Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell (Notes)

Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell
Cell Membrane
Selectively permeable = only certain things can enter/exit the cell
Made primarily of lipids and proteins
Integral proteins form channels or pores which certain substances can pass
Fluid mosaic model = cell membrane acts more like a fluid than a solid (flexible); made
up of a variety of parts
Contain the organelles of the cell
Contains cytosol = a gelatin-like aqueous fluid which organelles are in
Stores the hereditary information in its DNA; controls the cell
Nuclear Membrane
Double membrane that surrounds the nucleus; has nuclear pores
Site where ribosomes are made
Sites of chemical reactions – supply energy to cell
More numerous in cells with high energy requirements
Cristae = folds that increase the surface area (more sites for chemical reactions)
Most numerous organelle
Synthesize proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A system of membranous tubules and sacs
Functions as a highway along which molecules move from one part of the cell to
Two types:
1) Rough ER (has ribosomes)
2) Smooth ER (no ribosomes)
Golgi Apparatus
The processing, packaging, and secreting organelle of the cell
Organelles that contain enzymes that digest stuff
Common in cells of animals, fungi, and protists, but rare in plant cells
Contributes to the support, movement, and division of the cell
Whipping action propels cells and makes them move
Cell Wall
Rigidity helps support and protect the plant cell
Fluid filled organelle that stores enzymes, metabolic wastes, and water
May occupy 90% of the volume of a plant cell (central vacuole)
Used to trap energy of sunlight during photosynthesis with chlorophyll & convert to
Has a system of flattened membranous sacs called thylakoids