Chapter 6 Concept Map 6.1 How Do We Learn? I. Learning Results from Experience A. II. 6.2 1. Learning is a relatively enduring change in behavior that results from experience. 2. Learning enables animals to better adapt to an environment, thus facilitating survival. There Are Three Types of Learning A. III. Learning (also called conditioning). The three major types of learning are nonassociative, associative, and observational. 1. Nonassociative learning is a change in behavior after exposure to a single stimulus or event. 2. Associative learning is the linking of two stimuli, or events. 3. Observational learning is acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior. Habituation and Sensitization Are Simple Models of Learning A. Habituation is a decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus. B. Sensitization is an increase in behavioral response after exposure to a repeated stimulus. How Do We Learn Predictive Associations? IV. Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned A. In classical conditioning: 1. Unconditioned stimulus (US) is a biological stimulus that reliably produces a biological response or reflex. 2. Unconditioned response (UR) is a biological response that the organism does not have to learn. B. 3. Neutral stimulus (NS) is a stimulus that does not evoke any response from the organism. 4. Through conditioning trials, NS is presented along with the US. 5. Following the conditioning trials, critical trials occur; if NS has become conditioned stimulus (CS), it produces conditioned response (CR). Processes associated with classical conditioning: 1. Acquisition: formation of association between NS and US. 2. Extinction: repeated presentation of the CS without the US leads to a gradual loss of CR. 3. Spontaneous recovery: after extinction, brief reappearance of extinguished response on presentation of the CS. 4. Generalization: stimulus similar to CS produces CR. 5. Discrimination: distinguishing between stimuli so only one CS produces CR. V. Classical Conditioning Involves More Than Events Occurring at the Same Time VI. A. Biological preparedness to fear specific objects helps animals avoid potential dangers and survive. B. Certain pairings of stimuli are more likely to become associated than others. Learning Involves Expectancies and Prediction A. According to the Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning, strength of CS-US association is determined by unexpected or surprising nature of US. B. Positive prediction error results when an unexpected stimulus is presented. C. Positive prediction error leads to high levels of learning. D. Negative prediction error results when an expected stimulus is missing. E. Negative prediction error promotes the extinction of learning. F. Dopamine provides one neurobiological basis for prediction error. 1. VII. Phobias and Addictions Have Learned Components A. Phobias are learned fear associations (classically conditioned). 1. B. 6.3 Dopamine release increases after positive prediction error and decreases after negative prediction error. Little Albert. Addictions are learned reward associations. How Does Operant Conditioning Change Behavior? VIII. Reinforcement Increases Behavior A. Reinforcement describes how consequences make behaviors more likely to occur. 1. puzzle box 2. ii. Skinner box B. Shaping: reinforcing behaviors that successively approximate desired behavior C. Reinforcers may be primary (satisfy biological needs) or secondary (do not satisfy biological needs). D. Premack principle 1. E. a more-valued activity can be used to reinforce the performance of a less-valued activity. Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated. 1. positive reinforcement: by addition of reward, increases probability of behavior recurring. 2. negative reinforcement: by removal of negative stimulus, increases probability of behavior recurring. IX. Operant Conditioning Is Influenced by Schedules of Reinforcement A. A. Continuous reinforcement → rewarding for each behavior → fastest behavior acquisition but fastest extinction if reinforcement stops. B. B. Partial reinforcement → intermittent rewarding of behavior → enduring, stable behavior. C. Types of partial schedules: D. X. 1. A ratio schedule is based on the number of times the behavior occurs. 2. An interval schedule is based on a specific unit of time. 3. A partial reinforcement can also be applied: a. on a predictable fixed schedule, or b. on a less predictable, variable schedule. Partial reinforcement schedules: 1. Fixed-ratio schedule: reinforcement given after certain number of responses. 2. Fixed-interval schedule: reinforcement given after certain amount of time. 3. Variable-ratio schedule: reinforcement given after random number of responses. 4. Variable-interval schedule: reinforcement given after random amount of time. Punishment Decreases Behavior A. A. Positive punishment: by addition of negative consequence, decreases probability of behavior recurring. B. B. Negative punishment: by removal of positive consequence, decreases probability of behavior recurring. C. Behavior modification involves the use of operant conditioning to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable behaviors. XI. XII. 6.4 Biology and Cognition Influence Operant Conditioning A. Biological constraints: an animal’s behavior can be shaped if desired behavior is within the animal’s behavior repertoire. B. Learning can take place without reinforcement (latent learning). Dopamine Activity Underlies Reinforcement A. Nucleus accumbens has dopamine receptors that are activated by pleasurable behaviors. B. Secondary reinforcers can produce dopamine activation through classical conditioning. How Does Watching Others Affect Learning? XIII. Learning Can Occur through Observation and Imitation A. Humans and other animals learn by watching the behavior of others. 1. Bandura’s Bobo doll studies B. The imitation of observed behavior is referred to as modeling. C. Vicarious learning occurs when an individual notes an action’s consequences by observing others being reinforced or punished for their behavior. XIV. Watching Violence in Media May Encourage Aggression: A. XV. Media violence has been found to increase aggressive behavior, decrease prosocial behavior, and desensitize children to violence. Fear Can Be Learned through Observation A. Monkeys can learn by observation if the behavior is biologically adaptive. B. People also learn fear by observation. XVI. Mirror Neurons Are Activated by Watching Others A. Mirror neurons are activated in the brain when one person watches another perform an action; they can also be activated when the observer performs the action. B. Mirror neurons may be involved in learning about and predicting what others are thinking.