms according to the finiteness:
1. Finite V forms:
2. Non-finite V forms:
Full Vs according to morphological forms:
1. Regular
2. Irregular
Regular Vs = 4 morphological forms:
- the base form (no inflections) = 4 functions
- the –ed form (past form + -ed participle form) = 3 functions
- the –ing form
- the –s form
Irregular Vs = either 5 forms or 3 forms
- classified into:
3 forms the same
3 forms different
V base = past
V base = -ed participle
past = -ed participle
Grammatical categories:
TENSE
ASPECT
MOOD
VOICE
PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBS
= assist the main V to express grammatical contrasts (in person, number, tense)
= a separate class
= called operators for their syntactic function
TO BE
= unique, 8 forms; uncontracted negative forms x contracted negative forms:
2 functions: 1. as an aspect auxiliary for the progressive:
2. as a passive auxiliary:
Lexical V = when combined with Adj., Adv., Pron., Ns:
Forms: present; past; present perfect; past perfect; future; future perfect;
progressive present; progressive past;
TO HAVE
= base, -s, past, -ing, -ed; contracted x uncontracted negative forms;
Lexical V = to possess;
Forms: present; past; present perfect; past perfect; future; future perfect;
HAVE x HAVE GOT = often interchangeable, however slight differences:
In BrE: 1. have got = a perfect form of the V get = to obtain;
2. have got = to possess;
HAD GOT = had obtained; in AmE: HAVE GOTTEN = have obtained;
In BrE questions by inversion:
In AmE questions by operators (becoming more common in BrE.):
When a stative V = no progressive form:
When a dynamic V in the meaning of: eat, drink, enjoy, take, experience =
HAVE + determiner + noun = to perform activity:
TO DO
= present; -s; past; contracted x uncontracted negative forms;
Lexical V = to perform; to work at or be engaged in st.;
Forms: -ing; -ed; ...
Auxiliary V:
- negated imperative, simple present, simple past:
- in questions: simple present, past tense:
- in tag questions (V in simple present, simple past):
- in emphatic or persuasive constructions:(in simple present/past, imperative):
- in inversion caused by introductory words (negative adverbs: hardly, seldom):
- in simple present / past tense):
MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
= the speaker´s attitude toward the action or state indicated by the infinitive
= defective V because they are not inflected; followed by bare inf.;
cannot form imperative; do not have the infinitive form;
negative and interrogative forms without the auxiliary:
= full and contracted negative forms;
I CAN / COULD
CAN = ability, capability; CANNOT / CAN´T = inability, incapability
Periphrastic form expresses the future, infinitive, other structure =
CAN expresses:
- physical ability:
- mental ability:
- asking permission:
- giving permission:
- with Vs with perception (is not translated into Slovak):
- possibility:
- reference to the past by CAN´T /COULD / COULD NOT + perfect inf.
- CAN/CAN´T + passive infinitive:
I MAY / MIGHT (periphrastic =
- permission:
- in questions MAY is more formal than CAN:
- MIGHT in more polite requests:
- MUSTN´T stronger prohibition than MAY NOT:
- possibility (= it is possible):
- MAY + present infinitive = about present or future happenings
- MAY/MIGHT + perfect infinitive = we guess about past happ.:
- MIGHT expresses reproach:
- MIGHT + perfect infinitive = the action was not carried out in the past:
- MAY as a subjunctive auxiliary (expresses wish):
I MUST expresses:
TO HAVE TO; TO BE OBLIGED TO; TO BE COMPELLED TO;
- inescapable obligation, duty or necessity:
- an absence of obligation by NEED NOT or DON´T HAVE TO:
- MUSTN´T is a strong way of forbidding to do sth.:
- MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO = interchangeable:
- obligation comes from the speaker:
- stronger obligation for other persons:
- MUST in notices, documents, commands:
- MUST in pressing invitation and emphatic advice:
- deduction: MUST + present inf.; refer to the present:
- MUST + perfect inf.; deduction about the past:
SHALL expresses:
- volition (mostly for 1st sg.):
- in questions = obligation:
- in questions = suggestions:
- insistence, threat:
- in legal documents- in 2nd, 3rd person in contracts, treaties:
SHOULD
- in reported speech („I shall stay there longer.“):
- in offers, suggestions, requests:
- escapable obligation, duty:
- probability:
- after if and in case = possibility:
- recommendations from an outside authority:
- subjective opinion connected with:
OUGHT TO = more objective force, talk about laws, duties, regulations
SHOULD/OUGHT TO+perf. inf.=the past; action wasn´t carried out:
- OUGHT TO + perfect inf. = probability in the past:
WILL expresses:
- prediction about the future:
- prediction about the present (=MUST for deduction):
- habitual predictive meaning in conditional:
- prediction in a way of giving orders:
- willingness to do sth.:
- intention to make promises or threats:
- to make requests or to give orders:
WILL+perfect inf.=logical deduction about the past(MUST+perf.inf):
WOULD = past form, in reported speech:
- to talk about past habits + characteristic behaviour (only with dynamic Vs, not with state Vs)
- WOULD as conditional:
- WOULD = more polite request than WILL:
- after I wish / If only I ... expresses willingness:
MARGINAL MODALS / SEMI-MODALS
NEED
= in the negative; Yes/No questions:
- after negative adverbs (hardly, seldom, scarcely, rarely):
- in formal style, expressing doubts:
- in informal use = ordinary (lexical) V form:
NEEDN´T + perfect inf.= sb did it but it was not necessary: She needn´t have gone to school
= she went but it was not necessary. Compare: It was Sunday, she didn´t need to go to school
DARE:
- in questions and negatives:
or with bare inf.:
or a full V:
- in informal style:
the negative DAREN´T:
YOU DARE! or: DON´T YOU DARE! = to discourage people from doing
I DARE SAY means probably:
USED TO
=PAST habit = only in simple past form:
also with stative Vs:
- USED NOT or USEDN´T:
= in the negative;
= in questions:
However, DID is more common in negative or questions:
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF VOICE
1) ACTIVE VOICE
The clause with transitive Vs contains:
a) 3 grammatical elements: S + V + O
b) 3 semantic units: A + P (A) + G
SUBJECT = AGENT (doer, performer);
OBJECT = GOAL;
The English word order:
If the order is changed = both the gram. + semantic roles of Ns will change:
In Slovak the roles of the 3 Ns are not determined by their position:
2) PASSIVE VOICE
- indicates that the SUBJECT should not be interpreted as the AGENT
(it may be the goal, a person or thing involved in the event):
The AGENT (NP) is preceded by the preposition by.
The AGENT (unknown, obvious, unimportant) may be unexpressed:
The PASSIVE VOICE is a suitable form for omitting the AGENT.
In Slovak: = reflexive passive:
The emphasis = on the action rather than on people who perform it:
- in Slovak (non-human agent x human agent)
- in Slovak (non-finite V form)
After ditransitive Vs (give, offer, show, teach, tell) either OBJECT = SUBJCT of a passive
clause:
THE FORMS OF THE PASSIVE VOICE: to be + -ed participle
present simple: John is helped by Mary.
present progressive:
present perfect:
simple past:
past progressive:
past perfect:
simple future:
future perfect:
present infinitive:
perfect infinitive:
- ing form:
perfect –ing form:
The progressive forms are very rarely used in the passive.
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF ASPECT
reflects the way in which the verb action is “regarded“ or „experienced“ with respect
to time.
- is closely connected in meaning with tense
2 types of aspectual contrast:
1) THE PERFECTIVE ASPECT
2) THE PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) ASPECT
-
1) THE PERFECTIVE ASPECT
- is associated with time orientation + various time indicators (already, since, for, so far,
lately, recently, up to now, how long, ever,...)
1.1 PRESENT PERFECT (have + -ed participle):
= past happening related to present time
a) past events with results in the present time:
b) indefinite events in a period leading up to the present time:
c) habit in a period leading up to the present time:
d) state leading up to the present time:
1.2 PAST PERFECT (had + -ed participle)
= past in the past (conjunctions: after, when)
a) describing one event following another in the past:
b) when the event in the –when clause was completed before the event in the
past simple started:
c) in reported speech after past Vs (said, told, asked, explained, thought, ...)
d) if we want to narrate events looking back from a point in the past:
e) to express an unrealized hope, wish:
1.3 FUTURE PERFECT (will + perfect infinitive (have + -ed participle)
= at a certain time in the future something will be completed or achieved
(often used with by + time reference):
2) THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT (to be + -ing form)
= refers to activity in progress, and therefore suggests that:
a) the activity is temporary (i.e. of limited duration)
b) it need not be complete:
2.1 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (am/is/are + -ing)
= actions in progress at the moment of speaking (now, at the moment, just):
= temporary situation, an activity that is taking place in the present time period and will
continue for a limited period:
= future reference – with a V of motion (arrive, come, go, leave, fly, drive,...):
= activities planned for the future:
= repeated actions that happen unexpectedly or annoyingly (always, constantly,
2.2 PAST PROGRESSIVE (was/were + -ing)
= an action (event, situation) was in progress at a specified time in the past:
= an action that started before the event in the past simple and was in progress when the event
in the past simple occured:
= two parallel actions that were in progress at the same time (conj.: while):
= progress with adverbials beginning with all (all morning, all day, ...) :
= repeated actions:
= the background for a narrative in the past:
2.3 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (has/have been + -ing)
= an activity taking place in the recent period up to the present:
= an activity which started in the past, continues up to the present and possibly in the future
(with: since, for, how long, all-phrases: all night, ...):
2.4 PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (had been + -ing)
- is the equivalent of the present perfect progressive; used to describe:
= an activity looking back from the past:
2.5 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (shall/will be + -ing)
= an activity (event) going on at a particular time or over a particular period in the future
(we mention the future time):
= the future activity (event) is the result of a previous decision (arrangement):
= planned activities (events) in the future
= asking (politely) about people´s plans:
2.6 FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (shall/will + have been + -ing)
= activity leading up to time in the future (we usually mention both the particular point in the
future (on Saturday, next year,...) and the period of time until this point (.... for a year, ... for
20 minutes)
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF MOOD
- indicates the factual, nonfactual, or counterfactual status of the predication.
No mood distinctions are made in non-finite VPs.
In finite VPs modal distinctions are expressed mainly by modal Vs.
THE INDICATIVE / DECLARATIVE MOOD
- is used to state facts of which the speaker is relatively confident:
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD
- is used to issue commands and instructions;
nd
2 sg. or pl. (= no distinction in E.) = the base form of the V:
1st and 3rd sg. and pl. express an imperative idea periphrastically:
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
- replaced by other constructions in contemporary English;
- described in 3 separate statements:
1) The Mandative Subjunctive in that-clauses
- uninflected base form = lack of the regular concord btw. S + FV in 3sg. PT
a) used in a V in a subordinate that-clause after the Vs (in the main clause) like:
advise, ask, beg, decide, demand, desire, insist, intend, order, propose, urge,
=
b) after adjectives (anxious, determined,) with a personal S:
or (essential, important, urgent, vital,) with an impersonal it-construction:
=
c) after Ns (demand, intention, order, recommendation, request, suggestion):
2) The Formulaic Subjunctive in clauses in certain set expressions:
=
3) The Were-Subjunctive = hypothetical in meaning;
- in conditional clauses:
- in subordinate clauses after wish:
NON-FINITE VERB FORMS
= used after Vs in VP, after Ns, after adj., in non-finite subordinate clauses.
THE INFINITIVE
- present infinitive active: to write
- present infinitive passive:
- present progressive infinitive active:
- perfect / past infinitive active:
- perfect / past infinitive passive:
- perfect / past progressive infinitive active:
The bare infinitive is used after:
- modals:
- let:
- make (in the active):
- had better, would rather:
- Vs of perception:
The to-infinitive is used after:
- some lexical Vs:
- the V to be + adjectives:
- some Vs followed by an O:
- indicating purpose:
THE –ing FORM
1)-ing participles used in progressive aspect or functioning as participial adj.
2) gerunds = can take place of a N or a V
- in general statements it functions as an uncount:
- sometimes as a count after determiners and after ´s genitive:
The gerund / -ing participle = forms:
- present active:
- present passive:
- perfect (past) active:
- perfect (past) passive:
-ing form is used after:
- most Vs of liking and disliking:
- some lexical Vs:
- prepositions including adj. + preposition phrases:
- phrasal Vs:
THE –ed FORM
= the past form and the –ed participle form
- to form the passive;
- to express perfective aspect (have/had + -ed);
- to begin a subordinate clause;
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