Unit 2 Reading Guide

Chapter 8 and 9 Reading Guide and Homework
For Unit 2 you will need to read chapters 8 (290 – 314) and 9 (332 – 357) from
Chemistry: The Central Science. You are responsible for all the information that appears
in these readings. It is suggested that you take notes as you read the chapters. Below you
will find essential questions that you should be able to answer once you are finished
reading certain sections of the chapter. You should utilize Cornell Notes and the Essential
Questions should guide your note taking.
In addition to these textbooks readings, you should read Chapter 4 () in Cracking the AP
Chemistry Exam. You do not need to read the section on intermolecular forces (we will
cover this in a future unit). You should take any necessary notes as you read this. You
should focus on the concepts that are covered in both readings.
Essential Questions:
 8.1 – How do you draw Lewis structures and what does the Octet Rule state for
the formation of stable Lewis structures?
 8.2 – How are the ideas of Coulomb’s Law and lattice energies related?
Additionally, how are cations/anions explained using electron configurations?
 8.3 – How are covalent bonds formed? Why is bond length related to whether a
covalent compound contains a single, double, or triple bond?
 8.4 – How does electronegativity lead to the development of polar covalent bonds
and dipole moments? Make sure to give an example of both a polar and non-polar
bond that developed due to electronegativity.
 8.5 – What is the process for drawing Lewis structures and labeling formal
changes on the atoms in the Lewis structure? Why is it important to know the
formal charge of an atom when drawing Lewis structures?
 8.6 – What are resonance structures and why can there be multiple “correct”
Lewis structures for some compounds?
 8.7 – Why do some compounds have Lewis structures with less or more than a
full Octet of electrons? Discuss whether the Octet Rule is always obeyed or only
sometimes obeyed.
 9.1 – Why do molecules arrange themselves in 3 dimensions rather than the 2
dimensions that we draw for our Lewis structures?
 9.2 – How does VSEPR theory use electron repulsion to explain the formation of
observed bond angles? What are the different shapes that molecules can take on?
 9.3 – How does VSEPR theory modify the way in which we determine the
polarity of a compound? How does VSEPR theory modify our identification of
the overall dipole moment of a molecule?
 9.4 – How does the quantum mechanical model of orbitals explain the creation of
covalent bonds?
 9.5 – How do sp, sp2, and sp3 orbitals form? Why is it necessary for these hybrid
orbitals to be created rather than use the s and p orbitals that are already available
for bonding?
9.6 – What are sigma and pi bonds? Which of these bonds is along the
internuclear axis and which of these are above and below the axis? How do pi
bonds form? Be sure to give a labeled example of pi and sigma bonds.
You do not need to read sections 8.8, 9.7 and 9.8. These sections are beyond the scope of
the unit.
Homework Problems (DUE September 17th/18th – Day of Unit 1 Exam)
 Chapter 8: 8.1, 8.4, 8.8, 8.22, 8.24, 8.25, 8.39, 8.41, 8.42, 8.47, 8.48, 8.52 (don’t
worry about oxidation numbers), 8.63, and 8.64
 Chapter 9: 9.2, 9.3, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.14, 9.23, 9.27, 9.29, 9.40, 9.43, 9.44, 9.47,
9.49, 9.56, 9.59, and 9.69
Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam Suggested Problems (not turned in, but great
preview of questions that will be on the Unit 2 test). HINT – I use at least a few of
these questions on every test!
 Chapter 4 MC– 1, 3, 6, 8 – 10, 13 – 19, 22 – 23
 Chapter 4 Essays – 2 and 4