Parts of speech notes

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DGP NOTES
PARTS OF SPEECH
NOUN
 Person, place, thing, idea
 Types: common, proper, possessive
PRONOUN
 Takes the place of a noun
 Types: personal – having to do with a person; reflexive – reflects back to “self”; relative – starts
dependent clauses; interrogative – asks a question; demonstrative – demonstrates which one; indefinite
– doesn’t refer to a definite person or thing;
ADVERB
 Modifies adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs
 Tells How? When? Where? To what extent?
 Not is always a verb.
ADJECTIVE
 Modifies nouns and pronouns
 Tells Which one? How many? What kind?
 Articles: a, an, the
PREPOSITION
 Shows relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence
 Across, after, against, around, at before below, between, except, for, from, until, etc.
CONJUNCTION
 Joins words, phrases, and clauses
 Types: coordinating (FANBOYS), subordinating
VERB
 Shows action or helps to make a statement
 Types
o Action – shows action
o Linking – links two words together; is, am, are was, were, seem, smell, taste, etc.
o Helping – “helps” an action or linking verb
 Tenses: present – happening now; past – happened previously; future – will happen
VERBAL
 Verb not acting like a verb
 Types:
o Gerund – verb acting like a noun; ends in –ing
o Participle – verb acting like adjective; ends in –ing or –ed
o Infinitive – to + verb; can act like noun, adjective, or adverb
SENTENCE PARTS
COMPLETE SUBJECT - part of sentence about which something is being said
SIMPLE SUBJECT – main word (or group of words in the complete subject)
 Must be noun, pronoun, gerund, or infinitive
 Can never be in a prepositional phrase
 There and here are NEVER the subject of a sentence
 the subject can be an “understood you” in an imperative sentence
COMPLETE PREDICATE – part of sentence that says something about the subject
VERB (OR SIMPLE PREDICATE) – transitive: takes a direct object; intransitive: does not take a direct object; all
linking verbs are intransitive
COMPLEMENT – completes the meaning of the subject and verb
 Types:
o Direct object – is a noun or pronoun; follows an action verb; is NEVER in a prepositional phrase
o Indirect object – is a noun or pronoun; comes before a direct object; is NEVER in a prepositional
phrase
o Predicate nominative – is a noun or pronoun; follows linking verb and renames subject
o Predicate adjective – is an adjective; follows linking verb and describes subject
APPOSITIVE/APPOSITIVE PHRASE – noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun or pronoun
OBJECT OF PREPOSITION – follows preposition and tells “what?”
OBJECT OF INFINITIVE – follows infinitive and tells “what?”
OBJECT OF GERUND – follows gerund and tells “what?”
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE – group of words beginning with preposition and ending with noun or pronoun; can act
as adjective or adverb
GERUND PHRASE – gerund plus its modifiers and objects
PARTICIPLE PHRASE - group of words beginning with preposition and ending with noun or pronoun; can act as
adjective
INFINITIVE PHRASE – infinitive plus its modifiers and objects
CLAUSES – each clause must have a subject and a verb.
 Types:
o Independent - every sentence must have at least one independent clause; the independent
clause can usually stand alone; an independent clause does not start with a relative pron. or
subordinating conjunction
o Dependent (also called subordinate clause) – the dependent clause can NEVER stand alone; a
dependent clause starts with a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction.
 Types: adverb-acts like an adverb; adjective-acts like an adjective; noun-acts like a noun
SENTENCE TYPES
 Simple sentence (S) = one independent clause
 Compound sentence (CD) = two or more independent clauses
 Complex sentence (CX)= one independent clause + one or more dependent clauses
 Compound-complex sentence (CD/CX) = two or more independent clauses + one or more dependent
clauses
SENTENCE PURPOSE
 A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends in a period.
 An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends in a question mark.
 An imperative sentence gives a command and ends in a period.
 An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feelings and ends in an exclamation point.
DGP NOTES
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZATION – capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives, and the first word of each sentence
SEMICOLON – joins two clauses without a coordinating conjunction; can be used in series with commas for
clarity
APOSTROPHE –
 Use apostrophes to make words possessive and to make contractions.
 Don’t use apostrophes to make words plural
 Possessive pronouns don’t use apostrophes (hers, its, ours, yours, etc.)
UNDERLINING/ITALICIZING
 Underlining and italicizing are the same thing.
 Underline or italicize titles of long things: newspapers, magazines, CDs, movies, novels, plays, musical
compositions, etc.
 Underline or italicize names of ships, planes, trains, and artwork.
 Underline or italicize foreign expressions.
QUOTATION MARKS
 Quote titles of short things: short stories, poems, songs, articles, episodes of TV shows, etc.
 Quote dialogue and words copied from other sources.
 Commas and periods that follow quoted words always go inside closing quotation marks.
 Colons and semicolons that follow quoted words always go outside closing quotation marks.
COMMAS

Adverb dependent clause, independent clause (If it rains, we’ll go inside.)

Independent clause, adverb dependent clause (We’ll go inside if it rains.)

Independent clause, cc independent clause (Joe likes pizza, but Fred likes tacos.)

Subject verb, cc verb (Joe likes pizza but does not live vegetables.)

Independent clause; independent clause (Joe likes pizza; Fred likes tacos.)

Introductory participial phrase, (Running down the hall, he tripped and fell.)

Items, in, series (Please buy apples, oranges, and bananas.)

, noun of direct address, (Tom, would you hand me the phone? Please don’t sit there, Sue.)
Day of week, month date, year, (The baby is expected on Sunday, February 27, 2014, in Georgia.)
City, state, (We moved to Thomasville, Georgia, in 1990.)
Introductory word, (Well, I hope these rules come in handy. However, you must use them.)
,Interrupter, (These rules, I think, will help you if you use them.)
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