Final Exam Study Guide

CAUTION: Class notes & Crossword Puzzles are to be used in conjunction with your text.
Chapter 7 Enamel: Composition, Formation & Structure (pp. 141-190)
Chapter 8 Dentin-Pulp Complex (pp. 191-238)
What are the formative cells of enamel & dentin? From what do these cells differentiate? Where
does enamel and dentin formation begin? end?
What is the approximate rate of formation for enamel and dentin? What is the fate of the
formative cells of enamel & dentin?
What is the reduced enamel (dental) epithelium and what cells participate in it?
Describe the physical characteristics of enamel & dentin: (composition, hardness, structural unit,
color, etc.)
Describe the incremental growth lines and other characteristic structures (see list in the hand-out)
in enamel & dentin. What is their significance? function?
Describe the structure of enamel including enamel rods, interrod enamel and the rod sheath.
What is the composition of enamel crystals? Describe their shape.
What are the main functional stages of ameloblasts and briefly what happens in each stage? (see
Fig. 7-14 p. 154)
What is modulation? Contrast the duties of smooth-ended and ruffle-ended ameloblasts in the
maturation stage.
What are amelogenins? What is enamelin and ameloblastin? What are some age changes seen in
enamel? (p. 186)
How does a knowledge of enamel affect cavity preparation? How does acid etching of the
enamel surface work? (pp. 189-190)
What makes enamel structure susceptible to caries?
How are dental caries & dental erosion similar? different?
At what pH does enamel undergo dissolution? What common dietary substances have a low pH?
What accounts for the difference in natural coloration of teeth? What accounts for white spots?
What are 3 conditions that affect amelogenesis? How do these occur? (pp. 186-187)
How does fluoride affect enamel? (p. 189)
Review the enamel factoids.
What is the first sign of dentin formation? What is predentin? What does the dentino-enamel
junction look like? (p. 193)
What are the types of dentin (see list in the hand-out)? When or why are they formed?
What is osteodentin? (p. 195)
Describe the two patterns of dentin mineralization. (pp. 202-203)
Describe the formation of root dentin.
What is the cervical loop?
Hertwig's epithelial root sheath?
What are the rests of Malassez? Where are they located? (see Ch. 9 p. 259) What dental
pathology do they participate in?
How are dentin and pulp related?
Describe the dentinal tubule and its contents. What produces the S-shaped path? (pp. 203-209,
Describe the four zones of the dental pulp. What is found in each? (pp. 214-215)
Describe the location and arrangement of odontoblasts in the pulp? (p. 215)
What is the life span of an odontoblast? (p. 223)
What cell is the most numerous in the dental pulp and what is its function? (pp. 225-226)
What is the role of undifferentiated ectomesenchymal cells in the dental pulp? (p. 226)
What is the subodontoblastic plexus of Raschkow? Where is it located? (p. 230)
How does a knowledge of dentin affect cavity preparation? What happens to the odontoblastic
processes during cavity preparation?
What makes dentin structure susceptible to caries?
What is dentin hypersensitivity? Why is dentin sensitive? (pp. 232-235)
Describe the three theories of dentin sensitivity. (see Fig. 8-61)
What are pulp stones? (p. 235)
Describe age changes seen in the dentin-pulp complex? (p. 236-237)
How does the dentin-pulp complex respond to environmental stimuli? (pp. 237-238)
Describe the area of the apical foramen and the presence of lateral canals. (pp. 191-192)
Review the dentin factoids.
Chapter 13 Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) (pp. 358-378)
Describe the basic classification of joints. Give examples. (pp. 358-359)
How do fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints differ?
What type of joint is the tooth socket?
Describe the basic components of a synovial joint. (p. 359)
Why is the TMJ called a synovial sliding-ginglymoid joint? (p. 359)
How is Meckel's cartilage involved in the development of the TMJ? (pp. 359-360)
Describe the bones of TMJ articulation. What covers the articular surfaces? How is this unique?
What are the roles of the capsule, ligaments and disk in the TMJ? (pp. 368-369)
Why is the disk not comparable to the meniscus in other joints? (p. 376)
Describe the synovial membrane and the chemical composition of synovial fluid. (pp.369-371)
Describe the four types of nerve endings found in the TMJ. Which one is the most numerous?
What are their functions? (pp. 376-378, also see Table 13-1)
escribe the vascular supply to the TMJ. (p. 378)
Chapter 14 Repair and Regeneration of Oral Tissues (pp. 379-395)
What is the difference between regeneration and repair?
What is the initial response to wounding?
Describe inflammatory cell activation, migration and function in wounding. (pp. 380-381)
What are the 2 major responses of cells to stimuli?
What are some examples of cellular adaptation.
How does scar formation differ in oral mucosa and skin?
What are some characteristics of scars in skin?
What is a keloid?
Discuss the difference between healing by primary, secondary, and tertiary intention.
What is ankylosis?
What is avulsion?
How does enamel reform or repair itself?
What factors influence repair of the dentin-pulp complex? (pp. 384-386)
Describe what happens in carious enamel and dentin. (pp. 386-387)
Discuss how repair occurs after tooth extraction. (pp. 388-389)
What is dry socket? Why does this occur? (pp. 388-389)
How is repair of the periodontal ligament similar to repair in skin? different? (pp. 390-391)
Describe guided tissue regeneration. (pp. 390-391)
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