Reading Interventions There are 5 main areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension. These areas are defined below and links are provided to related web sites containing numerous research-based activities and strategies. 1) Phonemic Awareness is the realization that a spoken language is comprised of phonemes or individual sounds strung together to form words that convey meaning from speaker to listener. Activities that explicitly and systematically teach children to manipulate phonemes significantly improve children’s reading and spelling abilities (National Reading Panel, 2000). Activities that build phonemic awareness include rhyming, blending, and segmenting. 2) Phonics is the understanding and application of sound-symbol relationships. Instruction focused on building phonics skills should include explicit teaching of letter/sound correspondence in a planned sequence of phonics elements (NRP, 2000). Activities should break words apart into spoken sounds and then blend sounds to form words. 3) Fluency is the ability to read accurately, quickly, expressively, with good phrasing, AND with good comprehension. Activities that build fluency include guided oral reading, paired and echo reading, and repeated readings. 4) Vocabulary consists of the words we must know to communicate effectively. It is comprised of both oral and reading vocabulary. Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. Examples of interventions that build vocabulary are Vocabulary mapping, and Picture Word Induction Model (PWIM). 5) Text Comprehension is defined as the interaction between reader and text. Readers must construct meaning by interpreting information presented in the reading through prior knowledge and experiences. Comprehension includes prediction, analyzing stories, questioning, image construction and summarizing. Examples of interventions that build comprehension are graphic organizers, Think Alouds, the 5 W questions, and KWL strategies. Reading Interventions Resources and Web Sites: http://www.fcrr.org The Florida Center for Reading Research disseminates information on a wide variety of reading curricula, ranging from preschool through high school. Lessons are divided into instruction for phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. http://reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/or_rfc_review_2.php This site provides summaries for various reading programs and a synopsis of the research behind them. http://reading.uoregon.edu Big Ideas in Beginning Reading: This website is designed to provide information, technology, and resources to teachers, administrators, and parents across the country. Big Ideas in Beginning Reading focuses on the five BIG IDEAS of early literacy: phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency with text, vocabulary, and comprehension. The website includes definitions and descriptions of the research and theories behind each of the big ideas, describes how to assess the big ideas, gives information on how to teach the big ideas including instructional examples, and finally, shows you how to put it all together in your school. http://ca.geocites.com/phonological/idex.htm This site provides activities and links for phonological awareness activities. http://www.interventioncentral.org Provides links to variety of interventions, including The Savvy Teacher’s Guide: Reading Interventions That Work by Jim Wright. http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org The National Reading Panel reports the research findings supporting the Five Big Ideas in teaching reading: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. http://www.readingrockets.org This site contains a variety of strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn to read. www.nifl.gov/parntershipforreading Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks of Reading Instruction, Kindergarten Through Grade 3, 2nd Edition. National Institute for Literacy. This guide, designed by teachers for teachers, summarizes what researchers have discovered about how to successfully teach children to read. It describes the findings of the National Reading Panel Report and provides analysis and discussion in five areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension.