Human Reproduction 3 Placenta, membranes that surrounded the

Human Reproduction 3
Placenta, membranes that surrounded the foetus and remains of
umbilical cord discharged from the uterus after the birth of the
The fluid (liquid) that surrounds a developing foetus in the uterus
(womb). It acts as a shock absorber.
amniotic fluid
The process of bringing a newborn into the world – occurs in three
birth / parturition
A hollow, fluid-filled sphere of cells that develops from the morula.
Attached to the inner surface of the outer layer of cells (trophoblast)
is an inner mass of cells from which the embryo develops.
Outermost membrane surrounding the embryo, involved in placenta
Small internal erectile structure of the female mammalian genitals
similar in structure and position (i.e. homologous) to male penis.
A rubber-like sheath worn:
· by males, over the erect penis
· by females, inserted into the vagina, before sexual intercourse to
prevent sperm entering the female vagina.
It is a barrier method of contraception.
A yellow body that develops in the ovary after the rupture of the
Graafian follicle (ovulation). It is a source of progesterone, persists if
pregnancy has occurred.
corpus luteum
Embryo having two primary germ layers, i.e. ectoderm and
The forcible ejection of seminal fluid.
Mucus membrane that lines the uterus (womb), undergoes cyclical
changes during the menstrual cycle.
Using birth control methods (contraception) to plan the number of
children in a family.
family planning
The union of a haploid male gamete nucleus with a haploid female
gamete nucleus resulting in the formation of a diploid zygote. In the
human female this occurs about halfway along the fallopian tube.
Developing embryo with the appearance of the fully developed
animal. In humans from eight weeks after fertilisation until birth.
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The loose skin that covers the end of the penis. Removed during
A portion of a group of cells capable of developing into the various
different tissues and organs of a new individual. Cells in the human
blastocyst arrange themselves into three layers and give rise to the
following tissues:
· ectoderm – skin, hair, nails
· mesoderm – muscles, skeleton, kidneys
· endoderm – linings of the alimentary canal, trachea and bronchi.
germ layer
Fluid-filled vesicle in ovary of female mammal containing an egg.
Graafian follicle
Funnel at end of oviduct that catches the egg after ovulation and
directs it into the oviduct.
Cells situated within the testes that secrete testosterone.
interstitial cells
A method used to treat infertility and help a woman conceive. It
involves the union of the male gamete nucleus with the female
gamete nucleus outside the woman’s body (in a ‘test tube’ or other
laboratory environment).
Milk production by the breasts of mammals.
The organs involved in gamete formation and copulation in the
male reproductive
The discharge of menstrual fluid consisting of blood, lining of womb
(endometrium) and unfertilised egg, which occurs monthly from
puberty to menopause.
menstruation /
The outer muscular wall of the uterus.
The changes that take place in an ovary from the beginning of one
menstruation to the onset of the next.
ovarian cycle
A hormone produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland in
response to the sudden fall in the levels of oestrogen and
progesterone. It stimulates contractions of the uterus during labour.
A structure attached to the inner surface of the womb (uterus) of
pregnant mammals, which helps to nourish the foetus, and
discharges its waste.
A hormone produced by the ovaries. Stimulates endometrium (lining
of womb) growth in preparation for and during pregnancy.
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A hormone secreted by the placenta. Relaxes the joints of the pelvic
girdle and aids in the dilation of the cervix.
External pouch in most male mammals that contains (holds) the
testes outside the body at a temperature slightly lower (35°C ) than
body temperature (37°C in humans) for the efficient production of
Manufactures seminal fluid (semen) which nourishes the sperm and
allows them swim.
seminal vesicle
Occurs in three phases—arousal, copulation and orgasm.
sexual intercourse
Tube through which sperm travel from their place of storage (the
epididymis) to the urethra in humans.
sperm duct / vas
Embryo having three primary germ layers – ectoderm, mesoderm
and endoderm.
One of a pair of animals born at the same time to the same mother.
There are two types: identical and fraternal.
Holds the developing embryo during pregnancy. Another name for
the womb.
Cutting and tying, or removal of part of, the vas deferens for
sterilisation of the male.
A diploid cell resulting from the union of two haploid gametes, i.e. a
fertilised egg.
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