Global Programme of Action Fact Sheets Southern Africa Sewage Hard facts and figures for Angola do not exist but as a result of the civil war, large numbers of people moved to cities and towns like Luanda, Benguela and Lobito. Thus discharges to the coastal zone are thought to have increased markedly. In Namibia, sewage pollution is not a major concern as population densities at the coast are relatively low and some wastewaters are re-used to, for example, water golf courses. South Africa treats a great deal of its wastewater to various levels. However, untreated sewage does enter the marine environment via informal settlements and is cause for some concern in larger coastal cites like Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Durban. Contaminated storm-water run off is considered the major cause of any noncompliance to bathing quality standards. Nutrients The report notes that extensive fish processing in places like Walvis Bay and Luderitz Namibia as well as on South Africa’s west coast, for example Saldanha Bay do discharge nutrients to the marine environment with the levels linked to levels of fish catch. Persistent Organic Pollutants Hard data does not exist. It is thought however that the Orange River in Namibia which drains from South Africa’s large agricultural areas could be a major source of pesticides into the marine environment. Heavy Metals and Oils Angola’s refineries and oil production facilities from Luanda northwards may be a source of heavy metals and oil pollution to the marine environment. South Africa’s extensive oil, wood pulp, aluminium smelters, chemical and textile industries are likely sources of heavy metals and oils to the marine environment from cities and towns like Cape Town, Mossel Bay, Durban and Richards Bay. Sediments Not considered a problem in Angola and Namibia. Research is underway to understand the impacts of sediments entering the marine environment as a result of dams and land use changes in South Africa. Coastal and Marine Litter No hard data exists but it is believed that the large increase in South Africa’s coastal population—including informal settlements with little or no formal rubbish collection services--over the past decade will have markedly increased levels triggered by stormwater run off. In Namibia, the main source of litter is from foreign fishing fleets anchored outside ports like Walvis Bay. Physical Alteration and Destruction of Habitats Coastal destruction in Namibia is largely linked with diamond mining between Luderitz and the mouth of the Orange river. South Africa’s historical industrial activity was largely confined to the interior but is now spreading to the coast. Special Issues—Reduced River Flows South Africa has over 300 dams with a capacity of more than 32,000 million cubic metres of water a year—equal to nearly 70 per cent of the surface water run off. A survey of 27 South African estuaries showed that six were declining in health.