BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS BIO113 Spring 2007 1 Unit 2 Cell Biology, Animal Organization, Inheritance, Genetics Consult lecture notes and textbook to prepare for Exam Unit 2 UNIT 2 Chapter 4 Chapter 22 Chapter 10 Chapter 13 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 (portions), 4.4 (portions), Testing yourself, page 67, #s 1, 2, 3, 4 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, Summary 10.1, 10.2 (portions), 10.3 (portions), Testing yourself page 157, #s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 pages196 – 197 and 202 – 203 Questions for review 1. What is a cell? 2. What is the relationship between surface area and volume in a cell? 3. What is the difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell? 4. What are the 3 main structural components of a eukaryotic cell? 5. What is meant by a “selectively permeable” cell membrane? 6. Which parts of the cell membrane lipid bilayer are hydrophilic? Which portion is hydrophilic? Which of these portions contains lipid? 7. How is cystic fibrosis an example of a defective cell membrane channel protein? What organ is most affected in CF? 8. In what way is DNA the genetic material? What is the function of DNA in cells? 9. What is a chromosome? How many chromosomes are located in human somatic (body) cells? 10. How many chromosomes are found in a human sperm or egg? How many chromosomes in a fertilized egg? 11. Where in the cell are lysosomes located? What is inside of lysosomes? 12. How does lysosomal action relate to the genetic disease, Tay Sach’s? 13. How does lysosomal action relate to apoptosis? 14. Where in the cell are mitochondria located? What do these cellular organelles do? How do oxygen and sugar (fuel) relate to mitochondrial action? 15. What are cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and the organism? 16. What are the 4 principal tissue types in animal bodies? 17. What, in general, does epithelial tissue do? 18. List 4 types of connective tissue 19. What are the 3 types of muscle tissue and where is each type found? 20. What is the function of nervous tissue and where is this tissue type located? 21. List the 11 organ systems and know the main function and structures in each 22. What is the difference between DNA, a gene, and a chromosome? 23. Who is considered to be the father of genetics? What type of organism did he experiment with? 24. What makes pea plants good genetic subjects? 25. What is Mendel’s “particulate theory of inheritance”? 26. What is Mendel’s “theory of dominance”? Examine a monohybrid (one gene) cross as shown in the textbook. Why does the recessive trait “disappear” in the first generation? 27. What is Mendel’s “theory of random segregation of alleles”? 28. What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? 29. How would you represent a homozygous dominant individual? Homozygous recessive? Heterozygous? 30. What is the probability of a homozygous recessive in the cross Cc X Cc? In the cross Cc X cc? 2 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS BIO113 Spring 2007 31. What is sickle cell disease? What gene is mutated? Is this inherited as a recessive, or a dominant trait? Why is sickle cell disease said to be an example of “pleiotropy”? 32. Why are skin color, intelligence, and height examples of polygenes? What type of curve suggests that a trait is inherited in a polygenic fashion? 33. How can the environment affect the expression of a polygenic trait such as skin color? 34. Why do the chromosomes (DNA) need to be copied before a cell divides? 35. What does it mean to say that 2 chromosomes are homologous? 36. Do more complex organisms always have more chromosomes? 37. What is the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes? How many pairs of autosomes are in a human cell? How many total autosomes are in a human cell? 38. Which chromosome determines maleness in humans? 39. What is a karyotype? 40. What is meant by 46, XX and 46, XY and 47, XX, 21+? 41. What is the difference between amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS)? 42. Can single gene disorders be diagnosed by karyotype? What information does a karyotype hold? 43. How are chromosomes arranged in a karyotype? 44. What is the main difference between a deletion, a duplication, an inversion, and a chromosomal translocation? 45. What is hemophilia? Which chromosome has this gene for blood clotting? 46. In what way are hemophilia and color blindness inherited in a criss-cross fashion (from mother to son and from son to daughter)? 47. What are the differences between ultrasound, embryo testing, and fetal testing for genetic characteristics? Which involves a picture of anatomy on a monitor? Which involves amniocentesis or CVS? Which involves in vitro fertilization and implantation of normal embryos? 48. What are some of the ethical implications of prenatal testing?