penntesol2014 10topwordusageerrors

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10 Top Word Usage Errors Since
2009
PTE 11/8/2014 Ken Cranker
[email protected]
Background
• 2009 Huge Influx of Chinese and
Arabic Learners of English
Desiring Matriculation to
Universities
• Grammatical Difficulties
• Course to Address Difficulties
1
List of Common Errors
• Handout
2
Method
• Present List to 7 Instructors at
Level Meeting
• Ask to Select 12 Most Important
• Discuss
• Tally
3
Number 10
• One of the
• Very common, but not disruptive
• Ex. Urbanization is one of the
changes in modern society.
• Either delete “of the” or add
superlative
4
Number 9
• Need/Require
• Semantic nuance
• Ex. The university needs
applicants to apply by April 1.
• Require demands action
5
Number 8
• It is hard/easy
• Seriously faulty construction
• Ex. Students are easy to contact
professors by email.
• Other misuses with that clause or
“for people”
It is adj for ___ to ___
6
Number 7
• Dead/Died
• Transitivity, passive voice, part of
speech; verb tense
• … was died; the great leader
dead
• “die” is v(i); dead is adj
7
Number 6
• Whether
• Noun clause construction
• Ex. The doctors do not know
whether that the surgery was
successful
• No that clause after whether;
noun clause or infinitive clause ok
8
Number 5
• Lack
• Very common, transitivity/part of
speech issue
• Ex. The vegetables lack of water.
• Lack is v(t) or noun; of follows
noun not verb
9
Number 4
• Cause
• Very common, clause structure
• Ex… caused that SV; cause NV
(without to)
• Cause ___ to ___; cause a
problem
10
Number 3
• According to
• Very common source-based
writing error
• Ex. According to Smith, he said
that …
• According to X means X said that
11
Number 2
• Reason
• Very common explanation word;
many kinds of errors (because,
wrong prep – by/for – confusion
w/factor
• Reasons FOR, the reason is
THAT
12
Number 1
• Analysis/analyze
• Very common; necessary for
critical thinking; part of speech
and pronunciation
• Ex. It is important to analysis …
• Analysis (es) is N, analyze is V
13
Method to Teach
• ~ 2/day
• Can S identify w/error?
• Create sentences using words in
prescribed ways
• Share and analyze
• Test in pairs (lack/cause)
14
Reference
• Cranker, K. (2014). 60 words or phrases
commonly misused by ESL/EFL
students preparing for universities.
Eugene,OR: Wayzgoose Press.
15
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