Study Guide for the Geology Unit Test 2013 – 2014 1] The second most common element found in the Earth’s crust is a] aluminum. b] iron. c] oxygen. d] silicon. 2] The Earth’s core is made mostly of the element a] aluminum. b] iron. c] oxygen. d] silicon. 3] Which of the following is the most common element in the Earth’s crust? a] aluminum – Al b] iron – Fe c] oxygen – O d] silicon – Si 4] Igneous rocks form from a] magma. b] preexisting rocks. c] sediments. d] none of the answers listed above. 5] Sedimentary rocks form from a] magma. b] preexisting rocks. c] sediments. d] none of the answers listed above. 6] Metamorphic rocks form from a] magma. b] preexisting rocks. c] sediments. d] none of the answers listed above. 7] Which of the following is NOT a property of minerals? a] inorganic b] man-made c] natural d] solid 8] The heat inside the Earth is a] caused by radioactive decay. b] leftover from the formation of the Earth. c] produced by the Sun. d] None of these answers is correct. 9] Which type of volcanic rock would be described with words like black, dark, and mafic? a] andesite b] basalt c] dacite d] rhyolite 10] Evidence or remains of once living things found in rocks are called a] clasts. b] fossils. c] minerals. d] pebbles. 11] What type of rock is serpentinite, the California State Rock? a] metamorphic b] plutonic c] sedimentary d] volcanic 12] The outermost PHYSICAL layer of the earth is called the a] asthenosphere. b] crust. c] lithosphere. d] mantle. 13] The boundary between the crust and the mantle is named for which of the following scientists? a] Mercalli b] Mohorovičić c] Richter d] Wegener 14] Which of the following layers is in the liquid state? a] asthenosphere b] inner core c] lithosphere d] outer core 12] Which of the following layers is broken up into plates? a] asthenosphere b] inner core c] lithosphere d] outer core 13] La Habra High School is located on the a] Juan de Fuca plate. b] North American plate. c] Pacific plate. d] Rivera plate. 14] The San Andreas fault is a a] plate boundary. b] strike-slip fault. c] transform boundary. d] All of the answers above are correct. 15] Which of the following convergent plate boundaries is NOT a subduction zone? a] Indian plate meets the Eurasian plate [at the Himalayas] b] Juan de Fuca plate meets the North American plate c] Nazca plate meets the South American plate d] Pacific plate meets the North American plate [at Japan] 16] Which of the following islands [or groups of islands] is the only place on the Earth where you can stand on a piece of the midocean ridge and be above the level of the ocean? a] Iceland b] Indonesia c] Japan d] Santa Catalina Island 17] Oceanic crust has a composition of a rock called a] basalt. b] granite. c] peridotite. d] rhyolite. 18] Which of the following faults/plate boundaries does NOT meet at the Cape Mendocino triple junction? a] Cascadia Subduction Zone b] East Pacific Rise c] Mendocino Fracture Zone d] San Andreas Fault 19] The San Andreas Fault is primarily what kind of plate boundary? a] convergent b] dinner c] divergent d] transform 20] Which of the following would you be least likely to find at a convergent plate boundary? a] a chain of stratovolcanoes b] a deep ocean trench c] a folded and faulted mountain range d] a long strike-slip fault 21] Which of the following types of plate boundary would you NOT find in California? a] convergent b] divergent c] transform d] All three types of plate boundary are found in California. 22] The last time ALL the continents on Earth were together in one supercontinent was starting around 300 million years ago. Scientists call this supercontinent a] Gondwana. b] Pannotia. c] Pangaea. d] Rodinia. 23] Which of the following California mountain ranges is a chain of volcanoes currently being caused by subduction? a] Cascades b] Coast Ranges c] San Gabriels d] Sierra Nevadas 24] The last volcano to erupt in the State of California was a] Amboy Crater. b] Lassen Peak. c] Long Valley Caldera. d] Mt. Shasta. 25] Molten rock is called a] dacite. b] lava. c] magma. d] pyroclastic. 26] Which of the following volcanic rocks usually forms from the lowest viscosity magmas? a] andesite b] basalt c] dacite d] rhyolite 27] The Hawaiian word for a smooth, ropy lava flow is a] aa. b] kilauea. c] pahoehoe. d] tephra. 28] Which of the following is the most common volcanic gas? a] carbon dioxide b] hydrogen chloride c] sulfur dioxide d] water vapor 29] Which of the following volcanic hazards would be the most disruptive to air travel? a] eruption column b] lahar c] lava flow d] pyroclastic flow MATCHING Match the volcano to its type. 30] Amboy Crater 31] Lassen Peak 32] Long Valley Caldera 33] Mt. Shasta Answers for questions 30] through 33]: a] caldera b] cinder cone c] lava dome d] stratovolcano 34] What is the minimum number of seismograph readings needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake? a] 1 b] 2 c] 3 d] 4 35] Approximately how many times more energy does a 9.0 Mw earthquake release than a 8.0 Mw earthquake? a] 1x b] 10x c] 33x d] 100x 36] Which of the following faults is NOT partially or completely located in southern California? a] Hayward Fault b] San Andreas Fault c] San Jacinto Fault d] Whittier Fault 37] Which type of fault is pictured above? a] normal fault b] reverse fault c] thrust fault d] strike-slip fault 38] Which type of fold is pictured above? a] anticline b] syncline c] Both of the above. d] None of the above.