The Rule of Zeus pg. 29-32 - With the emergence of Zeus as leader, the progression from confusion to order was complete. - He established his council composed of 12 major Olympian gods: o Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Ares, Athena, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Dionysus. - Zeus enforced justice by listening to both sides of an argument. - He guaranteed that those who took oaths would keep their word or be punished. - The three brothers determined their dominions by drawing lots. o Zeus- the sky o Poseidon- the sea o Hades- the underworld (including Tartarus) - Hera became the queen of Mt. Olympus - Zeus called an assembly and announced that anyone who fought on his side would retain their powerful roles. - Styx- the river formed the boundary around the underworld o Any god making an oath would have to pour the sacred water out of a pitcher while swearing the oath. o The punishment for breaking the oath was severe. Lie upon a bed in a deep coma for one year Will not eat ambrosia or drink nectar Will not speak or breathe Unable to communicate with anyone for 9 years In the tenth year the punishment will cease and the god will rejoin the immortals. No one ever broke his word. - Hades- placed Charon in a rowboat on the River Styx. o Hades ordered him to spend eternity ferrying shades Shades- spirits of dead mortals Charon charged each passenger the fare of one obol (Greek coin) for the ride. A person was buried with the fee in his mouth. A shade whose body was not properly buried could not cross the river. - In order for a shade to pass through the gates into Hades’ kingdom, one must be inspected by the giant watch dog Cerberus. o Three dogs’ heads, a serpents’ tail, and a row of snakes’ heads running down his back. o He ate all shades that tried to escape. - Under the leadership of: o Zeus- he helped men lead better lives o Poseidon- taught mankind how to build ships and tame horses for transportation. o Hades- taught men to treat the dead with respect. Established funerals o Hera- protected marriages o Hestia- taught men how to build houses o Demeter- how to gather corn and prepare it for nourishment - In the years that follow, no one could overthrow Zeus.