Exam II Study Guide

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Study Guide-Exam II
Read the assigned material, review lecture notes, review the homework problems/answers,
go to help sessions, and look at relevant course web site information and videos.
Exam II will consist of three parts [i.e., I. General genetics knowledge (~20 points), II.
Multiple choice (~40 points), and III. Short answer (~40 points)].
You should know the following information for the second exam.
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The key experiments that showed DNA is the genetic material
DNA and RNA nucleotide structures (be able to draw them)
Chargaff’s rules
DNA structure and replication (the replisome)
Replication and function of telomeres
Names and contributions of geneticists discussed in lectures, including their organisms
Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes (similarities and differences)
Role of the carboxy tail domain of RNA polymerase II
Three modifications resulting in the production of eukaryotic mRNAs
The structure and function of the spliceosome
The names and roles of the various functional RNAs
What are siRNAs and how do they work?
What are the roles of DICER and RISC?
Know the structures, groupings, and one letter abbreviations for all 20 amino acids (be
able to draw them)
Be able to translate a DNA or RNA sequence into a protein sequence if you are given a
Genetic Code Key
Define and distinguish silent, missense, nonsense and frameshift mutations
Understand and distinguish translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Role of the Shine-Dalgarno Sequence
Know the common types and functions of posttranslational modifications
Southern blotting and PCR: How and why are they done?
Making and screening genomic and cDNA libraries
Dideoxy Sequencing of DNA
Explain how to make a transgenic animal (mouse) and plant (tobacco)
Bacterial gene regulation-the operon model
Eukaryotic gene regulation-promoter, enhancers, transcription factors, transcription
activation factors, RNA polymerase II, role of chromatin, the enhanceosomes
Epigenetic marks (histone acetylation, histone methylation, and DNA methylation) and
their effects on gene expression; the histone code
Enhancer blocking insulators and barrier insulators
Heterochromatin versus euchromatin; preventing the spread of heterochromatin
Genomic imprinting in mice and position-effect variegation in Drosophila
Genes and development-Homeotic genes (Hox genes & floral homeotic genes)
You should know how to solve a variety of genetics problems as exemplified in the
textbook, in the lectures, and in the homework assignments for the chapters covered in
this exam.
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