The 7th International Conference on Engineering and Technology ICET-2015, Phuket, June19-20, 2015 Prince of Songkla University, Faculty of Engineering Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90112 System for assistance during evacuation process Srdjan Tegeltija1, Nikola Djukic1, Branislav Tejic1, Gordana Ostojic1*, Stevan Stankovski1 1 University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia * Email of corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: In this paper the system for assistance in evacuation of threatened people is described. System assists persons by guiding them to safe location using UAV. UAV regulates its speed using communication device which is dropped to the person. With continuous monitoring of threatened persons, panic, injuries and casualties could be avoided. Continuous monitoring of endangered area, provides real time corrections of evacuation route. Key Words: UAV, assistance, evacuation process 1. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft is aircraft without the presence of the pilot. In the literature unmanned aircraft most often could be found as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). UAV can be autonomous aircraft or aircraft controlled by the operator using remote controls. For this reason, these systems can be found in the literature as the RPV (Remotely Piloted Vehicle). In the literature there are other labels have been introduced for such systems, like the Drone, ROA (Remotely Operated Aircraft), UVS (Unmanned Vehicle System). Although originally designed and developed for military use, in recent years unmanned aircrafts have been used in the civil sector . Today in the market there are UAVs designed for fun and can fit on the human palm , as well as commercially available unmanned aircraft that can carry large load and various equipment weight of few kilograms to a several tens of kilograms . Equipment that can be mounted on UAVs is diverse such as: cameras, various sensors, clamps and many other components depending on the area of application. Examples of application of unmanned aircraft are monitoring and recording , the collection of data on pollution  , chemical protection and fertilization of agriculture crops (use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers) . UAVs are also used during natural disasters and accidents, such as monitoring the situation  , detection of persons in danger and delivery of first aid, food and water , mapping the terrain providing rescuers insight into the condition of the field . Natural disasters or accidents caused by human error, such as floods, forest fires, or industrial accidents, often affect large populated areas, threatening the lives and well-being of the entire population. As one aspect of emergency response, evacuation can be defined as the removal of residents from the area that is considered dangerous to the security zone as quickly as possible and with the highest reliability . Planning evacuation route is an important component of disaster management in order to reduce injuries and loss of life. Injuries are in this way reduced to a minimum. Aggravating circumstance that occur during the evacuation process is the panic in individuals who are in danger , . Various studies have dealt with the two types of evacuation: evacuation of people in buildings and regional evacuation. The specificity of the evacuation of buildings is that the space for movement restricted, stairs must be used by rescuers and people in danger, various obstacles (walls, doors, smoke, fire, etc.). Papers  -  present analysis of evacuations in buildings. Specifics of regional evacuations are: it is performed on large areas, include a very large number of people (the problem of managing large crowds), weather conditions (night, rain, wind, smoke and toxic gases in case of large fires, etc.). Papers  -  present an analysis of regional evacuations. In this paper a system for assistance during evacuation process is presented. UAV leads people from the danger zone to a safe location. After arriving to a safe location, other participants in the evacuation process takes evacuees and transports them to the hospitals or shelters. In order to avoid panic reactions it is necessary to constantly monitor evacuees. In addition, it is necessary to adjust the movement speed of UAV to the persons movement speed, as well as giving a signal to people when they need to change their movement speed in case of need (to speed up due to the rise of water in case of flooding, or intensified wind and smoke in the case of fire). To enable communication between the persons and the UAV hardware device is realized by using XBee ZB PRO Series 2 communication module. 2. SYSTEM OVERVIEW System for assisstance during evacuation process is based on the usage of UAV. UAV leads people from the danger zone to a safe location. After arriving to a safe location, other participants in the evacuation process (medical services, military and firefighters) takes evacuees and transports them to the hospitals or shelters. Fig. 1. shows the algorithm of the system. After obtaining the information on which location are endangered people, in order to determine optimal and safe evacuation route it is necessary to carry out photographing or the mapping of the area . For the determination of the evacuation route two approaches can be applied, manual routing and automated routing. In the case of manual routing operator, who controls UAV, have to manually determine evacuation route in the dedicated software (to determine the points through UAV should pass). In the case of an automated approach for determining evacuation route dedicated software would perform processing of images and terrain mapping results, in order to determine the safe and unsafe regions. Evacuation route would go through a safe regions (existing roads, meadows, etc), while the unsafe regions should be avoided (forests, water, fire and smoke)  . The evacuation route could be determined by algorithms presented in  . people, and if necesary UAV could deliver first aid kit, water, food and instructions on how UAV will guide people to safe location. To start an evacuation process UAV waits for communication confirmation (people must press button on communication device). Management of UAVs could be performed manually by the operator or automatically using dedicated flight controller. During the flight the UAV continuously measure the RSSI between communication devices, and on the basis measured RSSI value the distance between the UAV and the people is estimated. Depending on the estimated distance correction of the UAV flying speed is performed. The UAV at the same time sends a command to the communication device for required correction of people moving speed which is shown on LED indicators and emitted as sound signal on buzzer. During the evacuation process it is necessary to constantly monitor the situation in the area. In case of an larger area one UAV could be used to lead the people and other UAV, or more of them, would be responsible for monitoring the status of that area, so that in the event of unforeseen circumstances correction of evacuation route could be made. Examples for changes in the evacuation area can be: sudden occurrence of landslides, in case of fire changes in direction and strength of the wind that could direct the fire and smoke to the evacuation route. Fig. 2. Example of evacuation route Using FPV (First Person View) system, which presents surveillance system that sends video signal from camera mounted on the UAV to the display on the operator terminal, the operator can monitor the movement of people and could, at any moment, take control over UAV in the event of an unforeseen situation (people are slowing down due to difficult conditions), in case of automated flight. When UAV brings people to a safe location evacuation process if finished. If there are more groups of people that need to be evacuated, evacuation process can be repeated. 3. UNAMNNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAVS) Fig. 1. Algorithm of the system After the automated determination of the evacuation route (points through UAV should pass), it is necessary that the operator make adjustments (if needed) and confirm the evacuation route. Fig. 2. shows an example of an evacuation route. Point A represents a danger zone, point B is a safe zone. The arrows shows the path in which UAV and persons should move. After confirming the evacuation route, UAV is positioned to the initial position. The initial position is the position where are people, who needs to be guided to a safe location, located. When came to the initial position UAV will deliver communication device to endangered "UVS International"  is an international association of manufacturers of unmanned aircraft, manufacturers of subsystems and key components and related equipment for unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as companies that provide services to or for unmanned aerial vehicles. International Organization "UVS International" conducted the categorization of unmanned UAV to the range, altitude, flight autonomy and weight . Depending on the type of realizations there are fixed wing UAVs and rotary wing UAVs. The wings are shaped to make air move faster over the top of the wing. When air moves faster, the pressure of the air decreases. So the pressure on the top of the wing is less than the pressure on the bottom of the wing. The difference in pressure creates a force on the wing that lifts the wing up into the air . A typical representative of UAV with fixed wings is plane. The air flow over the wings is caused by the movement of the UAVwhich is enabled by drive engine (a jet engine, the engine with the propeller). If there is no movement of the UAV there is no lift force. To fly, fixed wing UAV requires particular velocity that depends on the shape and surface of the wings, the maximum weight of the UAV, etc. For UAV with rotary wing air flow over the wing is caused by the rotating the wing (or propeller) powered by a drive engine. A typical representative of the UAV with rotary wings is a helicopter. To fly, rotary wing UAV requires a certain rotation speed of propeller, which depends on the weight of the UAV, shape and surface of propellers, etc. Both types of UAVs have certain advantages and limitations, which make them more or less suitable for different applications . For this system we used rotary wing UAV, because they have possibility of vertical takeoff and landing, the ability to hover (maintain a fixed position in the air), to fly at very low speeds and perform agile maneuvering, a Tarot TL960 hexacopter is used (Fig. 3.) Fig. 3. Tarot TL960 hexacopter To be autonomous, it is necessary that UAV possess a dedicated flight controller. One of the most famous flight controller is "APM Autopilot Suite" . "APM Autopilot Suite" is a platform that includes hardware and software used for managing unmanned aerial vehicles and vehicles on the ground. In addition to the "APM Autopilot Suite" platform, controllers for UAVs from company DJI have wide application too (Naza series, WooKong series, etc.) . As flight controller Naza-M Light is used. 4. COMMUNICATION DEVICE In order to enable the connection between UAV and endangered people two communication devices are realized, one master and one slave communication device. Master communication device is mounted on UAV, connected to UAV control unit, and consists of microcontroller and communication module. Slave communication device is similar, but in addition it consists of command buttons, LED indicators and buzzer. Master communication device take power supply from UAV, while slave communication device has a battery power supply. Fig. 4. shows slave communication device. For powering the slave communication module a standard battery 6LR61 with nominal voltage of 9V has been used. A microcontroller is used for controlling communication modul, for reading states of buttons, for settings states of LED indicators, and to control a buzzer. For realization of communication devices a microcontroller Atmel ATmega 8 is used. Button are used for sending commands to master communication device (initial communication confirmation and start communication between master and slave device, stoping the UAV). LED indicators are used to inform people about speed of movement (speed is correct, people must speed up or people must slow down). Buzzer is used for emmiting audio signal which tells people if is speed of movement is correct, or if they must speed up or slow down. Fig. 4. Communication device As communication modul XBee Pro ZB Series 2 module is used. XBee Pro ZB Series 2 is based on ZigBee technology. ZigBee is a wireless technology developed as an open global standard to address the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless M2M (Machine to Machine) networks. The ZigBee standard operates on the IEEE 802.15.4 physical radio specification and operates in unlicensed bands including 2.4 GHz, 900 MHz and 868 MHz -. The specification is a packet-based radio protocol intended for low-cost, battery-operated devices. The protocol allows devices to communicate in a variety of network topologies and can have battery life lasting several years. XBee-PRO ZB ZigBee modules provide cost-effective wireless connectivity to devices in ZigBee mesh networks. Utilizing the ZigBee PRO Feature Set, these modules are interoperable with other ZigBee devices, including devices from other vendors. Programmable versions of the XBee-PRO ZB ZigBee Series 2 module make customizing ZigBee applications easy, even without wireless design expertise . 5. CONCLUSION In this paper the system for assistance in the evacuation process of endangered people is presented. UAV would carry out photographing or mapping of the area, in order to determine the evacuation route. During the evacuation process UAV would lead endangered people to a safe location. Depending on the situation the person would follow the UAV on foot (inaccessible mountainous terrain) or using some vehicle (boat in case of flooded area). During the evacuation process people would be constantly monitored in order to respond in a timely manner (correction of UAV speed). In addition to constantly monitoring of area status will provide changing of evacuation route if necessary. In future work a further development of the system for assistance during evacuation process is planned. 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